Water sources

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this presentation covers the introduction to water sources along with the water sources of Pakistan

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Water sources

  1. 1. WELCOME TO WATER SOURCES
  2. 2. Ravi <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Water covers 71% of the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Water moves continually through a cycle of evaporation, precipitation and runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for all forms of life. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Water sources </li></ul><ul><li>Sources from which water is available for water supply schemes are called water sources. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common sources of water for irrigation includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Water (Rivers, Reservoirs and Lakes). </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water. </li></ul>the chanab
  4. 4. <ul><li>Surface water </li></ul><ul><li>Water in a river, lake or fresh water wetland. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally replenished by precipitation, lost through discharge to the oceans, evaporation, and subsurface seepage. </li></ul><ul><li>The total quantity of water in a system may depends on </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation and evaporation rate </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities can have large and devastating impact on these factor by </li></ul><ul><li>increase storage capacity by Constructing dam </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease it by draining wetlands </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Total quantity of available water depends on seasons like </li></ul><ul><li>Winter </li></ul><ul><li>Summer </li></ul><ul><li>Humans can cause surface water to be “lost” (i.e. become unusable) through pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial process by which Saline water is converted into fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation and reverse osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive process </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Water availability </li></ul><ul><li>Vary a lot over the year, or even between one year and another </li></ul><ul><li>Supply depends on the capacity of withdrawing technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of tapping water from water sources </li></ul><ul><li>By making use of gravity </li></ul><ul><li>By using a pump </li></ul>Haripur dam
  7. 7. <ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of irrigation water all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The flow of river fluctuates over time. </li></ul><ul><li>The discharge of rivers is commonly expressed in cubic meters per second . </li></ul><ul><li>Tapping water from rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Direct river diversion </li></ul><ul><li>River diversion using a weir </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping from a river </li></ul>Hub dam
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Natural depressions of land. </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes are supplied with water by </li></ul><ul><li>rainfall that falls directly on the surface of lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>By water run-off from adjacent land. </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes loses water via </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Through percolation from the bottom of the lake to the groundwater. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of irrigation water required must be less than the quantity of water available in lakes </li></ul>The Jhelum
  9. 9. <ul><li>Reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water in a reservoir depends on </li></ul><ul><li>River discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Height of the dam </li></ul><ul><li>Area of the reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>On-stream storage </li></ul><ul><li>Off-stream storage </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping from a Lake or Reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Water can be taken from lakes or reservoir via </li></ul><ul><li>Direct diversion </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete or steel pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Pumps </li></ul>Indus river from Karakouram highway
  10. 10. <ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>An important source of irrigation water </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater may be found close to the surface or at profound depth </li></ul><ul><li>In coastal plains the groundwater is often brackish or saline due to the proximity of the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Inland groundwater may also be brackish in places where the soil contains many soluble salts </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping from wells </li></ul><ul><li>To tap groundwater a well must be dig deeper than the groundwater level. </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Deep groundwater </li></ul>Kabul attock
  11. 11. Surface water of Pakistan The Ravi
  12. 12. <ul><li>Dams </li></ul><ul><li>Before Partition: </li></ul><ul><li>Khushdil Khan Dam (1890). </li></ul><ul><li>Spin Karaiz (1945). </li></ul><ul><li>Namal Dam (1913). </li></ul><ul><li>After Partition: </li></ul><ul><li>Mangla Dam. </li></ul><ul><li>Tarbela Dam . </li></ul>Mangla dam
  13. 13. <ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Water Sources measurement at Rim Station. </li></ul><ul><li>Rim Station </li></ul><ul><li>Indus Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Brings 154 MAF of Water annually (144.91 MAF from Western Rivers and 9.14 MAF from Eastern River). </li></ul><ul><li>104.73 MAF used for irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>39.4 MAF flows to sea. </li></ul><ul><li>9.9 MAF is consumed by the system losses. </li></ul><ul><li>s </li></ul>Sutlej river
  14. 14. <ul><li>It comprises of </li></ul><ul><li>Major reservoirs : 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Barrages : 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Head Works : 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Siphons : 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Inter river link canals : 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Canal system : 44 </li></ul><ul><li>Punjab : 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Sindh : 14 </li></ul><ul><li>NWFP : 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Balochistan : 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Watercourses : 107,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate length of canals is about 56,073 km. </li></ul><ul><li>Watercourses, Form Channels and Field Ditches, covers 1.6 million km. </li></ul><ul><li>Tube wells : 500,000 </li></ul>The chanab
  15. 15. <ul><li>Ground Water </li></ul><ul><li>Sindh and Balochistan : 40 ft depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Rachna Doab : 100 ft . </li></ul><ul><li>1950’s SCARP introduced deep tube wells to control salinity and water logging. </li></ul><ul><li>Within 30 years 13,500 tube wells were installed (9300 in Punjab). </li></ul><ul><li>Now about 41.6 MAF water supply is from 500,000 tube wells . </li></ul><ul><li>In Punjab 79%, in Sindh 28% of the area is underline by freshwater. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water become a major supplement of canal supplies in last 25-30 years. </li></ul>Tarbela spillway
  16. 16. <ul><li>Quality of ground water. </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh (salinity less than 1000 mg / l TDS). </li></ul><ul><li>Saline (salinity less than 3000 mg / l TDS). </li></ul><ul><li>Punjab </li></ul><ul><li>79% fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>9.78 million acres are underline with ground water of less than 1000 mg/ l TDS. </li></ul><ul><li>3 million acres with salinity ranging from 1000-3000 mg / l TDS. </li></ul><ul><li>3.26 million acres with salinity more than 3000 mg / l TDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Saline water in central Doab area. </li></ul><ul><li>Brackish water in Cholistan area. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water with high fluoride contents in Kasur, Mianwali and Bhawalpur </li></ul>Rawal dam
  17. 17. <ul><li>Sindh </li></ul><ul><li>28 % fresh groundwater. </li></ul><ul><li>Found at depth of 20-25 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Large area with groundwater of poor quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Thar, Nara and Kohistan with non-portable, highly brackish water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tharparker and Umerkot with high fluoride contents in ground water . </li></ul><ul><li>NWFP </li></ul><ul><li>In NWFP, certain areas such as Karak, Kohat , Bannu and D.I. khan has lowered the water table and resulted in contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>Balochistan </li></ul><ul><li>Makran coastal zone with highly brackish groundwater. </li></ul><ul><li>Local communities use groundwater with TDS as high as 3000 mg / l for drinking purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mastung Valley, Makran Coast and Kharan with high flouride contents in groundwater. </li></ul>Lahore canal
  18. 18. THANK YOU

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