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WELCOME Lecture on… “ FIRST AID TO THE INJURED” By : M.M. Gupta ASSTT. COMMISSIONER SJAB.
 
What is FIRST AID ?
FIRST AID IS…. A matter of Common Sense Application of mind Swift Response
DEFINITION First  AID  is the help given to a person in case of  SUDDEN INJURY  or  SICKNESS  so that the  INJURY/SICKNESS  does not  AGGRAVATE FURTHER  and due to swift action further  DETERIORATION  is checked, same condition is maintained & recovery promoted till the arrival of  Medical Help.
SCOPE OF FIRST AID From the definition four things are apparent : PREVENT further deterioration  PRESERVE in the same condition PROMOTE recovery  To arrange for regular Medical AID
METHOD OF FIRST AID Diagnosis  Treatment Disposal
DIAGNOSIS BASED ON   Circumstantial  Evidence Signs Symptoms (Patient tells) (you observe)
PRIORITIES OF FIRST AID   Check Breathing Check  Blood  loss Treat Shock Treat Fracture Look For Simple Injuries Disposal
BREATHING PROCESS
CHECK BREATHING Can Hear It  Can Feel It Can Observe It (Normal Person Breathes 15-18 Times In One Minute)
ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION Mouth To Mouth  Mouth To Nose @ 10 Breaths Per Minute & Check Pulse Give 2 ventilations if there is no breathing
CHEST COMPRESSION (Give  30   Compression  if there is no  Circulation )
RECOVERY POSITION (In case of unconscious casualty)
BLEEDING (HAMEORRAGE) Blood Contains  About 5 Litres in a normal body -  Red   cells -  White cells -  Plasma
BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGH Arteries Carry  Blood  from Heart to body Capillaries Small  Blood  Vessels Veins Carry  Blood  Back to Heart
CIRCULATORY PROCESS
CIRCULATORY PROCESS
CIRCULATORY PROCESS
CIRCULATORY PROCESS
CIRCULATORY PROCESS
CYCLE OF FLOW OF BLOOD   L V Body R A R V R V L 1 L 2 L A L V ( LUNGS ) ( HEART ) ( HEART ) ( 72-80 Times in one minute )
HOW TO CHECK BLEEDING ? (HAEMORRHAGE) Direct Pressure  Indirect Pressure ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Temporal Region – 2   Back of Ear – 2   Jaw – 2   Collar Bone – 2  Armpit – 2  Upper Arm – 2  Wrist – 2  Elbow-2   Sides of Abdomen – 2  Groin – 2     Back of Knee – 2    Ankle - 2 Pressure bandage ,[object Object],[object Object]
INTERNAL BLEEDING   Bleeding from Nose/Ears. Bleeding from Lungs with cough From Stomach with Vomiting Through Urine (Bladder,Unitary track, Kidney)  Through Rectum with Stool (injury in intestines) TREATMENT   Handle Carefully and transport for Medical AID
Impairment of Normal Functioning of Body, is  Shock. SHOCK Two Types ,[object Object],[object Object],Asphyxia Bleeding Sickness Bad/Good News Heat/Cold/Hunger Injury to Brain/Spine
SHOCK : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS   Discolourisation of Face Loss of Power Slow/weak Pulse Cold Sweating Irregular Breathing/Shallow breathing Nausea & Giddiness Clammy & Sandy Skin Fall in Temperature
SHOCK TREATMENT   Remove Cause From Effect Lay down the Patient & Loose Clothing Let Fresh Air Come Reassure the Patient Try to Maintain Temperature Resort toArtificial Respiration Arrange Medical Aid
SHOCK TREATMENT ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Skeleton System
SKELETON ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
BONES IN BODY   206 – Bones in Human Body Skull  (8 + 14)  =  22 Collar Bones  ( CLAVICLE )   =  2 Chest  (7 + 3 + 2) x 2  =  24 Spine  (  7  +  12  +  5  +  5  +  4)  =  33 Shoulder Blade  ( SCAPULA )   =  2 Upper Arm  ( HUME RUS )   =  2 Lower Arm  ( RADIUS - ULNA )  =  4  Wrist  ( CARPALS )   =  16 Palm  ( META CARPALS )  =  10 Fingers  ( PHALANGES )  =  28 Pelvis  -------  =  2 Thigh  ( FEMUR )  =  2 Knee Cap  ( PATELLA )  =  2 Lower Leg  ( TIBBIA FABULA )   =  4 Ankle  ( TARSUS )   = 14 Foot  ( META TARSUS )  = 10 Fingers  ( PHALANGES )  =  28 ( NECK  -  BACK  -  WAIST  -  HIP  -  TAIL ) ( CERVICAL  /  DORSAL  /  LUMBAR  /  SACRAL  /  TAIL  /  COCCYGIAL ) Breast  bone(sternum)  =  1
JOINTS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
TYPES OF JOINTS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
FRACTURE Any  Breaking ,  Bending ,  Dislocation  or  Cracking of Bone  is called  Fracture.
TYPES OF FRACTURE ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
CAUSES OF FRACTURE ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
FRACTURE : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS   Pain Swelling Tenderness Loss of Power Deformity Unnatural Movement Irregularity Crapitus
FRACTURE TREATMENT   Make The Patient Comfortable Prevent Any Movement Check Bleeding Treat for Shock Immobilize the Limb Give Support Transportation.
Muscular System
Muscular System
WOUNDS   Any cut in the outer surface of the body is a wound or impairment in the blood vessels. Wounds are of two types: OPEN CLOSED (mostly head injuries)
WOUNDS   TYPES / CLASSIFICATIONS INCISED PUNCTURED LACERATED CONTUSED
WOUNDS   TREATMENT LAYDOWN THE PATIENT OR ASK HIM TO SIT DOWN LIFT THE LIMB IF POSSIBLE APPLY PRESSURE – ON THE WOUND - ON PRESSURE POINT
WOUNDS   TREATMENT In the case of INTERNAL BLEEDING: APPLY COLD FORMULATIONS APPLY TOURNIQUET (All precautions)
BURNS & SCALDS Burn is an injury to the body by excessive heat or excessive cold. Burns : Dry Heat (fire, flame, metal, sun, electricity etc    and friction Scalds : Moist Heat (steam, boiling water, milk, tea, oil etc) Chemical Burns  :  Acids : H 2 SO 4  , Nitric Acid, Hcl   Alkalis : Caustic Soda, Potash, Ammonia or quick lime Gases : Liquid O 2  or Nitrogen
BURNS & SCALDS Area and not the degree of burn is important (Rule of – 9) BURN CAUSES Intense Pain Shock Infection Scars after Healing
BURNS & SCALDS MANAGEMENT Reassure the patient Clean wrap the wound Cover the wound Wash with fresh water Keep the patient warm Keep hands above the heart & feet elevated Keep the face prop & observe continuously Cold pack may also be applied (not excessive cold) Do not remove clothing Do not break blisters Treat for shock Move quickly to hospital Remove ring, watch, bangles, belt & boots Can give weak soda & salt solution if patient is conscious and not vomiting.
BURNS & SCALDS FOR MINOR BURNS Clean the Area Submerge in water Give soda & salt solution Cover Dry Warm drinks Wash well for chemical corrosive burns Can also neutralize and dilute Remove contaminated clothing Wash the face/eye sideways No rubbing of eyes
POISON Poison is any such thing which after coming into contact or entering the body is capable of causing harm or leads to death It can be: Accidental or Intentional Can enter the Body: Through mouth (solid or liquid) Through skin (injection or sting etc) Through nose (gases or toxic fumes)
POISON Poison may be: Corrosive or burning (acids, alkalis, insecticides) Non-Corrosive (decomposed food, fungus etc) Depressants (opium, dhatura, sankhiya etc) Signs and Symptoms If through mouth (nausia, vomiting, lose motions, and stomach-ache) Burning of lips, tongue, mouth and throat Affect the brain (can cause asphyxia, deep sleep, fits, unconsciousness and giddiness
POISON TREATMENT Call the doctor immediately Keep samples, if possible, of poison, bottle, box or vomit If Unconscious -Do not induce vomiting -Keep the patient in recovery position -Artificial respiration, if needed If Conscious -Give enough water to drink -Do not induce vomiting if acid, alkali or any other chemical    is taken -Induce vomiting in other cases (a) By luke warm salty water (b) By irritating tongue/throat Give antidote if available Keep the patient warm
SIMPLE INJURY   Disinfect the wound Wash with water Cover with any clean thing Don’t apply any lotion except  diluted mercurochrome Tincture  Iodine etc. Use disinfectant sprays if available
Transportation   Seek for Ambulance ( local Hospital or Nursing home ) Use Stretcher Handle the spine fracture victim  with utmost care and Caution OR Place the patient under proper care ( Improvise if not available ) ( Bicycle, coil, shirt or Blanket etc, ) 102   :  Ambulance 1099   :  Cats
MODES OF CARRYING   Single Person ( One First Aiders ) Cradle Human Crutch
MODES OF CARRYING   Pick a Back Fire man’s lift
MODES OF CARRYING   Hand Seat ( Two First Aiders ) Four Handed Seat Two Arm Seat ( When The Casualty is Co-operating )
MODES OF CARRYING   when not conscious or can’t assist Use Hand lock
MODES OF CARRYING   When space does not permit two hand seat Improvised  ( chair )
MODES OF CARRYING   Carrying Stretcher
TRIANGULAR BANDAGE 38” 38” (Preferably  Marcin  cloth) We get Two Triangular Bandages
TRIANGULAR BANDAGE
FIRST AID BOX   Large : 17 ½” x 10” x 6 ½” Medium : 16” x 7 ¾” x 4” Small : 5” x 3 ½” x 2 ½”
FIRST AID BOX   Equipment CONTENTS Dressings Medicine for Local  Application Medicine for Oral Application
FIRST AID BOX   Safety Pins Equipment Scissors Pad & Pen Measuring Cup Torch Splints Bamboo Sticks Cotton Wool Dressings Sterilised Dressings Eye Pad Adhesive Plaster Roller Bandages Triangular  Bandages Gauze Band-aids Stretch Bandage
FIRST AID BOX   Savlon/Dettol For Local Application Eye drops/ Ointment Tincture Iodine Tincture Benzoin Iodex etc. Salt For Oral Application Sugar Sodamint Aspirin (250-350 mg.) Medicines
EYE ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
DONT’S   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
DO’S ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
FOREIGN  OBJECT IN EYE
FOREIGN  OBJECT IN EYE
The End

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Regional medical services_first_aid

  • 1. WELCOME Lecture on… “ FIRST AID TO THE INJURED” By : M.M. Gupta ASSTT. COMMISSIONER SJAB.
  • 2.  
  • 4. FIRST AID IS…. A matter of Common Sense Application of mind Swift Response
  • 5. DEFINITION First AID is the help given to a person in case of SUDDEN INJURY or SICKNESS so that the INJURY/SICKNESS does not AGGRAVATE FURTHER and due to swift action further DETERIORATION is checked, same condition is maintained & recovery promoted till the arrival of Medical Help.
  • 6. SCOPE OF FIRST AID From the definition four things are apparent : PREVENT further deterioration PRESERVE in the same condition PROMOTE recovery To arrange for regular Medical AID
  • 7. METHOD OF FIRST AID Diagnosis Treatment Disposal
  • 8. DIAGNOSIS BASED ON Circumstantial Evidence Signs Symptoms (Patient tells) (you observe)
  • 9. PRIORITIES OF FIRST AID Check Breathing Check Blood loss Treat Shock Treat Fracture Look For Simple Injuries Disposal
  • 11. CHECK BREATHING Can Hear It Can Feel It Can Observe It (Normal Person Breathes 15-18 Times In One Minute)
  • 12. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION Mouth To Mouth Mouth To Nose @ 10 Breaths Per Minute & Check Pulse Give 2 ventilations if there is no breathing
  • 13. CHEST COMPRESSION (Give 30 Compression if there is no Circulation )
  • 14. RECOVERY POSITION (In case of unconscious casualty)
  • 15. BLEEDING (HAMEORRAGE) Blood Contains About 5 Litres in a normal body - Red cells - White cells - Plasma
  • 16. BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGH Arteries Carry Blood from Heart to body Capillaries Small Blood Vessels Veins Carry Blood Back to Heart
  • 22. CYCLE OF FLOW OF BLOOD L V Body R A R V R V L 1 L 2 L A L V ( LUNGS ) ( HEART ) ( HEART ) ( 72-80 Times in one minute )
  • 23.
  • 24. INTERNAL BLEEDING Bleeding from Nose/Ears. Bleeding from Lungs with cough From Stomach with Vomiting Through Urine (Bladder,Unitary track, Kidney) Through Rectum with Stool (injury in intestines) TREATMENT Handle Carefully and transport for Medical AID
  • 25.
  • 26. SHOCK : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Discolourisation of Face Loss of Power Slow/weak Pulse Cold Sweating Irregular Breathing/Shallow breathing Nausea & Giddiness Clammy & Sandy Skin Fall in Temperature
  • 27. SHOCK TREATMENT Remove Cause From Effect Lay down the Patient & Loose Clothing Let Fresh Air Come Reassure the Patient Try to Maintain Temperature Resort toArtificial Respiration Arrange Medical Aid
  • 28.
  • 30.
  • 31. BONES IN BODY 206 – Bones in Human Body Skull (8 + 14) = 22 Collar Bones ( CLAVICLE ) = 2 Chest (7 + 3 + 2) x 2 = 24 Spine ( 7 + 12 + 5 + 5 + 4) = 33 Shoulder Blade ( SCAPULA ) = 2 Upper Arm ( HUME RUS ) = 2 Lower Arm ( RADIUS - ULNA ) = 4 Wrist ( CARPALS ) = 16 Palm ( META CARPALS ) = 10 Fingers ( PHALANGES ) = 28 Pelvis ------- = 2 Thigh ( FEMUR ) = 2 Knee Cap ( PATELLA ) = 2 Lower Leg ( TIBBIA FABULA ) = 4 Ankle ( TARSUS ) = 14 Foot ( META TARSUS ) = 10 Fingers ( PHALANGES ) = 28 ( NECK - BACK - WAIST - HIP - TAIL ) ( CERVICAL / DORSAL / LUMBAR / SACRAL / TAIL / COCCYGIAL ) Breast bone(sternum) = 1
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. FRACTURE Any Breaking , Bending , Dislocation or Cracking of Bone is called Fracture.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37. FRACTURE : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Pain Swelling Tenderness Loss of Power Deformity Unnatural Movement Irregularity Crapitus
  • 38. FRACTURE TREATMENT Make The Patient Comfortable Prevent Any Movement Check Bleeding Treat for Shock Immobilize the Limb Give Support Transportation.
  • 41. WOUNDS Any cut in the outer surface of the body is a wound or impairment in the blood vessels. Wounds are of two types: OPEN CLOSED (mostly head injuries)
  • 42. WOUNDS TYPES / CLASSIFICATIONS INCISED PUNCTURED LACERATED CONTUSED
  • 43. WOUNDS TREATMENT LAYDOWN THE PATIENT OR ASK HIM TO SIT DOWN LIFT THE LIMB IF POSSIBLE APPLY PRESSURE – ON THE WOUND - ON PRESSURE POINT
  • 44. WOUNDS TREATMENT In the case of INTERNAL BLEEDING: APPLY COLD FORMULATIONS APPLY TOURNIQUET (All precautions)
  • 45. BURNS & SCALDS Burn is an injury to the body by excessive heat or excessive cold. Burns : Dry Heat (fire, flame, metal, sun, electricity etc and friction Scalds : Moist Heat (steam, boiling water, milk, tea, oil etc) Chemical Burns : Acids : H 2 SO 4 , Nitric Acid, Hcl Alkalis : Caustic Soda, Potash, Ammonia or quick lime Gases : Liquid O 2 or Nitrogen
  • 46. BURNS & SCALDS Area and not the degree of burn is important (Rule of – 9) BURN CAUSES Intense Pain Shock Infection Scars after Healing
  • 47. BURNS & SCALDS MANAGEMENT Reassure the patient Clean wrap the wound Cover the wound Wash with fresh water Keep the patient warm Keep hands above the heart & feet elevated Keep the face prop & observe continuously Cold pack may also be applied (not excessive cold) Do not remove clothing Do not break blisters Treat for shock Move quickly to hospital Remove ring, watch, bangles, belt & boots Can give weak soda & salt solution if patient is conscious and not vomiting.
  • 48. BURNS & SCALDS FOR MINOR BURNS Clean the Area Submerge in water Give soda & salt solution Cover Dry Warm drinks Wash well for chemical corrosive burns Can also neutralize and dilute Remove contaminated clothing Wash the face/eye sideways No rubbing of eyes
  • 49. POISON Poison is any such thing which after coming into contact or entering the body is capable of causing harm or leads to death It can be: Accidental or Intentional Can enter the Body: Through mouth (solid or liquid) Through skin (injection or sting etc) Through nose (gases or toxic fumes)
  • 50. POISON Poison may be: Corrosive or burning (acids, alkalis, insecticides) Non-Corrosive (decomposed food, fungus etc) Depressants (opium, dhatura, sankhiya etc) Signs and Symptoms If through mouth (nausia, vomiting, lose motions, and stomach-ache) Burning of lips, tongue, mouth and throat Affect the brain (can cause asphyxia, deep sleep, fits, unconsciousness and giddiness
  • 51. POISON TREATMENT Call the doctor immediately Keep samples, if possible, of poison, bottle, box or vomit If Unconscious -Do not induce vomiting -Keep the patient in recovery position -Artificial respiration, if needed If Conscious -Give enough water to drink -Do not induce vomiting if acid, alkali or any other chemical is taken -Induce vomiting in other cases (a) By luke warm salty water (b) By irritating tongue/throat Give antidote if available Keep the patient warm
  • 52. SIMPLE INJURY Disinfect the wound Wash with water Cover with any clean thing Don’t apply any lotion except diluted mercurochrome Tincture Iodine etc. Use disinfectant sprays if available
  • 53. Transportation Seek for Ambulance ( local Hospital or Nursing home ) Use Stretcher Handle the spine fracture victim with utmost care and Caution OR Place the patient under proper care ( Improvise if not available ) ( Bicycle, coil, shirt or Blanket etc, ) 102 : Ambulance 1099 : Cats
  • 54. MODES OF CARRYING Single Person ( One First Aiders ) Cradle Human Crutch
  • 55. MODES OF CARRYING Pick a Back Fire man’s lift
  • 56. MODES OF CARRYING Hand Seat ( Two First Aiders ) Four Handed Seat Two Arm Seat ( When The Casualty is Co-operating )
  • 57. MODES OF CARRYING when not conscious or can’t assist Use Hand lock
  • 58. MODES OF CARRYING When space does not permit two hand seat Improvised ( chair )
  • 59. MODES OF CARRYING Carrying Stretcher
  • 60. TRIANGULAR BANDAGE 38” 38” (Preferably Marcin cloth) We get Two Triangular Bandages
  • 62. FIRST AID BOX Large : 17 ½” x 10” x 6 ½” Medium : 16” x 7 ¾” x 4” Small : 5” x 3 ½” x 2 ½”
  • 63. FIRST AID BOX Equipment CONTENTS Dressings Medicine for Local Application Medicine for Oral Application
  • 64. FIRST AID BOX Safety Pins Equipment Scissors Pad & Pen Measuring Cup Torch Splints Bamboo Sticks Cotton Wool Dressings Sterilised Dressings Eye Pad Adhesive Plaster Roller Bandages Triangular Bandages Gauze Band-aids Stretch Bandage
  • 65. FIRST AID BOX Savlon/Dettol For Local Application Eye drops/ Ointment Tincture Iodine Tincture Benzoin Iodex etc. Salt For Oral Application Sugar Sodamint Aspirin (250-350 mg.) Medicines
  • 66.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE
  • 70. FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE