The Stories We Construct

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How are stories constructed? // The things we buy, the decisions we make, how we spend our time— stories govern all these actions. But how are these stories constructed? Specifically, what have we …

How are stories constructed? // The things we buy, the decisions we make, how we spend our time— stories govern all these actions. But how are these stories constructed? Specifically, what have we learned about how our brains make sense of and integrate new information?

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  • 1. TheStoriesWe Constructpresented byStephen P. Anderson
  • 2. www.getmentalnotes.comwww.getmentalnotes.com
  • 3. GUIDE BEHAVIOR IN EVERY MOMENT FRAME HOW WEFRAME HOW WE SEE THE PAST NARRATIVES SEE OURSELVES IN THE FUTURE GUIDE BEHAVIOR IN EVERY MOMENT
  • 4. “Interesting, but...”
  • 5. imagination or narrative?both are overlays on whatever is “real”
  • 6. People assume that they perceive reality asit is, that our senses accurately record theoutside world. Yet the science suggests that,in important ways, people experiencereality not as it is, but as they expect it to be.—Jonah Lehrer http://scienceblogs.com/cortex/2008/02/the_power_of_expectations.php
  • 7. THE THINGS WE BUY,THE DECISIONS WE MAKE,HOW WE SPEND OUR TIME--STORIES GOVERN ALL THESE ACTIONS.
  • 8. THE THINGS WE BUY,THE DECISIONS WE MAKE,HOW WE SPEND OUR TIME--STORIES GOVERN ALL THESE ACTIONS.
  • 9. THE THINGS WE BUY,THE DECISIONS WE MAKE,HOW WE SPEND OUR TIME--STORIES WE CONSTRUCTGOVERN ALL THESE ACTIONS.
  • 10. “Essentialism”
  • 11. How much would you pay for this pen?
  • 12. You had to be there!Video of my friend Steve talking about his Nakaya Pen http://www.nakaya.org/eindex.html
  • 13. How much would youpay to have this shirt?(Not a copy, but the actual one worn by Steve Jobs when he announced the iPhone!)
  • 14. How much would youpay to have this shirt?(Not a copy, but the actual one worn by Steve Jobs when he announced the iPhone!)
  • 15. Do you want me to wash the shirt before I give it to you?
  • 16. “Positive Contagion Theory” http://books.google.com/books?id=g7qqPdaVrYgC&lpg=PA103&ots=idBa8Fs1uZ&dq=%E2%80%9CPositive%20Contagion%20Theory %E2%80%9D&pg=PA103#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9CPositive%20Contagion%20Theory%E2%80%9D&f=false
  • 17. “How much would you pay for[a famous serial kil er]’s sweater?“
  • 18. (In many states, home sellers are required by law to disclose if a murder previously took place in the house.)
  • 19. brain scans confirmedthat people dont justthink the more expensive(but identical) winetasted better—it actuallyreally did taste better… http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/brainstorm/200803/is-5000-prostitute-worth-the-price
  • 20. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/04/AR2007040401721.html
  • 21. Vermeer ...or Han van Meegeren? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_van_Meegeren
  • 22. GUIDE BEHAVIOR IN EVERY MOMENT FRAME HOW WEFRAME HOW WE SEE THE PAST NARRATIVES SEE OURSELVES IN THE FUTURE GUIDE BEHAVIOR IN EVERY MOMENT
  • 23. DIRECT EXPERIENCES SOMATIC MOOD/AFFECT MARKERS SOCIAL PROOFSELF-IMAGE NARRATIVES EXPECTATIONS PHYSICAL KNOWLEDGE ASSOCIATIONS FRAMING MEMORIES ASSOCIATED METAPHORS
  • 24. THE THINGS WE BUY,THE DECISIONS WE MAKE,HOW WE SPEND OUR TIME--STORIES WE CONSTRUCTGOVERN ALL THESE ACTIONS.HOW ARE THESE STORIES CONSTRUCTED?
  • 25. FIRST, AN INTRODUCTION TO THE BRAIN! (Volunteers needed)
  • 26. You had to be there! We role-played how the brain makes a decision.
  • 27. COGN ITIONEXTERNAL PERCEPTION Limbic CenterSTIMULUS (VIA THE SENSES) *which aren’t all that reliable! (focus on the Hippocampus & Amygdale) (most primitive, seat of unconsciousness, drives)BEHAVIOR CONSCIOUS CHOICE Pre-Frontal Cortex (VIA MOTOR CENTERS) (consciousness, meaning, choice) “Cortext“ Long-term memory of representations MEMORY (REPRESENTATIONS)
  • 28. REPRESENTATIONS & ASSOCIATIONS(also why I started thinking about “how“ stories are constructed...)
  • 29. REPRESENTATIONS & ASSOCIATIONS
  • 30. Who is this?How do you know?
  • 31. What is this?Does the tree know that it’s a tree?
  • 32. Why do we know these are all the letter A?A A A A AA A A A AA AA A AA AA A A
  • 33. What is this? How do you know?
  • 34. (close your eyes) What is this sound? How do you know?
  • 35. What is this girl feeling?http://www.flickr.com/photos/49503002894@N01/3680138/
  • 36. What happens if you touch this?
  • 37. What happens if you touch this?
  • 38. EPISODIC MYTHICREPRESENTATIONS REPRESENTATIONS THEORETIC MIMETIC REPRESENTATIONS REPRESENTATIONS SCHEMAS CHUNKING ? CONCEPTUAL BLENDS METAREPRESENTATIONS CONCEPTUAL FRAMES / SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IMAGE SCHEMA PATTERNS SITUATION MODELS SYMBOLS SOMATIC MARKERS OBJECTS
  • 39. REPRESENTATIONS & ASSOCIATIONS
  • 40. Video clip from Ratatouille (Anton Ego’s nostalgia scene)
  • 41. Remember mind maps?
  • 42. www.getmentalnotes.comwww.getmentalnotes.com
  • 43. !"
  • 44. www.getmentalnotes.comwww.getmentalnotes.com
  • 45. www.getmentalnotes.comwww.getmentalnotes.com
  • 46. www.getmentalnotes.comwww.getmentalnotes.com
  • 47. LIST A FEW MOVIES PIXAR HAS MADE.
  • 48. a person reads a list of words includingthe word table...later: “complete a word starting with tab”(probability that subject answers table ishigher than for non-primed people.)
  • 49. “aesthetic”associations www.getmentalnotes.com www.getmentalnotes.com
  • 50. Bouba-Kiki Effect
  • 51. http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/104/moto.html
  • 52. Ready for the freaky stuff? literal-metaphorical confusions
  • 53. Volunteers would meet one of the experimenters,believing that they would be starting the experimentshortly. In reality, the experiment began when theexperimenter, seemingly struggling with an armful offolders, asks the volunteer to briefly hold their coffee.As the key experimental manipulation, the coffee waseither hot or iced. Subjects then read a description ofsome individual... Students who had recently been cradling the warm beverage were far likelier to judge the fictitious character as warm and friendly than were those who had held the iced coffee. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/14/this-is-your-brain-on-metaphors/
  • 54. Subjects either did or didn’t read an articleabout the health risks of airborne bacteria. Allthen read a history article that used imagery ofa nation as a living organism with statementslike, “Following the Civil War, the UnitedStates underwent a growth spurt.” Those who read about scary bacteria before thinking about the U.S. as an organism were then more likely to express negative views about immigration. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/14/this-is-your-brain-on-metaphors/
  • 55. Volunteers were asked to evaluatethe resumes of supposed jobapplicants where, as the criticalvariable, the resume was attachedto a clipboard of one of twodifferent weights. Subjects who evaluated the candidate while holding the heavier clipboard tended to judge candidates to be more serious, with the weight of the clipboard having no effect on how congenial the applicant was judged. After all, we say things like “weighty matter” or “gravity of a situation.” http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/14/this-is-your-brain-on-metaphors/
  • 56. !"#$%&()*+,%*+-).%$.-*/%0,#12$%.%&#1(%"#2"3/1(%4+.+*2$5
  • 57. 64),,/1.%7/,$#18
  • 58. “designated driver”
  • 59. “Stories, powerful stuff. Got it. What next?”
  • 60. http://www.poetpainter.com/thoughts/article/classifying-experiences
  • 61. communications layer presentation layer The ‘thing’ itself perceptions
  • 62. COMPANY SPACEcommunications layer presentation layer The ‘thing’ itself perceptions PERSONAL SPACE
  • 63. COMPANY SPACE EM PH AS S IS ON IS O EMPHA BR AND N ECT communications layer BUI DIR G LD AGIN ING M ESS presentation layerTRANSACTIONAL The ‘thing’ itself ENGAGING perceptions AP PE TO AL RE S TO AS A LS ON PE S AP T ION E MO PERSONAL SPACE
  • 64. COMPANY SPACE EM PH AS S IS ON IS O EMPHA BR AND N ECT communications layer BUI DIR G LD AGIN ING M ESS presentation layer The ‘thing’ itselfRATIONAL EMOTIONAL perceptions AP PE TO AL RE S TO AS A LS ON PE S AP T ION E MO PERSONAL SPACE
  • 65. http://www.poetpainter.com/thoughts/article/classifying-experiences
  • 66. http://www.poetpainter.com/thoughts/article/classifying-experiences
  • 67. WE SEEK TO UNDERSTAND THE WORLD THROUGH COHERENT STORIES.STORIES ARE IN OUR HEADS AND CHANGING ALL THE TIME.STORIES ARE CONSTRUCTED THROUGH ASSOCIATIONS.STORIES DRIVE BEHAVIOR.
  • 68. “What is your story?”
  • 69. Th an ks!!Stephen P. Andersonwww.slideshare.net/stephenpa@stephenandersonwww.poetpainter.comwww.getmentalnotes.com