5.1Ecosystems are made up of the interacting biotic and abiotic factors composed of the following: Thebiotic factors are composed of the following: species, habitat, population, community. Autotrophproduce their food. Heterotroph’s consume it. Heterotrophs are made up of consumer, detrivores,saphrotrophs. Auto’s are eaten by consumer, which are eaten by other consumers, and so on until thedecomposers decompose the consumer back into the base components which are sucked up by theautotrophs again. A single line tracing animal consumption is called a food chain. Multiple food chainsmake a food web. Light is the original source of all energy. Not even close to 100% efficient. 90% of theenergy is lost per trophic level. Plant to consumer is one trophic level. That consumer to another isanother trophic level. Energy enters and leaves, nutrients recycled. Saphrotrophs recycle the nutrients.The abiotic factors are made up of the: hydrosphere ,atmosphere, lithosphere,. They interact with thebiosphere at the pedosphereTopic 5.2As humans population and activity increases the amount of concentrations of Carbon dioxide, Nitrousdioxide and methane. All three of those gases have high potential for absorbing heat and climateexperts are concerned that gases are intensifying earth’s natural green house effect to a point where itis being thrown off balance. As global temperature changes these things might happenAn increase in Photosynthetic ratesChanges in climate with varying effects on ecosystemsExtinction of certain speciesMelting glaciersRise in sea levels which can cause flooding in some coastal areasTopic 5.3Population growth is described with Plateau Phase, Exponential Phase, Mortality, and Transition Phase.Plateau Phase- Is also the carrying capacity. Carrying Capacity is the maximum size a population canhold. Mortality is greater than natality.Exponential Phase- Rate of population growth is rapid as recourse is abundant and competition andmortality are low.Morality- The death rateTransition Phase- Natality is greater than Mortality but the difference begins to tighten. Birth rate is alsodecreasing.
Random Sample- When you take a sample from an environment in different areas to take account ofdifferent population which is accounted randomly to make sure every specie gets accounted for a fairestimate of population. -Capture and Release Method: Allows animals to be captured and marked in order to find outthe population. It is a method that can be done mathematically when you take into account of themarked animals the first and second time to compare how many are actually marked for the secondsample. The Calculation is the # of animals initially caught, marked and released multiplied by the total# of animals caught 2md time, and divided by the 3 of marked animals in the 2nd sample, to allow theestimate of the population size in an environment. -Quadrant Method- Used for plant population can be done quickly by gathering areas andcounting the # of plants and multiplying the area of the multiple quadrants. Accurate estimates can beobtained more quickly than if every plant in population is counted. Chapter 5.4- EvolutionDefinition: The process of cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a populationThis was developed by Charles Darwin.Evidence for Evolution:Fossil records- Life existed 500 million years ago, very different from today Fish fossils have been found in rocks
Top predators today are bears, orca, whales, big cats, wolves; all of which did not exist before dinosaurs Sharks, cockroaches and ferns did not have identifiable forms in fossil formArtificial selection:Breeding helps scientists understand evolution. Animals such as cattle, horses, dogs, sheep,pigeons provide records of recent changes of heritable changesFrom breeding hundreds of times, all heritable traits could be found and later combined incombinations that did not exist before; this is all driven by human force.Homologous anatomical structures:Structures that are similar between several different species can also help us show that we hadoriginal ancestry. For example whales have a similar fin structure to human hands.Mechanisms for evolution-Too many offspring:Because of the vast number of offspring being produced, resources would become limited andonly the best would survive. Organisms would make adaptations to become better and gainaccess to those resources easier to help them survive.Variation with populations:When animals sexually reproduce, billions of different combinations can be made thusfacilitating variation such as different beaks or larger feathers.Variation and success:The amount of variation caused relates to how successful those variations were. If the variationscaused success those variations will continue to occur and be kept in the gene pool.Causes of variety- Mutations in DNA Sexual reproduction promoting variation in speciesDNA replication can cause DNA to slightly change in certain areas.In sexual reproduction, meiosis and fertilization cause variation because DNA is exchanged andonly have of each organism’s DNA is contributed.Natural selection:
Overproduction of offspring results in variation in order to keep the organism alive for generations. Things such as size are affected. Organisms with poor traits do not survive and do not pass their genes out, in a way perfecting the organism from poor traits Individuals with good adaptations survive longer and pass on their genes Those organisms gather more resources and have a better chance of reaching maturityExamples:Bacteria become resistant to certain antibiotics from going through treatments. Certain resistantbacteria survive and thus replicate and create a population of antibiotic resistant bacteria.Topic 5.5Taxonomy: is a practice and science of classificationKingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, speciesSpecies: group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Homo sapien (first genus, then species. Genus capitalized, species lower cased. Italicized)