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Prepositions and Prepositional phrase<br />By Reem Al Mansouri<br />Instructor Dr. Shadia Banjar<br />Lane 334 <br />
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Prepositions:<br />Belong to a small group or class of words which express relations of place, direction, time or possession. <br />Words belonging to this class include , of, to,at,from,till,for,beside,against,up,<br />down ,by and so on .<br />
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Prepositions can appear alone as in :<br />1- sally looked up<br />Or in conjunction with a noun phrase as in:<br />2-Sally looked up the chimney <br />
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1- S<br /> NP VP<br /> N V PP<br /> sally looked up<br />
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2- S<br /> NP VP<br /> N V PP<br /> P NP<br />DET N<br />sally looked up the chimney<br />
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1- Sally looked up<br />S P A<br />2- sally looked up the chimney<br /> S P A<br />PP P (+NP)<br />Function: A<br />
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Prepositional phrase has five functions:<br />PP P (+ NP)<br /> Function:<br />1- A<br />2- iO<br />3- sC<br />4- oC<br />5- pO<br />
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1- Awith intransitive verb <br />e.g. sally looked up<br /> sally looked up the chimney<br /> 2- io with ditransitive verb <br />e.g. sue gave a jumper to Oxfam<br />Sue gave a jumper to Oxfam<br /> S P dO iO<br />
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S<br /> NP VP<br /> N V NP PP<br />[ditrans]<br />DET N P NP<br />Sue gave a jumper to Oxfam <br />
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3- sC with intensive verb e.g. George is in the gardenS P sC<br />S<br /> NP VP<br /> N V PP<br />[intens] <br />P NP<br />DET N<br />George is in the garden<br />
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4- oCwith complex- transitive verb e.g. Carol put the car in the garage<br />S<br />NP VP<br /> N V NP PP <br />[COMPLEX]<br /> DET N P NP <br /> DET N<br /> carol put the car in the garage<br />
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4-Carol put the car in the garage<br />S P dO oC<br />5- pOwith prepositional verbe.g. The children glanced at the pictures<br />The children glanced at the pictures<br />S P pO<br />
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S<br />NP VP<br />DET N V PP<br />P NP<br /> DET N<br /> the children glanced at thepictures<br />
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