FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan

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FIRST AID (BASICS & CPR)-Maj Dr ID Khan

  1. 1. FIRST AID<br />Major Dr Inam Danish Khan<br />Medical Officer<br />Nehru Institute of Mountaineering<br />
  2. 2. BUT WHY DO I NEED TO LEARN FIRST AID<br />How does it feel if you lose a loved one?<br />DON’T STAND IN SHOCK<br />RESPECT LIFE<br />PARTICIPATE IN SAVING LIVES<br />
  3. 3. FIRST AID<br />First Aid is the initial assistance given to a casualty from the moment of the accident until availability of specialized medical care by a doctor. <br />
  4. 4. THE HUMAN BODY<br />ROCKET SCIENCE IS EASY<br />IF YOU DARE THINK ABOUT HUMAN BODY<br />It is a complex real life playground.<br />A thousand structures with varied functions. <br />A billion biomolecules and a million reactions.<br />Still counting on doctors for the unexplored.<br />Entropy does not increase - Open system.<br />Laws of physics are applied as well as defied.<br />
  5. 5. Robot<br />Human<br />
  6. 6. HUMAN vs robot<br />See, Hear, Smell, Taste<br />Walk, Eat, Drink, Speak, Breathe, Cry<br />Feel touch, temperature, pain, vibration<br />Feel good or bad if you talk about it in third person<br />Emote (Show fear, anger, sadness, happiness, love)<br />Study to become wise, Give a lecture<br />Make friends<br />Have recollections of its past or plan its future <br />Apply logic and reason situations to decide<br />Think <br />Memorize<br />Reproduce<br />Grow<br />Can a Robot?<br />
  7. 7. HUMAN vs robot<br />
  8. 8. ORGAN SYSTEMS<br />
  9. 9. CIRCULATORY system<br />
  10. 10. RESPIRATORY system<br />
  11. 11. NERVOUS SYSTEM<br />
  12. 12. DIGESTIVE system<br />
  13. 13. PROLOGUE<br />First Aid : Definition, types and duties<br />Disasters and Triage<br />Vital signs of life : Pulse, Temp, BP, Resp<br />Life Support : Artificial Respiration & CPR<br />Casualty Evacuation<br />
  14. 14. FIRST AID<br />AIM<br />Preserve life<br />Prevent worsening of condition<br />Promote recovery<br />CARDINAL RULES<br />Ladies to be examined in attendance<br />Never label a person “Malingerer”<br />3. Benefit of doubt goes to the patient<br />
  15. 15. TYPES OF FIRST AID<br />Basic First Aid<br />Wilderness/ Outdoor First Aid<br />Mountain/ High Altitude First Aid<br />Military/ Battlefield First Aid<br />Aquatic/ Marine First Aid<br />Hyperbaric/ Diving First Aid<br />
  16. 16. Duties of first aider <br />Assess condition quickly <br />Check your safety<br />Call for help<br />Protect others from danger <br />Prioritise – Do triage<br />Give prompt first aid<br />Arrange casualty evacuation<br />Remain with the patient till attended by doctor and help him afterwards<br />
  17. 17. DISASTER<br />A disaster is present when need exceeds resources!<br />MASS CASUALTY INCIDENT<br />MAN-MADE<br />Fires<br />Firearms<br />Air, Water<br />Rail, Road<br />Industrial<br />Explosions<br />Building collapse<br />Atomic bombs<br />Terrorist Attacks<br />NATURAL<br />Earthquakes/landslides<br />Avalanche<br />Volcanoes<br />Tornado/Hurricanes<br />Floods<br />Fires<br />Tsunami<br />Meteors<br />
  18. 18. TRIAGE<br /> Triage is the dynamic process of prioritizing casualties for treatment and evacuation of the wounded within the limitations of the situation and resources<br />
  19. 19. TRIAGE<br />PRIORITIES<br />1. You - Get out of danger<br />2. Life – Check ABC, stop bleeding<br />3. Disability - Limb/Eye sight <br />APPROACH<br />People walking to you – Least priority (Priority 3)<br />People who can move but can’t walk – Priority 2<br />No action – Cry for help (Priority 1)<br />
  20. 20. VITAL SIGNS OF LIFE<br />Breathing 12-20 breaths/min<br />Pulse 60-100 beats/min<br />Bld pressure 100/60 - < 140/90 mm Hg<br />4. Temperature 370C 98.6 F<br />5. Capillary return 2-3 seconds<br />6. Cyanosis<br />
  21. 21. BREATHING<br />Don’t tell the patient<br />Observe chest movements<br /> abdominal movements<br />Put your ears to nose <br />Normally 12-20/min<br />Can increase in mountains<br />
  22. 22. PULSE<br />CAROTID PULSE<br />
  23. 23. PULSE<br />
  24. 24. BLOOD PRESSURE<br />
  25. 25. TEMPERATURE<br />Below tongue<br />Axilla in kids<br /> 370C 98.6 F <br />Pulse increases with<br />increasing temperature<br />
  26. 26. CAPILLARY RETURN<br />Assess blood supply in limbs<br />Check at fingers and toes of both sides<br />Normal capillary return 2-3 secs<br />
  27. 27. CYANOSIS<br />Bluish discoloration of body<br />Reduced oxygen in blood<br />First seen in nail beds, ear lobes, lips<br />If tongue goes blue – life threatening<br />Never smoke at higher altitudes<br />
  28. 28. LIFE SUPPORT<br />A – AIRWAY & NECK FRACTURE<br />B – BREATHING & CYANOSIS<br />C – CIRCULATION & BLEEDING CONTROL<br />D – DYSFUNCTION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM<br />E – EXPOSURE & EVACUATION<br />
  29. 29. LIFE SUPPORT<br />A – Talk with patient --- Head tilt and chin lift<br />B – Check rate of breathing and cyanosis<br />C – Check pulse, BP and capillary return<br /> Bleeding – Pressure, elevate, bandage<br />D – Eye/Speech/Body Movements<br /> A- Alert<br /> V- Response to Voice <br /> P- Response to Pain<br /> U- Unresponsive<br />
  30. 30. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION<br />Required when patient is not breathing<br />Exhale air in a patients chest<br />Mouth to Mouth<br />Mouth to Nose<br />
  31. 31. CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION<br />Revive the cardio-respiratory system<br />
  32. 32. CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION<br />Chest Thump<br />Give 15 chest compressions<br />Give 2 mouth to mouth breaths<br />15:2 ratio to be followed<br />Continue for 15/45 mins<br />
  33. 33. CASUALTY EVACUATION<br />PRINCIPLES OF EVACUATION<br />Evacuate only if fit for evacuation<br />Foresee peak evacuation period and be prepared<br />Priority for more seriously ill<br />Due care during evacuation<br />CAS EVAC<br />Evacuation done by non medical people<br />MED EVAC<br />Specialised evacuation by trained medical personnel<br />
  34. 34. SINGLE PERSON HELP<br />SUPPORT CARRY<br />SADDLEBACK CARRY<br />ARMS CARRY<br />
  35. 35. SINGLE PERSON HELP<br />FIREMAN’S LIFT<br />PACKSTRAP CARRY<br />
  36. 36. TWO PERSON HELP<br />TWO MAN SUPPORT CARRY<br />TWO MAN ARMS CARRY<br />
  37. 37. TWO PERSON HELP<br />FOUR HAND SEAT CARRY<br />FORE & AFT LIFT CARRY<br />
  38. 38. IMPROVISED STRETCHERS<br />GUNNY BAG<br />BLANKET<br />BELTS<br />
  39. 39. IMPROVISED STRETCHERS<br />GROUND SHEET<br />SHIRTS<br />ROPE<br />
  40. 40. AIR AMBULANCE<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Questions<br />
  43. 43. Thank you<br />

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