The water cycle, surface and ground water

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Covers the water cycle, surface water and ground water and has links to videos to supplement the content material

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The water cycle, surface and ground water

  1. 1. The Water Cycle
  2. 2. Terms  Hydrological Cycle  Transpiration  Precipitation  Water Table  Condensation  Infiltration  Percolation  Watershed  Runoff  Evaporation  Aquifers
  3. 3. Origin of Earth’s Water  Aristotle thought rivers, like the Nile, were supplied by rain and snow alone  Mid 1600’s – scientists able to accurately measure amount of water supplied by rain/snow into flowing rivers  5x more than water than rivers carry off  Where is all the water come from and where does it go?
  4. 4. Water Cycle  Continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface and back again  Called the “water cycle” or “hydrologic cycle”
  5. 5. Evaporation  Process of liquid water changing into water vapor  500,000 km3 of water evaporates from the surface in one year  86% of evaporated water comes from oceans
  6. 6. Transpiration  Process of plants giving off water vapor into atmosphere  Example of transpiration: when a plant or a tree releases water into the atmosphere from tiny openings in its leaves
  7. 7. Evapotranspiration  The total processes of liquid water entering the atmosphere  Continents lose 70,000 km3 each year  40,000 km3 of water become
  8. 8. Condensation  Process of water vapor cooling and expanding and changing into liquid water droplets to form clouds
  9. 9. Precipitation  water falling, in a liquid or solid state, from the atmosphere to Earth  Examples of precipitation: rain, snow, hail, sleet, dew, and frost.
  10. 10.  Water cycle video (8 min) on overview (3 min) on global impacts  http://www.montereyinstitute.org/noaa/less on07.html
  11. 11. Infiltration  The process by which surface water enters the soil
  12. 12. Runoff – water that flows over land into rivers
  13. 13. Runoff Factors Soil Composition  Larger pores in soil – greater infiltration Rate of precipitation  Gentle precipitation can enter all types of soil  Fast rainfall can create a lot of runoff
  14. 14. Runoff Factors Vegetation  More vegetation – less runoff Slope  Greater the slope – more runoff
  15. 15. Water table  The upper surface of groundwater that has filled the spaces between the rocks above an impermeable layer
  16. 16. Watershed  Land from which water runs off into a stream
  17. 17. Watersheds tributaries  Feeder streams divides  High land area that separates watersheds
  18. 18. Stream Channel  The path the stream follows  Changes over time due to erosion
  19. 19. Factors of Stream Erosion  Discharge – measurement of how much water flows past a spot in given amount of time  Headwaters – beginning of a stream  Gradient – slope of the stream
  20. 20. Stages of a Stream/River  Youthful – fastest time of erosion, almost no tributaries  Mature – reduced erosion, well- established tributaries, meanders, and oxbow lakes  Meanders – winding of low-gradient streams  Oxbow lakes – lakes formed when meanders are cut off  Old – deposits its sediments from a decrease in slope, eventually becomes a flat plain
  21. 21. Meanders  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=STgbH FvUMlE
  22. 22. Groundwater
  23. 23. Aquifer  A body of rock which large amounts of water can flow or be stored  some are made of porous rock such as sand and gravel  Others made of rocks with large pore spaces like sandstone  Others made of highly fractured rock like limestone
  24. 24. Aquiclude  Impermeable layers that block groundwater (clay or bedrock)
  25. 25. Groundwater Supply well  Hole dug below the water table that fills with groundwater spring  Natural flow of groundwater to the earth’s surface
  26. 26. Artesian well  Water flows freely due to a difference in slope
  27. 27. Ordinary wells Drawdown  Difference between original water-table level and water level in the pumped well Recharge  Process of replenishing the water content taken to surface
  28. 28. Groundwater usage Interactive http://www.montereyinstitute.org/n oaa/lesson07/l7la2.htm
  29. 29. Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic
  30. 30. Geysers How a geyser forms  https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v= X4zA_YPCyHs Old Faithful  https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v= LWrklFuYnb0
  31. 31. Bill Nye’s Water Cycle  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6FpO dSVeIU

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