Italian renaissance 15th century

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  • SCHEMATIC DRAWING OF FLORENCE CATHEDRALThe separate, central-plan building in front of the façade is the baptistery. Adjacent to the façade is a tall tower designed by Giotto in 1334. [Fig. 20-03]
  • Filippo Brunelleschi DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL (SANTA MARIA DEL FIORE)1420-1436; lantern completed 1471. [Fig. 20-02]
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (continued by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo) INTERIOR (A) AND PLAN (B) OF CHURCH OF SAN LORENZO, FLORENCEc. 1421-1428; nave (designed 1434?) 1442-1470. [Fig. 20-04b]
  • Perugino CHRIST GIVING THE KEYS TO ST. PETER, WITH A SCHEMATIC DRAWING SHOWING THE ORTHOGONALS AND VANISHING POINTFresco on the right wall of the Sistine Chapel (see FIG. 20-33), Vatican, Rome. 1481. 11'5-1/2" × 18'8-1/2" (3.48 × 5.70 m). [Fig. 20-18b]
  • VIEW OF THE SISTINE CHAPEL SHOWING PAINTINGS COMMISSIONED FOR THE SIDE WALLS BY POPE SIXTUS IVVatican, Rome. At lower right, Perugino's Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter,c. 1480-1482. 11'5-1/2" × 18'8-1/2" (3.48 × 5.70 m). [Fig. 20-33]
  • Italian renaissance 15th century

    1. 1. Italian Renaissance: 15th Century 1400-1500 In Italian city-states: Ferrara, Florence, Mantua, Naples, Rome, Venice, etc.
    2. 2. So what’s up with the “Early Renaissance” in Italy in the 15th century? • The fine arts are greatly influenced by CLASSICAL styles in literature, history, philosophy, art, architecture, etc. • HUMANISM emerges – stresses secular alongside religious • LINEAR PERSPECTIVE is realized – artists create realistic paintings (look 3-D) • Best understanding of human anatomy we’ve seen so far, large-scale nude sculpture • Architecture emphasizes open light spaces, symmetry, and balance
    3. 3. Soooooo…. What’s going on in terms of history? • Italian city-states are controlled by ruling families who dominate politics. They were ALSO big spenders when it came to the arts. They loved cutting-edge movements in art and architecture. They were hip! They embellished their palaces with innovative paintings (Uccello, Boticelli….more about these guys in a bit) • The ruling families commissioned architecture – always trying to outdo each other!
    4. 4. • HUMANISM comes about – less attention on religious themes, more concerned with secular subjects (finally!!!) • Artists encouraged to explore Italy’s pagan past as it related to modern life. • European explorers venture out = knowledge! • Growth/appreciation of the sciences and arts ITALY in the 15th century
    5. 5. What’s up with patrons in Italy in the 15th century? • Powerful families have private chapels dedicated to them in their local churches – artists paint murals in these chapels – enhances the spirituality of the place • Many paintings in the Early Renaissance are identified as being from “patron’s chapels” • Patron’s influence is seen in many ways: how much gold is on an altarpiece? Which family member gets the prime spot in a painting? Sometimes they’re more prominent in paintings than the holy figures! Humanism I guess!?
    6. 6. INNOVATIONS!
    7. 7. • Architecture is taken to new heights (literally!) in the building of the dome for FLORENCE CATHEDRAL • Designed by Brunelleschi – used totally new technique • Older domes didn’t have as much vertical thrust. This one is impressive in the city skyline!
    8. 8. • Dome is OGIVAL arch shape • Brunelleschi invented a technique of putting one dome inside another – maximizes strength and stability
    9. 9. LANTERN at top anchors the domes in place
    10. 10. • Architecture: order, clarity, and light • Darkness and mystery is now barbaric! What were those Romanesque and Gothic people thinking? • Buildings now have much wider window spaces, limited stained glass, and vivid wall paintings
    11. 11. • Mathematics important in engineering these buildings! • Geometric designs stressed • Harmony achieved by using ideal proportions (Vitruvius proclaims these in an architectural treatise) San Lorenzo (more about this later)
    12. 12. • Ratios, proportions, various elements, etc. express humanistic ideals • Often have unvaulted naves with coffered ceilings (like early Christian!) San Lorenzo (more about this later)
    13. 13. Proportions galore! • Crossing is 2X the nave • Nave is 2X the side aisles • Side aisles 2X the side chapels
    14. 14. • Arches and columns take up 2/3 of the height of the nave • Logical expression even shows in floor patterns. Here in San Lorenzo, the white and gray marble lines demarcate the spaces 1/3 2/3
    15. 15. • Palaces in Florence have dominating facades that rise three stories from street level, very austere looking • First floor = public areas with business transactions, very rusticated (rough cut stones), heavily articulated stone • Second floor = much lighter, strong horizontal marking the ceiling of one story and the floor of another • Third floor = even more lightness, less articulation of stone, heavy cornice caps off the roof (like Roman temples) • This is the PALAZZO MEDICI-RICCARDI. Let’s see the inside...
    16. 16. Family’s private quarters is on second floor
    17. 17. Time to look at 15th century Italian architecture in more detail…
    18. 18. Filippo Brunelleschi DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL (SANTA MARIA DEL FIORE) 1420-1436; lantern completed 1471 • Raised on a drum to increase height, meant to be experienced from inside and outside • Built without centering devices – architectural accomplishment of the time! • Double dome, two shells – light exterior shell, heavy interior dome • Fun walkway circling between two domes allows for maintenance and a darn good workout! • Lantern at top anchors the ribs of the dome in place
    19. 19. This is what it looks like when you’re climbing the inside of Brunelleschi’s dome
    20. 20. SAN LORENZO, by Filippo Brunelleschi, 1421-1469, Florence, Italy
    21. 21. •Look at the ceiling- similar to Early Christian wooden type •Rectangular floor grids define the spaces •Ratios galore: nave = two aisles, aisles = two side chapels •Interior is cool and harmonious, sparse decoration •Light and airy, not much stained glass
    22. 22. PLAN OF CHURCH OF SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE
    23. 23. PAZZI CHAPEL, by Filippo Brunelleschi designed in 1423, Florence, Italy
    24. 24. •Rectangular chapel attached to church of Santa Croce in Florence
    25. 25. •Two barrel vaults on interior •Small dome over crossing •Restrained sense of color •Muted tones •Glazed terra-cotta tiles
    26. 26. PALAZZO MEDICI-RICCARDI by Michelozzo, 1444, Florence, Italy •Remember the differences between the three floors? •Interior courtyard allows light into interior rooms •Expresses civic pride and political power of Medici family •Very symmetrical
    27. 27. PALAZZO RUCELLAI, by Leon Battista 1452-1470, Florence, Italy
    28. 28. •Three separate floors Tuscan, Alberti (ionic-ish), Corinthian •Separated by clear “stringcourse” •Pilasters divide space into squarish shapes •Strong cornice @ top •Not rustic like Michelozzo’s palazzo •Masonry joints are beveled •Different style pilasters •Friezes have Rucellai family symbols – billowing sails
    29. 29. SANT’ ANDREA by Leon Battista Alberti 1470 Mantua, Italy
    30. 30. •Do you see the Roman triumphal arch and ancient temple façade •Huge pilasters on either side of arch •Pilasters support pediment •First Roman triumphal arch in Christian architecture
    31. 31. •Alberti wanted identical width/height on façade •Piazza in front of church is small, so Alberti made a small façade •Large barrel vault canopy hangs over west façade – shields nave window from sun
    32. 32. •Interior has huge barrel vault and no side aisles •Coffered ceiling (reminds us of Pantheon and Early Christian churches)
    33. 33. What’s up with PAINTING in 15th century Italy? •Biggest innovation? LINEAR PERSPECTIVE! – attributed to Filippo Brunelleschi •Brunelleschi developed linear perspective while drawing the Florence Cathedral Baptistery •Artists started showing objects, scenery, and people IN PROPORTION to one another (gasp!) – unlike Medieval art (where people dominate composition) •Artists exploit linear perspective – create different artistic effects (intentionally fooled the viewer’s eye) •TROMP L’OEIL TECHNIQUE: “trick the eye” •Perspective even used in sculpture (carved at different depths to create a sense of space)
    34. 34. What are we going to see in 15th Century Italian paintings? •Religious scenes (what a surprise!) – in the early 15th century •Portraits, mythological scenes, and other depictions of humanist ideals and aspirations – in the later 15th century •Exploration of the nude (especially male) •Scenes in correct perspective!
    35. 35. The first signs of One Point Perspective Brunelleschi, was the first architect to use mathematical perspective in creating designs for buildings during the early Renaissance.
    36. 36. Before one point perspective was introduced, artists had to guess where the lines of buildings would go in their drawings. These drawings tended to look skewed and awkward.
    37. 37. BEFORE PERSPECTIVE AFTER PERSPECTIVE
    38. 38. Let’s play Brunelleschi! Draw a horizon line across your paper Put the vanishing point on the horizon line
    39. 39. Draw a square or rectangle on the left side of your paper below the horizon line
    40. 40. Create the orthogonal lines by connecting three corners of your square or rectangle to the vanishing point
    41. 41. Draw a horizontal line to create the top of your form
    42. 42. Draw a vertical line to create the side of your form
    43. 43. Erase your remaining orthogonal lines HOORAY, you mastered one-point perspective!
    44. 44. EXPERIMENT! HAVE FUN BEING CREATIVE!
    45. 45.  Can you locate the Horizon Line?  How did you determine this?  Can you find the vanishing point in this picture?
    46. 46. Can you locate the vanishing point?
    47. 47. And just when you thought the art lesson was over…
    48. 48. 2-point perspective!
    49. 49. HOORAY, Brunelleschi is so proud of you!
    50. 50. Time for some paintings!
    51. 51. Adoration of the Magi by: Gentile da Fabriano 1423 Tempera on panel, Florence
    52. 52. •Patrons: The Strozzi family - Figures in fancy dress – “courtly” outing to see baby Jesus at the Epiphany – shows Strozzi $$$
    53. 53. •Exotic animals reflect private zoos of Renaissance princes •Gold leaf used in frame and in painting (fancy!)
    54. 54. •Kings are shown at various ages – symbolizes the ages of man
    55. 55. •Look at all that activity at the horizon line! •Animals seen at different angles – naturalism!
    56. 56. Let’s take a closer look at this…
    57. 57. IDENTIFY COMPLETELY: (e.g. artist, title, date, medium, size, etc.)
    58. 58. STYLISTIC PERIOD or CULTURE: (When/Where – This is different from merely knowing the date.)
    59. 59. SUBJECT/ICONOGRAPHY: (What is the idea/concept? Where and when is this taking place? Who or what is being represented here?)
    60. 60. STYLE/TECHNIQUE: (Analyze the ways in which the artists handle form, color, shape texture, lines, and light. What kinds of material does the artist use? How does the artist apply technique and sense of composition? In what ways do scale and point of view come into play? Analyze the artist’s use of design principles.)
    61. 61. SIGNIFICANCE/FUNCTION/PURPOSE: (How does the work convey social, political, popular or religious values of that culture? What is the unique vision of the artist or patron? What is the purpose of the work and where is its original and intended setting?)
    62. 62. Holy Trinity by: Masaccio 1427 Fresco in Santa Maria Novella Florence, Italy
    63. 63. •Patrons: The Lenzi family (created as a tombstone for the family) •Christ appears in two roles- as the Crucified Christ and as the second person of the Holy Trinity •God (his father) supports him, and the dove of the Holy Spirit is between the two of them •Mary and Saint John flank Christ – they are typically in crucifixion scenes
    64. 64. Mary
    65. 65. Saint John
    66. 66. There’s the Holy Spirit (as a dove, the traditional symbol)
    67. 67. •Triangular figural composition dominated by Brunelleschiinspired architecture
    68. 68. •The patrons (Lenzi family) kneel outside the arch •Faces show realism •Vanishing point at the foot of the cross •Skeleton below painting symbolizes death – inscription reads “I once was what you are; and what I am you will become.”
    69. 69. How it looks in person Check it out in Florence!
    70. 70. Tribute Money, by Masaccio 1425, fresco in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
    71. 71. Shows a moment from the New Testament when Jesus is asked if he should pay tribute to the civil authorities (tax collectors). Jesus tells Peter he should hook a fish from the sea and remove a coin from its mouth – this will more than pay the tax collectors (Jesus didn’t like tax collectors)
    72. 72. One big narrative: - Peter gets money from the fish (left) - Jesus confronts the tax collector (who is a brute!) - Peter pays tax collector (right) - Narrative moves from center, to left, to right
    73. 73. Give me your tax money!
    74. 74. Peter, go get a fish!
    75. 75. Wow, I found a fish with money in its mouth!
    76. 76. Here’s your stupid tax money, now scram! Thank you, maybe I’ll use it to buy some pants.
    77. 77. •Modern debate over taxation to support a war against Milan – this painting might be related to that •Check out the perspective (linear and atmospheric) •Figures are dominant and cast shadows on ground
    78. 78. Expulsion from the Garden of Eden by Masaccio 1425, fresco in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
    79. 79. •Bold use of nude forms (so much for all that modesty we saw up until now! •Intense expressions: Adam hides his face in shame, Eve hides her body in shame •Bleak background = desolation outside the Garden of Eden •Check out how the angel is foreshortened. Good job, Masaccio!
    80. 80. Poor Adam and Eve!
    81. 81. Before and after restoration. What a cool job!
    82. 82. Here it is in context in Santa Maria del Carmine
    83. 83. Battle of San Romano, by Paolo Uccello 1455, tempera on wood, check it out at the National Gallery in London!
    84. 84. •Battle between Florence and Siena in 1432 •One of three paintings in Lorenzo de’ Medici’s bedroom •Niccolo da Tolentino (on white horse) leads the charge!
    85. 85. •Looks more like a ceremony than a battle. Horses look like toys! •Strong use of perspective and vanishing points and orthogonals in figures and weapons
    86. 86. Annunciation, by Fra Angelico, 1438-1447, fresco
    87. 87. Mary What’s up, Gabriel?
    88. 88. Mary, I’ve got some interesting news! The Angel Gabriel
    89. 89. •Painted at the top of the stairs of the dormitory entrance – architecture of painting reflects the architecture of the monastery it was painted in
    90. 90. •Serene and religious •Humility of figures •Solid forms – Giotto-like •Smoothly modeled figures with extreme delicacy
    91. 91. •Spare environment, focus is on the figures’ gestures and simple setting •Corinthian capitals •Brunelleschi-like arches
    92. 92. The Last Supper, by Andrea del Castagno 1447, fresco, in Sant’ Apollonia, Florence
    93. 93. •Painted for a convent of cloistered nuns •Religious scene of Christ’s last supper with the Apostles – this was in the convent’s dining hall •Red brick in painting matches red brick tiles in the convent (not shown)
    94. 94. •Figures are individualized, but little communication between them •Everything is in sharp focus with precise edges
    95. 95. •Judas is on “our” side of the table, apart from the others to symbolize his (and our) guilt. He is eating before Christ has blessed the food (how rude!) •Marble pattern on wall behind his head symbolizes lightning pointing to his head (he is the betrayer!)
    96. 96. Christ’s hand is blessing the food while Judas’s hand already has bread in it
    97. 97. •Six marble panels on left and back walls, four panels and two windows on right wall (This implies that the room is square, but does it look square to you?!) •2:1 ratio of loops on stringcourse on back wall – implies the room is rectangular. Mixed messages!!
    98. 98. Battle of Ten Naked Men (Battle of the Nudes), by Antonio del Pollaiuolo, 1465-1470, engraving
    99. 99. •Unknown subject matter – maybe an artist’s study of the nude in action?
    100. 100. •Dense vegetation – contrasts with figures and “pushes” them forward •Imprecise anatomy, but expressive flexed muscles and active poses •Figures seem to be in mirroring positions
    101. 101. Resurrection By Piero della Francesca 1463 Fresco in the Palazzo Comunale (city hall) San Sepolcro, Italy
    102. 102. •Pale colors •Flat background •Man in the center – the height of drama •Geometric shapes inspired by Uccello’s work •Christ is either stepping out of his tomb or has his foot on its lid
    103. 103. •Christ is shown as an enormous figure who conquers all •Holds a labarum – symbol of victory over death •Landscape might symbolize death and new life (live tree/dead tree)
    104. 104. •Morality in landscape: left is bare area with strong and mature trees = the road uphill in life is difficult and steep but ultimately rewarding •Right side is the easy/pretty way – path leads to a country pleasure villa (trees look less mature though)
    105. 105. Room of the Newlyweds, by Andrea Mantegna, 1465-1471, fresco in Ducal Palace, Mantua
    106. 106. •Fresco in a room that was used as a bedroom and reception room (who would mix those purposes?)
    107. 107. •Cube-shaped room “domed” with a painted central panel (there’s no dome, it’s all an illusion!)
    108. 108. •Oculus contains two groups of women leaning over a balustrade around an opening to the sky – some look down at the viewer!
    109. 109. •Crazy cool foreshortening! Angels seen from front and back. They rest their feet on painted ledges. Bird posed overhead is a little unsettling So is the flower pot! It’s only supported by that wooden stick. Look out!
    110. 110. Just for ha ha’s, here’s the rest of the room
    111. 111. Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter by Pietro Perugino 1482, fresco, in the Sistine Chapel in Rome (go see it!)
    112. 112. The Sistine Chapel It’s in here….somewhere
    113. 113. There it is!
    114. 114. •Christ delivers the keys of his earthly kingdom to St. Peter •The Popes loved this theme! They saw themselves as descendants of St. Peter (who started the Christian church)
    115. 115. •Left background: tribute money (not that again!) •Right background: stoning of Christ •Vast piazza in one-point perspective
    116. 116. •Arch of Constantine-like structures in background •Central basilica looks like something Brunelleschi and Alberti would do (Jesus in modern setting. That’s like Jesus in Time Square today!)
    117. 117. •Open space around keys – draws emphasis on them •Figures in contrapposto, heads tilted, knees bent •Many contemporary faces in the crowd (patrons?)
    118. 118. Birth of Venus, by Sandro Botticelli 1485, tempera on canvas (canvas!), Florence
    119. 119. What the heck is going on here?
    120. 120. •Venus emerges (fully grown) from the sea foam with a dreamy, far away look in her eyes •Roses are scattered before her (roses were created at the same time as Venus – thorns = love can be painful)
    121. 121. According to Plato, Venus was an earthly goddess of human physical love, and a heavenly goddess who inspires intellectual love Physical beauty allows the mind to better understand spiritual beauty. Therefore, looking at Venus (who is beautiful) lifts our minds towards God (beautiful, divine love)
    122. 122. •Left: Zephyr (west wind) and Chloris (a nymph) •Right: a handmaiden rushes to clothe Venus •Figures are floating (not anchored on ground) •Crisply drawn figures, many pale colors
    123. 123. •The landscape is flat and unrealistic (what the heck, Botticelli?!) •Simple v-shaped waves •Commissioned by the Medici family
    124. 124. Spring (La Primavera), by Sando Botticelli 1482, tempera on wood, check it out in Florence!
    125. 125. •Left: Mercury holding a caduceus up to the air to dispel storm clouds •Right: a Zephyr reaches out for the nymph Chloris, who transforms into the richly dressed Flora, goddess of Spring
    126. 126. •Left: Mercury holding a caduceus up to the air to dispel storm clouds •Right: a Zephyr reaches out for the nymph Chloris, who transforms into the richly dressed Flora, goddess of Spring
    127. 127. •Three Graces dance together – embodiment of the beauty Venus creates (loose, long hair a symbol of virginity) •Center: Venus (goddess of love and marriage) wears a bridal wreath on her head. Cupid, her son, is above her Cupid points his bow and arrow at the three graces
    128. 128. •Narrow stage setting – figures close to the viewer •May have been painted to celebrate a Medici wedding (fertility symbols –fruit, flowers, spring, Venus, Cupid)
    129. 129. •Large oranges may refer to Medici coat-of-arms
    130. 130. Birth of the Virgin, by Domenico Ghirlandaio 1485-1490, fresco in Santa Maria Novella, Florence
    131. 131. •Religious scene set in a Florentine home. This was a MODERN setting. •St. Anne (Mary’s mother) reclines on the right in her palace room (fancy decorations) •Midwives to St. Anne following Mary’s birth
    132. 132. •Daughter of patron, Giovanni Tornabuoni, is in the center = high status in Florentine society •Upper left corner – story of Mary’s parents, Joachim and Anna, meeting
    133. 133. •Remember that???
    134. 134. Damned Cast into Hell By: Luca Signorelli 1499-1504 Fresco Orvieto Cathedral Orvieto, Italy
    135. 135. •End of the world scene, very common in late 15th century •Heaven is guarded by armored angles in upper right •Devils carry off the damned •This fresco was made to go against the ideas of some Christian heretics who questioned the existence of a distinct place called heaven and a distinct place called hell, and purgatory (between heaven and hell….like a waiting room)
    136. 136. •Impenetrable mass of human bodies in a confused tangle of torment •Many figures die by strangulation •Largest Renaissance treatment of human nudes to date
    137. 137. •Devils are strangely colored in a lurid way (disgusting) – symbolizes their evil
    138. 138. Enough of this madness, let’s see some sculpture! •Interest in HUMANISM and rebirth of Classical sculpture peaks an interest in Greek and Roman sculptures •Medieval artists thought nudes were pagan! •15th century Italian sculptors glorified the nude, like the ancients •Revival of life-size nude sculpture •Increased study of human anatomy •Heroic bodies in stone and bronze
    139. 139. Let’s look at some sculpture made for the Florence Cathedral Baptistery…
    140. 140. Sacrifice of Isaac By Lorenzo Ghiberti 1401-1403 Gilt bronze Florence It’s in the Bargello Museum. A copy was made for the baptistery
    141. 141. •Made for a competition to do a set of bronze doors for Florence Cathedral’s Baptistery. This one (Ghiberti’s) won! Brunelleschi’s lost (we’ll see that in a minute) 
    142. 142. •God asks Abraham to prove his love by sacrificing his son Isaac •Abraham is about to kill Isaac when an angel appears and reveals it’s just God testing Abraham – kill a ram instead. No hard feelings!
    143. 143. •Gothic quatrefoil pattern – had to match Gothic doors already on the Baptistery •Influence of Gothic style – gestures are graceful, sway of Abraham’s body – may have impressed the judges
    144. 144. •Figures are separated, which helps with the story’s clarity •Look how classical Isaac’s body is!
    145. 145. Sacrifice of Isaac By: Filippo Brunelleschi 1401-1403 Bronze Also at the Bargello Museum in Florence
    146. 146. Ghiberti (big winner) Brunelleschi (big loser)
    147. 147. •Dense group •Great drama •Dramatic tension and rigor •Figures are heavy looking •Angel makes it just in time! Height of suspense! •Figures spill over the edges of the quatrefoil
    148. 148. Gates of Paradise By: Lorenzo Ghiberti 1425-1452 Gilt bronze Florence
    149. 149. The doors on the baptistery are a copy The original doors are in a museum in Florence Ah well, we were still happy to see them!
    150. 150. •Ghiberti gets this commission after he wins the “Isaac contest” •Spatially more sophisticated than the panels on his previous set of doors •Figures have more convincing volume •10 Old Testament scenes
    151. 151. Lean, elegant, elongated bodies and delicate lines Moses
    152. 152. •Moses Receiving the Ten Commandments…. Perspective through progressively reduced relief in the representation of the tents on the left •different expressions on the people’s faces
    153. 153. Fall of Jericho
    154. 154. David Beheading Goliath
    155. 155. Four Crowned Saints By Nanni de Banco 1409-1417 Marble Part of “Or San Michele” in Florence
    156. 156. •Built for the guild of wood and stone carvers (Nanni was a member) •Shows four Christian sculptors who refused to carve a statue of a pagan god for the Roman Emperor Diocletian and were martyred because of it
    157. 157. •Saints wear Roman togas •Look at their heads – they look like portraits of Roman emperors •They seem to be discussing their fate •Their feet step outside of the arch into “our” space •Pedestal carved in an arc following the positioning of the saints
    158. 158. •Figures are independent of the niche (not attached) •Bottom scene has view of sculptors at work on their craft
    159. 159. David By Donatello 1420’s – 60’s Bronze Check it out at the Bargello Gallery in Florence like Dr. Smo did!
    160. 160. •First large-scale bronze nude since antiquity! Hooray for Donatello! •Exaggerated contrapposto of the body •Probably displayed in the Medici Palace (not for public viewing) •David looks a bit androgynous •Stance is nonchalant •He’s contemplating his victory over Goliath (he has his foot on Goliath’s head, eww) •David’s head is lowered to show humility (although I think he looks pretty arrogant, but what do I know?)
    161. 161. •His hat has laurel leaves on it, which means David was a poet •Hat is a “foppish” Renaissance design (a fop is a man who is overly concerned with his appearance)
    162. 162. •Israelites fighting Philistines •Philistines’ best warrior is Goliath – wants to fight Israelites’ best warrior in combat •David, a young shepherd boy, accepts the challenge. He refuses armor, and goes out with his sling to confront Goliath •He hits Goliath in the head with a stone, which knocks him down •He grabs Goliath’s sword and cuts off his head •David’s special strength comes from God – story of triumph of good over evil
    163. 163. Mary Magdalene By: Donatello 1430-1450 Wood Florence
    164. 164. •Mary Magdalene was a reformed sinner – followed Christ •Hair covers her body – she wiped Christ’s feet with her hair •Gilded hair indicates her spirituality and former beauty •Emaciated from 30 years of penitence •Face shows the torture of a badly led life – ravages of time on her body (poor Mary!)
    165. 165. •Gesture of prayer expresses a world of spirituality •Eyes focused on an inner reality and a higher form of beauty •We’re not sure where this sculpture was originally placed, or for whom it was made
    166. 166. •Lips parted (mid-sentence?) •Hands slightly apart •Completely, introspectively fixated on Christ – meditating with an awestruck expression at the things he did for her •Hallowed cheeks, missing teeth, sunken eyes •Donatello could have made her a seductress, but he chose to tell a story about her repentance and redeption
    167. 167. GATTAMELATA, by Donatello, 1445-1450, bronze Padua, Italy
    168. 168. •Nickname for warrior, “Honeyed Cat” (Gatamelata) •Commemorative monument for a cemetery
    169. 169. •Face reflects stern expression of a military commander… Horse is spirited, resting one leg on a ball. Rider is in control.
    170. 170. Marcus Aurelius from Ancient Rome! How is it similar/different?
    171. 171. Madonna and Child By Luca della Robbia 1455-1460 Terra cotta Part of Or San Michele Florence
    172. 172. •White glazed terra-cotta of flesh areas simulates marble (terracotta is a reddish clay) •Ceramic is cheap – retains color and polish even outdoors
    173. 173. •Drapery has rich colored glazes – creates luminous ceramic forms •Soft quality of the ceramic adds gentility to the artistic expression
    174. 174. Hercules and Antaeus by Antonio del Pollaiuolo 1475 Bronze In the Bargello Gallery, Florence
    175. 175. •Shows ancient myth: Hercules must lift Antaeus off the ground to defeat him •Antaeus gets his strength from his mother, who is the earth goddess •Active composition with limbs jutting out in various directions •Strong angles of the body •Sinewy muscles, strong figures
    176. 176. •Shows ancient myth: Hercules must lift Antaeus off the ground to defeat him •Antaeus gets his strength from his mother, who is the earth goddess •Active composition with limbs jutting out in various directions •Strong angles of the body •Sinewy muscles, strong figures
    177. 177. Colleoni By Andrea del Verrocchio 1481-1496 Bronze Venice
    178. 178. •Military leader fought for the Venetians •Very powerful and spirited animal tamed by an animated victorious leader •Dramatically alive and forceful appearance with bulging, fiery eyes and erect position in saddle
    179. 179. VOCABULARY: •BOTTEGA: the studio of an Italian artist •HUMANISM: an intellectual movement in the Renaissance that emphasized the secular alongside the religious. Humanists were greatly attracted to the achievements of the classical past, and stressed the study of classical literature, history, philosophy, and art •LANTERN: a small structure with openings for light that crowns a dome •ORTHOGONAL: lines that appear to recede toward a vanishing point in a painting with linear perspective
    180. 180. VOCABULARY: •PILASTER: a flattened column attached to a wall with a capital, a shaft, and a base •QUATTROCENTO: the 1400’s (15th century) of Italian art •RUSTICATE: to deeply and roughly incise stones to give a rough and rustic texture to its appearance •STRINGCOURSE: a horizontal moulding •TROMPE L’OEIL: French for “fools the eye” – a form of painting that attempts to represent an object as existing in three dimensions, and therefore resembles the real thing

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