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Biology teacher Biology teacher Presentation Transcript

  • Dr. Chambers
    Animal Development
  • I. The Stages of Early Development
    A.Epigenesis
    -The idea that an animal emerges gradually from a relatively formless egg
    -Proposed by Aristotle 2,000 years before the idea of preformation embryos within embryos
  • b. Fertilization
    Acrosomal reaction
    Sperm+Egg
    Hydrolytic enzymes digest through material substance of cell
    Activates egg and brings together the nucleic of sperm and egg
    Mammalian fertilization- Cortical Reaction hardens a zona as a block to polyspermy
    Cortical Reaction-Lets only one sperm in and then blocks off
  • C. Cleavage
    -A period of rapid cell division without growth
    -Result=blastomeres=large number of cells
    -Holoblastic
    Complete division of egg
    Yolk-rich eggs
    -Meroblastic
    Incomplete division of egg
    Yolk-rich eggs
    -Creates blastula, a multicellularball, which contains the blastocoel
  • -Rearranges the blastula to form a three-layered embryo with a primitive gut
    -Transforms blastula into a gastrula
    -The gastrula contains the archenteron and three embryonic germ layers: the ectoderm, the endoderm, and the mesoderm
    D. Gastrulation
  • E. Organogenesis
    -Organs form from the three embryonic layers
    -Includes:
    -Formation of the notochord by condensation of dorsal mesoderm
    -Development of the neural tube from folding of the ectodermal neural plate
    -Formation of the coelom from splitting of lateral mesoderm
  • -Develop in a fluid-filled sac within a shell or uterus
    -Meroblastic cleavage in the eggs of birds and reptiles is restricted to a small disc of cytoplasm at the animal pole
    -The blastodisc forms and begins gastrulation with the formation of the primitive streak.
    -Three germ layers give rise to the four extraembryonicmembranes:the yolk sac, amnion, chorion, and allantois.
    -Eggs of placenta mammals=small, store little food, and exhibit holoblasticcleavage w/no obvious polarity
    -Gastrulation and organogenesis resemble the processes in birds and reptiles
    F. Amniote Embryos
  • -After fertilization, and early cleavage in the oviduct, the blastocyst implants in the uterus
    -Trophoblastbegins formation of fetal portion of the placenta
    -Embryo proper develops from a single layer of cell, the epiblast, within the blastocyst.
    -Membranes homologous to birds and reptiles function in intrauterine development
    F. Amniote Embryos cont.
  • II. The Cellular And Molecular Basis of Morphogenesis and Differentiation In Animals
    A. Morphogenesis
    Cytoskeletal rearrangements are responsible for changes in both shape and position of cells
    Involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and adhesion
    Cell adhesion molecules on cell surfaces are also important for cell migration and for holding cells together in tissues
    The extracellular matrix provides anchorage for cells and also helps guide migrating cells toward their destinations
  • B. Fate Mapping
    -Can reveal cell genealogies in chordate embryos
    -Maps of embryos have shown that specific regions of the zygote or blastula develop into specific parts of older embryos
  • C. Eggs of Vertebrates
    -Have cytoplasmic determinants that help establish the body axes and differences among cells of the early embryo
    -Cytoplasmic determinants serve as the basis for setting up differences among parts of the egg
    -Cells that receive different cytoplasmic determinants undergo different fates
  • -Drive differentiation and pattern formation in vertebrates
    -In a developing embryo, cells interpret positional info that varies w/ location
    -Info=form of signal molecules
    -Special “organizer regions
    Dorsal lip of the blastopore
    Apical ectodermal ridge of the vertebrate limb bud
    -Signal molecules influence gene expression in the cells that take them
    Leading to differentiation and the development of particular structures
    D. Inductive Signals