Unit 6 reproduction


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Unit 6 reproduction

  1. 1. Unit 6 - The Miracle of Life Reproduction and Development Puberty Myths
  2. 2. I. Reproduction A. Importance 1. Sustain species, prevent extinction 2. Create new genetic combinations B. Types 1. Asexual Genetic clones of parents Bacteria, plants and a variety of animals can reproduce asexually
  3. 3. I. Reproduction 2. Sexual a) Create new genetic variations b) Fertilization = joining of sex cells (sperm and egg) External Internal c) Development = differentiation and maturation of fertilized egg External Internal
  4. 4. Reproduction and Development in Animals Unit Packet Union inside of body Union outside of body Growth/nourishment inside of body of parent Growth/nourishment outside of body of parent Large # of sex cells Water Specialized organs Mating rituals Increased chances of fertilization lower #’s of sex cells Decreased chances of fertilization Parents do not need to at same place at the same time Both parents need to be present Frogs, many fish, sponges, coral Birds, some fish, mammals, reptiles Water or shell (if on land) Chances of survival are low Specialized organs to hold developing egg No need for parental care - parent need not be present Increase in energy by parent to carry offspring Frogs, many fish, reptiles, birds, sponges Mammals, some sharks, some snakes Increased chances of offspring survival Fertilization Requirement Advantages Disadvantages Examples External Internal Development Requirement Advantages Disadvantages Examples External Internal
  5. 5. I. Reproduction C. Human 1. Male reproductive structures a) Scrotum External sac that contains testes Helps control the temperature of the testes by raising towards or lowering away from the body Temperature is 1-3 o C lower than body temperature b) Testis produces hormone testosterone Made up seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production) c) Epididymus Site of sperm maturation and storage
  6. 6. The Male Reproductive System (Figure 39–12) Section 39-3 See page 14 In the Unit Packet
  7. 7. scrotum testis epididymus vas deferens Seminal vesicle prostate gland bulbourethral gland urethra penis urinary bladder
  8. 8. I. Reproduction d) Vas deferens Passageway for sperm from the testes to the urethra Collects fluids from 3 different glands to produce seminal fluids (fluids + sperm = semen) e) Seminal vesicle Fluid producing gland - adds sugar (fructose) and acid neutralizing fluid to vas deferens/sperm f) Prostate gland Adds to seminal fluid - sugars, basic solution g) Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) gland Basic solution and lubricant
  9. 9. I. Reproduction h) Urethra Passageway for urine and semen to exit the body Starts at the bladder travels out through the penis i) Penis External organ that is inserted into the vagina and deposits semen into the woman 2. Male Secondary Sex Characteristics a) Maturation (puberty) signaled by the hormone FSH - stimulates testes to produce testosterone b) Testosterone - causes different responses in different cells 1. Shoulders broaden 2. larynx enlarges (voice gets deeper) 3. pubic hair grows 4. facial hair grows 5. muscles develop
  10. 10. 3. Female reproductive structures a) ovaries Produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone Contains follicles that mature into ova (eggs) b) fallopian tubes (oviducts) Passageway from the ovary to the uterus Fertilization usually takes place here Cilia lines the tube to help sweep the ovum to the uterus c) uterus (womb) Muscular organ that develops a lining that will help nourish a fertilized egg Area that the fetus will develop I. Reproduction
  11. 11. I. Reproduction d) cervix Opening between the uterus and vagina e) vagina (birth canal) Insertion area for penis Location where sperm are deposited Passage for baby during normal birth 4. Female Secondary Sex Characteristics a) onset of puberty caused by FSH b) production of estrogen by ovaries causes changes in body 1) widening of hips 2) development of breasts 3)maturation of reproductive system
  12. 12. The Female Reproductive System ( Figure 39–14) See page 14 in the Unit Packet
  13. 13. ovary fallopian tube uterus cervix vagina labia minor labia major clitoris urinary bladder urethra anus
  14. 14. See page 15 in Unit Packet
  15. 15. II. Hormonal cycles A. Male FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates the maturation of the testes Testes produce testosterone to produce sperm Testosterone levels stay nearly the same levels for the remaining life of the male B. Female Menstrual cycle - involves a variety of hormones that fluctuate throughout a 28 day period (lab 31) Prepares a woman’s uterus and body to carry and nourish a developing child
  16. 16. Unit Packet pg 30
  17. 17. III. Contraception A. Definition Preventing the union of egg and sperm B. Types (see page 23-24 in unit packet) 1) Mechanical - introducing a barrier between egg and sperm Examples - condom (male,female), diaphragm, cervical cap, vasectomy, tubal ligation
  18. 18. III. Contraception 2) Chemical - prevents gamete formation or implantation; kills gametes Examples - The pill, Norplant, IUD, spermicidal jelly/foams, douche 3) Behavioral - change in pattern of sexual intercourse Examples - abstinence, rhythm method
  19. 19. IV. Fertilization /Development A. Fertilization location = fallopian tubes (usually) takes 7-10 days to travel into uterus and implant B. Stages of Development 1) pre-implantation Zygote = fertilized egg (1 cell) Embryo = > 1 cell Morula = 64 cells Blastocyst = hollow ball of cells
  20. 20. IV. Fertilization /Development 2) Implantation Blastocyst attaches to the uterine lining Differentiation (specialization of cells) begins 3) Gastrulation - formation of 3 embryonic germ layers Endoderm - lining of digestive, respiratory, reproductive tracts Mesoderm - muscle, bone, blood vessels, organs of urogenital system Ectoderm - epidermis, nervous tissue, tooth enamel, cornea/lens of eye
  21. 21. page 35 in unit packet
  22. 22. page 34 in unit packet
  23. 23. Fertilization and Implantation Implantation of blastocyst Day 7 Fertilization Day 4 Day 3 Day 2 Day 1 Day 0 Egg released by ovary Uterine wall Blastocyst Morula 4 cells 2 cells Zygote Ovary Fallopian tube
  24. 24. V. Human Development A. Extraembryonic membranes 1. Chorion develops into the placenta (along with the uterine lining) Placenta Embryo’s organ for respiration, nourishment and excretion Acts as a barrier against some pathogens (not HIV or German measles) Umbilical cord connects fetus to placenta 2. Amnion - develops into the amniotic sac Amniotic sac fluid filled sac that cushions and protects the fetus.
  25. 25.   The Placenta (figure 39–22)
  26. 26. V. Human Development B. Stages of development show video clip 1. 1st Trimester (0-3 months) Most development occurs Placenta, amniotic sac forms All organs systems form by 7th week Sex organs of child develop by week 9 Fetus by week 14
  27. 27. V. Human Development B. Stages of development 2. 2nd Trimester (4-6 months) Tissues become more complex and specialized Heart can be heard Bone replaces cartilage Hair starts to cover skin Mother feels fetus moving
  28. 28. V. Human Development B. Stages of development 3. 3rd Trimester (7-9months) Organ systems mature Largest growth in size and mass (doubles) Central Nervous system and lungs develops (“breathing occurs”) Regulation of body temperature begins 4. Childbirth Oxytocin is released to stimulate uterine contractions Amniotic sac ruptures due to contractions Cervix dilates to allow child to enter birth canal
  29. 29. 6 Weeks