Intro. to Linguistics_11 Syntax

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It is an introduction to English syntax. These slides are directly adopted from many sources.

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Intro. to Linguistics_11 Syntax

  1. 1. Introduction to Linguistics Session 11: Syntax (The Study of Sentence Pattern)Edi Brata, S.Pd.http://edibrata.wordpress.comMathla’ul Anwar University
  2. 2. Preview to the Previous Session (Part of Speech)
  3. 3. Part of Speech(Word Class )  
  4. 4. 1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. Adjective 4. VerbPart of Speech 5. Adverb 6. Preposition 7. Conjunction 8. Interjection
  5. 5. SOME GRAMMAR SOURCES CATEGORIZE ENGLISH INTO 9 OR 10 PARTS OF SPEECH• Verbs may be treated as two different parts of speech: o Lexical Verbs (work, like, run) o Auxiliary Verbs (be, have, must)• Determiners may be treated as a separate part of speech, instead of being categorized under Adjectives.
  6. 6. NOUN (NOUN PHRASE)Description:A word (or group of word) that is the name of person, a place, thing oractivity, or a quality of idea.Example:Andi, Pandeglang, book, sense, walking stick (ph.), town hall (ph.), etc.1. Andi is a students.2. I live in Pandeglang.3. I recommend this book.4. John need walking stick.5. Meet me at town hall.
  7. 7. PRONOUNDescription:A word that is used in place of a noun or noun phrase.Example:her, she, him, they.1. Mary’s husband love her.2. She met him two years ago.3. Look at him!4. They are friends.
  8. 8. ADJECTIVESDescription:A word that gives more information about noun orpronoun (noun/ pronoun modifiers.)Example:Kind, better, best, big.1. He is a kind man.2. We all want better life!3. That’s the best thing about her.4. That is the big house.
  9. 9. VERBSDescription:A word (or group of words) which is used in describing anaction, experience or state.Example:Write, ride, run, be.1. He wrote a poem.2. I like riding a horse.3. He run quickly.4. We are not terrorists.
  10. 10. ADVERBS (ADVERBIAL PHRASE)Description:A word (or group of words) that describes or adds to themeaning of verbs, adjective, another adverbs, or a wholesentence.Example:Sensibly, carefully, at home, in half an hour.1. Please talk sensibly!2. He walk across the bridge carefully.3. I like listening to the music at home.4. See you in a half an hour.
  11. 11. PREPOSITION (PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE)Description:A word (or group of words) which is used to show the wayin which other words are connected.Example:For, of, in, on top of.1. A plan for life.2. Bring me two bottles of tea!3. Put it in the box!4. You will find it on top of the cupboard.
  12. 12. CONJUNCTIONDescription:A word that connect sentences, phrases, or clauses.Example:And, so, but.1. Girl and boy.2. My car broke down, so I went by bus.3. I like it, but I cant afford it.
  13. 13. INTERJECTIONDescription:A word that short exclamation, sometimes inserted into asentence.Example:oh!, ouch!, hi!, well.1. Ouch! That hurts!2. Hi! How are you?3. Well, I dont know.
  14. 14. Grammatical or Ungrammatical:1. The boy found the ball2. The boy found quickly3. The boy found in the house4. The boy found the ball in the house5. Arwani slept the baby6. Arwani slept soundly
  15. 15. Grammatical or Ungrammatical:1. The boy found the ball2. ∗ The boy found quickly3. ∗ The boy found in the house4. The boy found the ball in the house5. ∗ Arwani slept the baby6. Arwani slept soundlyFind: Transitive verb (with object)Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)
  16. 16. Grammatical or Ungrammatical:1. the lucky boys2. boys the lucky
  17. 17. Grammatical or Ungrammatical:1. the lucky boys  grammatical2. ∗boys the lucky  ungrammatical An asterisk ∗ is used to indicate that a form is unacceptable or ungrammatical.
  18. 18. Syntactic CategoriesLexical categories: Examples:• Noun (N) • moisture, policy• Verb (V) • melt, remain• Adjective (A) • good, intelligent• Preposition (P) • to, near• Adverb (Adv) • slowly, now
  19. 19. Syntactic CategoriesNon-lexical categories Examples• Determiner (Det) • the, this• Degree word (Deg) • very, more• Qualifier (Qual) • always, perhaps• Auxiliary (Aux) • will, can• Conjunction (Con) • and, or
  20. 20. Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences!a. The glass suddenly broke. Det / N / Adv / Vb. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane. Det / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / Nc. The peaches never appear quite ripe. Det / N / Qual / V / Deg / Ad. Alivia will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra. N / Aux / V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N
  21. 21. Phraseso NP : Noun Phrase The car, a clever studento VP : Verb Phrase study hard, play the guitaro PP : Prepositional Phrase in the class, above the eartho AP : Adjective Phrase very tall, quite certain
  22. 22. Phrase Structure Rules• NP (Det) N (PP)• PP P NP The bus in the yard The bus (NP) NPDet N Det N PPThe bus P NP Det N The bus in the yard
  23. 23. Phrase Structure Rules• VP V (NP) (PP)• S NP (Aux) VPtook the money took the money from the bank (VP) (VP) V NP V NP PP Det N Det N P NPtook the money Det N took the money from the bank
  24. 24. Draw the tree diagram!1. repaired the telephone2. the success of the program3. a film about pollution4. move towards the window5. cast a spell on the broomstick
  25. 25. Clauseso Noun Clause: Clause that is functioned like a noun He said that he was tired.o Adjective Clause: Clause that is functioned like an adjective The girl who is standing under the tree is my sister.o Adverbial Clause: Clause that is functioned like an adverb When he arrived we were all sleeping
  26. 26. Word, Phrases and ClausesI always remember Jhon. wordI always remember his kindness. phraseI always remember what Jhon has done. clause
  27. 27. The Main Structure Rules 1. S NP (Aux) VP 2. NP (Det) (AP) N (PP) 3. VP V (NP) (PP) (Adv) 4. PP P NP 5. AP A (PP)
  28. 28. Example (1) The old tree swayed in the wind S NP Aux VP Det Adj N V PP P NP Det N The old tree past swayed in the wind
  29. 29. Example (2) The children put the toy in the box S NP VP Det N V NP PP Det N P NP Det N The children put the toy in the box
  30. 30. Ambiguity: More than One MeaningYuhaesih whack a man with an umbrella. S NP VP N V NP PP Det N P NP Det N Yuhaesih whack a man with an umbrella
  31. 31. Structural Ambiguity (1)The boy saw the man with the telescopeThe boy saw the man with the telescope S NP Aux VPDet N V NP PP Det N P NP Det NThe boy past saw the man with the telescope
  32. 32. Structural Ambiguity (2) The boy saw the man with the telescopeThe boy saw the man with the telescope S NP Aux VPDet N V NP Det N PP P NP Det NThe boy past saw the man with the telescope
  33. 33. Declarative – Interrogative Move the auxiliary to the left of the subject. The boy will leave. Will the boy leave? S S NP Aux VP Aux NP VPDet N V Det N VThe boy will leave Will the boy leave The deep structure The surface structure
  34. 34. The Wh Movement• Surface structure: Which car should the man repair?• Deep structure: S NP Aux VPDet N V NP Det NThe man should repair which car
  35. 35. Draw the deep structure of the following sentences!1. Will the boss hire Hillary?2. Is that player leaving the team?3. Who should the director call?4. What is Joanne eating?
  36. 36. Sentence  
  37. 37. One subject I love you. One verbIndependent clause: only one subject and one verb
  38. 38. Independent clause I love you, and you love me. Independent clauseTwo independent clauses joined together
  39. 39. Dependent clause Because you love me, I love you. Independent clauseA dependent clause joined to an independent clause. (The dependent clause needs the rest of the sentence for support.)
  40. 40. Simple Sentence A simple sentence contains a subject and verb. It expresses a single complete thought. A simple sentence is a single independent clause. I live in Cikaliung. Subject Verb
  41. 41. Compound SentenceA compound sentence contains two independentclauses that are joined together. She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs. Independent Independent Clause Clause
  42. 42. ComplexSentenceA complex sentence contains one independentand one dependent clause. Because she was sick, she stayed home. Dependent Independent Clause Clause
  43. 43. SentenceDeclarative:I will arrive at three.Imperative:Come here.Interrogative:Did you see your brother yesterday?Exclamatory:Just a minute!
  44. 44. Thank You http://edibrata.wordpress.com(Some materials are directly adopted from some sources)

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