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LaDon Swann Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium Auburn University Production Methods
Production Methods <ul><li>Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Raceways </li></ul><ul><li>Cages and Pens </li></ul><ul><li>Recirculati...
Levee Ponds <ul><li>Levee ponds are the most common fish production method </li></ul><ul><li>Common food species </li></ul...
Levee Ponds <ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pesticides </li></ul></ul><...
Site Selection <ul><li>Time spent analyzing a site is time well spent. </li></ul><ul><li>Many problems associated with lev...
Site Selection <ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gentle slope </li></ul></u...
Site Selection <ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>locate for gravity drainage ...
Types <ul><li>Spawning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less than 1 acre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easy to drain/fill </li></ul></ul...
Spawning
Fingerling
Finishing
Construction <ul><li>Ponds last decades when properly constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>$3-5 K per acre </li></ul><ul><li>Com...
Levee <ul><li>Core trench </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dug to anchor levee to existing topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>core...
Levee <ul><li>Remove soil from central part of pond to construct levees </li></ul><ul><li>Add 8-10 layers </li></ul><ul><l...
Levee <ul><li>20 ft wide main </li></ul><ul><ul><li>harvesting equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16 ft wide side </li></ul>...
Slope <ul><li>Horizontal distance in feet for each foot of height or  a 2  + b 2  = c 2   or  s = Rise/Run </li></ul><ul><...
Depth <ul><li>Shallow end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5-3.5 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents rooted plant growth </li></...
Freeboard <ul><li>Freeboard  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>height of the levee from the water surface to the top of the levee </li...
Water Supply <ul><li>Ponds should be able to fill in 7 days or less </li></ul><ul><li>Use gate or alfalfa valves to contro...
Drain <ul><li>Ponds should able to completely drain in 2 days or less. </li></ul><ul><li>PVC pr galvanized  </li></ul><ul>...
Drain <ul><li>Swivel drain </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical standpipe  </li></ul>
Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Raceways <ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>location </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Site Selection <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use large quantities of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gravity...
Types <ul><li>Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flow through multiple races </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Construction <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ any” non-toxic material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must hold water ...
Dimensions <ul><li>Ratio of 30:3:1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aids in water flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-cleaning </li>...
Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Cages <ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water quality </li></ul></ul><...
Site Selection <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm Ponds  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bays and Fiords  </li></ul></ul>...
Types <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large net pens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Siz...
Construction <ul><li>Sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small cages less than 200 ft 3 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large net pen...
 
Cage Placement <ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open areas of water to allow good circulation </li></ul></ul><...
Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Recirculating Systems <ul><li>Site components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pump house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emergency genera...
Site Components <ul><li>Building </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 phase </li>...
Building <ul><li>Pole barn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enclosed or semi-enclosed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>access </li></ul...
Electricity <ul><li>3 phase electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electricity is a major cost and 3 phase will reduce the expe...
System Components <ul><li>Primary  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biofilter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solids filter </li></ul></ul...
Biological Filter <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxidizes ammonia and nit...
Solids Filter <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sand filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>settling chambers </li></ul></ul>...
Tanks <ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corro...
Pump <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impeller driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>airlift </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose...
Oxygen <ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aerators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agitators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Bicarbonate Drip <ul><li>Rational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2  from respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrification is...
Other Components <ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low light levels reduce stress to fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat...
Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
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Production Methods

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Production Methods

  1. 1. LaDon Swann Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium Auburn University Production Methods
  2. 2. Production Methods <ul><li>Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Raceways </li></ul><ul><li>Cages and Pens </li></ul><ul><li>Recirculating systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Levee Ponds <ul><li>Levee ponds are the most common fish production method </li></ul><ul><li>Common food species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>red drum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>catfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trout and salmon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hybrid striped bass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tilapia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cobia </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Levee Ponds <ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clay content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>levee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production rates </li></ul>
  5. 5. Site Selection <ul><li>Time spent analyzing a site is time well spent. </li></ul><ul><li>Many problems associated with levee ponds can be traced back to poor site selection. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Site Selection <ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gentle slope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pesticide residuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>essential </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Site Selection <ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>locate for gravity drainage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-20% is idea, but good ponds can be constructed with less or more. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depends soil composition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Types <ul><li>Spawning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less than 1 acre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easy to drain/fill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fingerling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-5 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easy to drain/refill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 acres or larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>draining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continual -- no </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>batch -- yes </li></ul></ul></ul>5  1-5  1
  9. 9. Spawning
  10. 10. Fingerling
  11. 11. Finishing
  12. 12. Construction <ul><li>Ponds last decades when properly constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>$3-5 K per acre </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>levee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drains </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Levee <ul><li>Core trench </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dug to anchor levee to existing topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>core depth equal depth of pond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>filled with high clay content soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compacted </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Levee <ul><li>Remove soil from central part of pond to construct levees </li></ul><ul><li>Add 8-10 layers </li></ul><ul><li>Compact </li></ul>
  15. 15. Levee <ul><li>20 ft wide main </li></ul><ul><ul><li>harvesting equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16 ft wide side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed trucks </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Slope <ul><li>Horizontal distance in feet for each foot of height or a 2 + b 2 = c 2 or s = Rise/Run </li></ul><ul><li>3:1 minimum inside </li></ul>3 1
  17. 17. Depth <ul><li>Shallow end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5-3.5 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents rooted plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deep end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-7 ft (drain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents unnecessary draining to harvest </li></ul></ul>2.5-3.5 6-7 ft
  18. 18. Freeboard <ul><li>Freeboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>height of the levee from the water surface to the top of the levee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 ft recommended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents overflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>erosion control </li></ul></ul>2 ft
  19. 19. Water Supply <ul><li>Ponds should be able to fill in 7 days or less </li></ul><ul><li>Use gate or alfalfa valves to control flow </li></ul>
  20. 20. Drain <ul><li>Ponds should able to completely drain in 2 days or less. </li></ul><ul><li>PVC pr galvanized </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-seep collar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents seepage around drain pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collar should be 3 times the diameter of the pipe </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Drain <ul><li>Swivel drain </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical standpipe </li></ul>
  22. 22. Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvest method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>batch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1,000 to 10,000 lbs./acre </li></ul>Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration
  23. 23. Raceways <ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>topography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>earthen construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concrete construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production rates </li></ul>
  24. 24. Site Selection <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use large quantities of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gravity springs are most economical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>near water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8-10 percent slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18-24 inch water drop </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Types <ul><li>Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flow through multiple races </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flow through one race </li></ul></ul>Series Parallel
  26. 26. Construction <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ any” non-toxic material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must hold water </li></ul></ul>Earthen Concrete
  27. 27. Dimensions <ul><li>Ratio of 30:3:1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aids in water flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easier harvest </li></ul></ul>For Example: 120 ft x 12 ft x 4 ft 120 ft 12 ft 4 ft
  28. 28. Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvest method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>batch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>20,000 to 45,000 lbs./ft 3 /sec. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(449 gals/min) </li></ul></ul>Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration
  29. 29. Cages <ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rectangular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feeding ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>floatation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Production rates </li></ul>
  30. 30. Site Selection <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm Ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bays and Fiords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 acre minimum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4-5 ft. average depth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saltwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70-100 ft </li></ul></ul></ul>20 acre barrow pit
  31. 31. Types <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large net pens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is based on economics and management </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Construction <ul><li>Sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small cages less than 200 ft 3 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large net pens for near and offshore production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retains fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow floatation </li></ul></ul>Salmon net pens
  33. 34. Cage Placement <ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open areas of water to allow good circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide space between cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number depends on size of pond (carrying capacity) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvest method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>batch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-20 lbs. per ft 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no more than 1,500-2,000 lbs./acre </li></ul></ul>Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting
  35. 36. Recirculating Systems <ul><li>Site components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pump house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emergency generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 phase electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bulk feed storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biological filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>buffering system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heaters/chillers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solids filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production rates </li></ul>
  36. 37. Site Components <ul><li>Building </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bulk feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emergency generator </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Building <ul><li>Pole barn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enclosed or semi-enclosed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foam insulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moisture proof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>floor drains </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Electricity <ul><li>3 phase electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electricity is a major cost and 3 phase will reduce the expense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency generator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in event of power outage there is a 30 minute window to restore power to system. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. System Components <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biofilter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solids filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>buffering system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heaters/chillers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lighting </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Biological Filter <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxidizes ammonia and nitrite to nitrate </li></ul></ul>NO 3 - NH 3 1½ O 2 nitrosomonas nitrobacter 1½ O 2 NO 2 -
  41. 42. Solids Filter <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sand filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>settling chambers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inclined tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>screen filters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>settleable (feces and food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also some suspended </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Tanks <ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corrosion resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fiberglass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others with liners </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Pump <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impeller driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>airlift </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to return water through system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually placed after biofilter </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Oxygen <ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aerators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agitators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blowers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ventura pumps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygenation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>packed towers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U-tubes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cones </li></ul></ul></ul>Packed tower
  45. 46. Bicarbonate Drip <ul><li>Rational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 from respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrification is an acidifying process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>add alkalinity to water </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Other Components <ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low light levels reduce stress to fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heaters/chillers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depending on species </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Production Rates <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvest method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>batch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>¼ to 1 lb./gallon </li></ul>Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration

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