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Indian and southeast asian art


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Indian and southeast asian art

  1. 1. Indian and Southeast Asian Art Katy Zielinski, Aliyah Oestreicher, Priya Gopani
  2. 2. Key Ideas ● Indian art stresses the interconnectedness of all the arts: architecture, painting, and sculpture. ● Buddhist and Hindu philosophies form background to Indian artistic thought. ● A vibrant school of manuscript painting using brilliantly applied watercolors flourishes in India
  3. 3. Historical Background ● ● ● ● ● ● Land was valuable; India has a history of Invasions and assimilations. Indian life today is a layering of disparate populations to create a cosmopolitan culture. There are 18 official languages in India - Hindi is what foreigners think as their national language however it is only spoken by 20% of the population. Along with Hindus and Muslims, there are many concentrations: Jains, Buddhists, Christians, Sikhs, as well as many myriad tribal religions. Geographically India is known have wide range of terrains from the tallest mountains to vast deserts, and tropical forests. ONE OF THE MOST DIVERSE COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD!
  4. 4. Patronage & Artistic Life ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The arts play a critical role in the culture: Buildings, sculptures, and murals Rulers were very generous when it came to the investing buildings, sculptures etc. (arts) Arts enhance civic and religious lives along with providing glory Indian monuments have a uniformity of style because monuments were built as a combination of the arts; the artists who work on them work at the request of another artist serving as team leader who has his/ her own vision Religious designs of art and architecture was determined by religious advisor/ priest Religious advisor/ priest made sure that proportions and iconography of monuments agreed with the descriptions supplied in canonical texts and diagrams Religious advisors/ priest -> played important role in arts Artists were trained as apprentices in workshops; they learned everything from how to make their own brush to creating vast murals. VERY COMPREHENSIVE PROCESS! The training of Indian artists is highly organized
  5. 5. Borobudur in Java, Indonesia ● ● ● ● ● ● Massive Buddhist monument made up of carved stone blocks. Includes 504 life sized Buddhas, 1,460 massive relief sculptures, and 1,300 panels 2,000 feet long. Meant to be walked around, built similar to a mastaba, with block on top of block, but pyramidal in shape. Is an important place of pilgrimage and of prayer. The building’s lower stories represent a world of desire and negative impulses, the middle area represent the world of forms and people who can control their negative impulses, and the top story is the world of formula where the physical world is unneeded and worldly desire expunged. Thought to be representative of the compass and cosmology.
  6. 6. Miniature Painting of Krishna Doing Rain Dance ● 19th century, unknown artist. ● Watercolor on paper. ● Krishna is the eighth incarnation of the Lord Vishnu in Hinduism, seen here trying to bring rain to his needy people. ● Humans are often painted vividly and in with colorful drapery, they always have an expression.
  7. 7. Taj Mahal in Agra, India ● ● ● ● Translated to mean “Crown Palace” Built in 1632-1648 Named for Mumtaz Mahal (the deceased wife of Shah Jahan), she died giving birth to her 14th child. ○ The Palace was meant to serve as Mumtaz’s tomb. Onion shaped dome and exact symmetry, with minarets framing and sheltering the center.
  8. 8. ● ● ● ● ● ● Buddhist Painting Uniformity among regions Compact pose, little negative space and Sculpture: Seated in lotus position, balls of his feet turned up, a wheel marking on the souls of his feet. Sometimes standing or lying down Frontal, symmetrical, have a nimbus (halo) around their heads Bodhisattvas (helpers) are usually near the Buddha, sometimes attached to the nimbus Drapery varies by region ○ Central India: tight fitting resting on one shoulder with folds slanting diagonally down the chest. ○ In Handhara: wear heavy robes covering both shoulders, similar to Roman toga (Hellenistic influence)
  9. 9. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Moods: detached, removed quality Buddhist Painting and Sculpture: representing mediation Actions and feelings revealed by hand gestures called mudras Ushnish: top not on head, hair has a series of tight-fitting curls Long ears dangle to shoulders Curl of hair called urna appear between brows Reject courtly life = lack of jewelry Predella (base) can include donor figures and may have illustrations of teachings or a stories from his life Yakshas (males) and yakshis (females) - nature spirits often appear. Female: rare dance-like pose, almost nude. Male: accentuate male characteristics (powerful shoulders and arms)
  10. 10. Buddhist Painting and Sculpture: Sculpture from Vishvanath Temple Yakshi from Great Stupa, 3rd Century BCE- 1st century CE. Sanchi, India
  11. 11. Buddha Preaching the First Sermon ● ● ● ● ● ● 5th century, sandstone, Archaeological Museum, Sarnath, India, 5’3” Sitting in yoga position, hands in a preaching mudra On predella: important narrative moment in Buddha’s life, figures of Sakyamuni’s followers who returned to him at the sermon in Deer Park Between the two groups of kneeling monks is the symbol of preaching, the Wheel Compact pose; epicene quality; tight fitting garb Bodhisattvas (a deity who refrains from entering nirvana to help others) in nimbus above him
  12. 12. Vishvanatha Temple ● ● ● ● ● Placed on high pedestal As eries of shapes that build to become a large tower; complicated intertwining of similar forms In the center is the “embryo” room containing the shrine, very small, only enough space for the priest An ambulatory circles around the inner chamber Corbelled roofs have a beehive quality
  13. 13. Vocabulary “Glossary Slide” Bodhisattva- a deity who refrains from entering nirvana to help others Buddha: a fully enlightened being. There are many Buddhas, the most famous of whom is Shakyamuni, also known as Gautama or Siddhartha Chaitya: a rock- cut shrine in basilican form with a stupa at the endpoint Darshan: in Hinduism, the ability of a worshipper to see a deity and the deity to see the worshipper Gopura: a monumental entrance or gateway to an Indian temple complex Mithuna: in India, the mating of males and females in a ritualistic, symbolic, or physical sense Mudra : a symbolic hand gesture in Hindu and Buddhist art Nirvana: an afterlife in which reincarnation ends and the soul becomes one with the supreme spirit Puja: a Hindu prayer ritual Shiva: the Hindu god of creation and destruction Stupa: a dome- shaped Buddhist shrine Torana: a gateway near a stupa that has two upright posts and three horizontal lintels. They are usually elaborately carved
  14. 14. More Vocab... ● ● ● ● Urna: a circle of hair on the brows of deity, sometimes represented as focal point Ushnisha: a protrusion at the top of the head, or the topknot of a Buddha Wat: a Buddhist monastery or temple in Cambodia Yakshi (masculine : yaksha): female and male figures of fertility in Buddhist and Hindu art