Regional medical services_first_aid

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Regional medical services_first_aid

  1. 1. WELCOME Lecture on… “ FIRST AID TO THE INJURED” By : M.M. Gupta ASSTT. COMMISSIONER SJAB.
  2. 3. What is FIRST AID ?
  3. 4. FIRST AID IS…. A matter of Common Sense Application of mind Swift Response
  4. 5. DEFINITION First AID is the help given to a person in case of SUDDEN INJURY or SICKNESS so that the INJURY/SICKNESS does not AGGRAVATE FURTHER and due to swift action further DETERIORATION is checked, same condition is maintained & recovery promoted till the arrival of Medical Help.
  5. 6. SCOPE OF FIRST AID From the definition four things are apparent : PREVENT further deterioration PRESERVE in the same condition PROMOTE recovery To arrange for regular Medical AID
  6. 7. METHOD OF FIRST AID Diagnosis Treatment Disposal
  7. 8. DIAGNOSIS BASED ON Circumstantial Evidence Signs Symptoms (Patient tells) (you observe)
  8. 9. PRIORITIES OF FIRST AID Check Breathing Check Blood loss Treat Shock Treat Fracture Look For Simple Injuries Disposal
  9. 10. BREATHING PROCESS
  10. 11. CHECK BREATHING Can Hear It Can Feel It Can Observe It (Normal Person Breathes 15-18 Times In One Minute)
  11. 12. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION Mouth To Mouth Mouth To Nose @ 10 Breaths Per Minute & Check Pulse Give 2 ventilations if there is no breathing
  12. 13. CHEST COMPRESSION (Give 30 Compression if there is no Circulation )
  13. 14. RECOVERY POSITION (In case of unconscious casualty)
  14. 15. BLEEDING (HAMEORRAGE) Blood Contains About 5 Litres in a normal body - Red cells - White cells - Plasma
  15. 16. BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGH Arteries Carry Blood from Heart to body Capillaries Small Blood Vessels Veins Carry Blood Back to Heart
  16. 17. CIRCULATORY PROCESS
  17. 18. CIRCULATORY PROCESS
  18. 19. CIRCULATORY PROCESS
  19. 20. CIRCULATORY PROCESS
  20. 21. CIRCULATORY PROCESS
  21. 22. CYCLE OF FLOW OF BLOOD L V Body R A R V R V L 1 L 2 L A L V ( LUNGS ) ( HEART ) ( HEART ) ( 72-80 Times in one minute )
  22. 23. HOW TO CHECK BLEEDING ? (HAEMORRHAGE) Direct Pressure Indirect Pressure <ul><li>Press Near the wound </li></ul><ul><li>Apply dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Press The Pressure Point </li></ul>Temporal Region – 2 Back of Ear – 2 Jaw – 2 Collar Bone – 2 Armpit – 2 Upper Arm – 2 Wrist – 2 Elbow-2 Sides of Abdomen – 2 Groin – 2 Back of Knee – 2 Ankle - 2 Pressure bandage <ul><li>Use a roller bandage (preferably crepe bandage) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Give support to the limb </li></ul>
  23. 24. INTERNAL BLEEDING Bleeding from Nose/Ears. Bleeding from Lungs with cough From Stomach with Vomiting Through Urine (Bladder,Unitary track, Kidney) Through Rectum with Stool (injury in intestines) TREATMENT Handle Carefully and transport for Medical AID
  24. 25. Impairment of Normal Functioning of Body, is Shock. SHOCK Two Types <ul><li>Established Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous Shock </li></ul>Asphyxia Bleeding Sickness Bad/Good News Heat/Cold/Hunger Injury to Brain/Spine
  25. 26. SHOCK : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Discolourisation of Face Loss of Power Slow/weak Pulse Cold Sweating Irregular Breathing/Shallow breathing Nausea & Giddiness Clammy & Sandy Skin Fall in Temperature
  26. 27. SHOCK TREATMENT Remove Cause From Effect Lay down the Patient & Loose Clothing Let Fresh Air Come Reassure the Patient Try to Maintain Temperature Resort toArtificial Respiration Arrange Medical Aid
  27. 28. SHOCK TREATMENT <ul><li>DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING ORALLY </li></ul><ul><li>GIVE NORMAL HOT OR COLD WHEN PATIENT IS CONSCIOUS OR REGAINS CONSCIOUSNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ALWAYS SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE </li></ul>
  28. 29. Skeleton System
  29. 30. SKELETON <ul><li>HEAD CAVITY : BRAIN/EYES/EARS </li></ul><ul><li>MOUTH/JAWS. </li></ul><ul><li>CHEST ACAVITY : LUNGS/HEART/ SPLEEN/LEVER/ KIDNEYS </li></ul><ul><li>STOMACH : DIGESTIVE SYSTEM/ </li></ul><ul><li>EXCRETARY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>SMALL LIMBS : HANDS/ARMS/ FEET/LEGS ETC. </li></ul>
  30. 31. BONES IN BODY 206 – Bones in Human Body Skull (8 + 14) = 22 Collar Bones ( CLAVICLE ) = 2 Chest (7 + 3 + 2) x 2 = 24 Spine ( 7 + 12 + 5 + 5 + 4) = 33 Shoulder Blade ( SCAPULA ) = 2 Upper Arm ( HUME RUS ) = 2 Lower Arm ( RADIUS - ULNA ) = 4 Wrist ( CARPALS ) = 16 Palm ( META CARPALS ) = 10 Fingers ( PHALANGES ) = 28 Pelvis ------- = 2 Thigh ( FEMUR ) = 2 Knee Cap ( PATELLA ) = 2 Lower Leg ( TIBBIA FABULA ) = 4 Ankle ( TARSUS ) = 14 Foot ( META TARSUS ) = 10 Fingers ( PHALANGES ) = 28 ( NECK - BACK - WAIST - HIP - TAIL ) ( CERVICAL / DORSAL / LUMBAR / SACRAL / TAIL / COCCYGIAL ) Breast bone(sternum) = 1
  31. 32. JOINTS <ul><li>MOVEABLE </li></ul><ul><li>PARTIALLY MOVEABLE </li></ul><ul><li>IMMOVEABLE </li></ul>
  32. 33. TYPES OF JOINTS <ul><li>HINGE JOINTS </li></ul><ul><li>PIVOTAL JOINTS </li></ul><ul><li>BALL & SOCKET JOINTS </li></ul>
  33. 34. FRACTURE Any Breaking , Bending , Dislocation or Cracking of Bone is called Fracture.
  34. 35. TYPES OF FRACTURE <ul><li>SIMPLE OR CLOSED </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOUND </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLICATED </li></ul><ul><li>COMMINUTED </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSED </li></ul><ul><li>IMPACTED </li></ul><ul><li>GREENSTICK </li></ul>
  35. 36. CAUSES OF FRACTURE <ul><li>DIRECT INJURY </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT INJURY </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCULAR CONTRACTION OR EXPANSION </li></ul>
  36. 37. FRACTURE : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Pain Swelling Tenderness Loss of Power Deformity Unnatural Movement Irregularity Crapitus
  37. 38. FRACTURE TREATMENT Make The Patient Comfortable Prevent Any Movement Check Bleeding Treat for Shock Immobilize the Limb Give Support Transportation.
  38. 39. Muscular System
  39. 40. Muscular System
  40. 41. WOUNDS Any cut in the outer surface of the body is a wound or impairment in the blood vessels. Wounds are of two types: OPEN CLOSED (mostly head injuries)
  41. 42. WOUNDS TYPES / CLASSIFICATIONS INCISED PUNCTURED LACERATED CONTUSED
  42. 43. WOUNDS TREATMENT LAYDOWN THE PATIENT OR ASK HIM TO SIT DOWN LIFT THE LIMB IF POSSIBLE APPLY PRESSURE – ON THE WOUND - ON PRESSURE POINT
  43. 44. WOUNDS TREATMENT In the case of INTERNAL BLEEDING: APPLY COLD FORMULATIONS APPLY TOURNIQUET (All precautions)
  44. 45. BURNS & SCALDS Burn is an injury to the body by excessive heat or excessive cold. Burns : Dry Heat (fire, flame, metal, sun, electricity etc and friction Scalds : Moist Heat (steam, boiling water, milk, tea, oil etc) Chemical Burns : Acids : H 2 SO 4 , Nitric Acid, Hcl Alkalis : Caustic Soda, Potash, Ammonia or quick lime Gases : Liquid O 2 or Nitrogen
  45. 46. BURNS & SCALDS Area and not the degree of burn is important (Rule of – 9) BURN CAUSES Intense Pain Shock Infection Scars after Healing
  46. 47. BURNS & SCALDS MANAGEMENT Reassure the patient Clean wrap the wound Cover the wound Wash with fresh water Keep the patient warm Keep hands above the heart & feet elevated Keep the face prop & observe continuously Cold pack may also be applied (not excessive cold) Do not remove clothing Do not break blisters Treat for shock Move quickly to hospital Remove ring, watch, bangles, belt & boots Can give weak soda & salt solution if patient is conscious and not vomiting.
  47. 48. BURNS & SCALDS FOR MINOR BURNS Clean the Area Submerge in water Give soda & salt solution Cover Dry Warm drinks Wash well for chemical corrosive burns Can also neutralize and dilute Remove contaminated clothing Wash the face/eye sideways No rubbing of eyes
  48. 49. POISON Poison is any such thing which after coming into contact or entering the body is capable of causing harm or leads to death It can be: Accidental or Intentional Can enter the Body: Through mouth (solid or liquid) Through skin (injection or sting etc) Through nose (gases or toxic fumes)
  49. 50. POISON Poison may be: Corrosive or burning (acids, alkalis, insecticides) Non-Corrosive (decomposed food, fungus etc) Depressants (opium, dhatura, sankhiya etc) Signs and Symptoms If through mouth (nausia, vomiting, lose motions, and stomach-ache) Burning of lips, tongue, mouth and throat Affect the brain (can cause asphyxia, deep sleep, fits, unconsciousness and giddiness
  50. 51. POISON TREATMENT Call the doctor immediately Keep samples, if possible, of poison, bottle, box or vomit If Unconscious -Do not induce vomiting -Keep the patient in recovery position -Artificial respiration, if needed If Conscious -Give enough water to drink -Do not induce vomiting if acid, alkali or any other chemical is taken -Induce vomiting in other cases (a) By luke warm salty water (b) By irritating tongue/throat Give antidote if available Keep the patient warm
  51. 52. SIMPLE INJURY Disinfect the wound Wash with water Cover with any clean thing Don’t apply any lotion except diluted mercurochrome Tincture Iodine etc. Use disinfectant sprays if available
  52. 53. Transportation Seek for Ambulance ( local Hospital or Nursing home ) Use Stretcher Handle the spine fracture victim with utmost care and Caution OR Place the patient under proper care ( Improvise if not available ) ( Bicycle, coil, shirt or Blanket etc, ) 102 : Ambulance 1099 : Cats
  53. 54. MODES OF CARRYING Single Person ( One First Aiders ) Cradle Human Crutch
  54. 55. MODES OF CARRYING Pick a Back Fire man’s lift
  55. 56. MODES OF CARRYING Hand Seat ( Two First Aiders ) Four Handed Seat Two Arm Seat ( When The Casualty is Co-operating )
  56. 57. MODES OF CARRYING when not conscious or can’t assist Use Hand lock
  57. 58. MODES OF CARRYING When space does not permit two hand seat Improvised ( chair )
  58. 59. MODES OF CARRYING Carrying Stretcher
  59. 60. TRIANGULAR BANDAGE 38” 38” (Preferably Marcin cloth) We get Two Triangular Bandages
  60. 61. TRIANGULAR BANDAGE
  61. 62. FIRST AID BOX Large : 17 ½” x 10” x 6 ½” Medium : 16” x 7 ¾” x 4” Small : 5” x 3 ½” x 2 ½”
  62. 63. FIRST AID BOX Equipment CONTENTS Dressings Medicine for Local Application Medicine for Oral Application
  63. 64. FIRST AID BOX Safety Pins Equipment Scissors Pad & Pen Measuring Cup Torch Splints Bamboo Sticks Cotton Wool Dressings Sterilised Dressings Eye Pad Adhesive Plaster Roller Bandages Triangular Bandages Gauze Band-aids Stretch Bandage
  64. 65. FIRST AID BOX Savlon/Dettol For Local Application Eye drops/ Ointment Tincture Iodine Tincture Benzoin Iodex etc. Salt For Oral Application Sugar Sodamint Aspirin (250-350 mg.) Medicines
  65. 66. EYE <ul><li>FOREIGN OBJECTS </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL INJURY </li></ul><ul><li>BLEEDINGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Any inflammation or infection </li></ul>
  66. 67. DONT’S <ul><li>DO NOT RUB THE EYES </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT PANIC </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT USE ANY MEDICINE </li></ul>
  67. 68. DO’S <ul><li>KEEP CALM </li></ul><ul><li>REMOVE FOREIGN OBJECTS IF POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>GIVE COLD COMPRESS IN CASE OF INTERNAL BLEEDING </li></ul><ul><li>WASH THE EYE WITH FRESH WATER FOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANY CHEMICAL BURN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMALL FOREIGN OBJECT </li></ul></ul>
  68. 69. FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE
  69. 70. FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE
  70. 71. The End

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