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Byzantine Art William V. Ganis, PhD
 
Byzantine Art <ul><li>Byzantine art  is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the  Byzantine Empire ...
<ul><li>Justinian I  or  Justinian the Great ,  was the second member of the  Justinian Dynasty  (after his uncle,  Justin...
Justinian as world conqueror  (Barberini Ivory) mid-6th century ivory  1 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 10 1/2 in.
<ul><li>Saint Michael  has specific roles within Roman Catholic teachings that range from acting as the  chief opponent of...
Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey   532-537
Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
<ul><li>Anthemius of Tralles  was a  Greek  professor of  Geometry  in  Constantinople  (present-day  Istanbul  in Turkey)...
Anthemius of Tralles &  Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
Anthemius of Tralles &  Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
Anthemius of Tralles &  Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
<ul><li>Theotokos  is the  Greek  title of  Mary, the mother of Jesus  used especially in the  Eastern  Orthodox , Orienta...
 
San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
<ul><li>Saint Vitalis of Milan , known as  San Vitale  in  Italian  and  Saint Vital  in  French , was an early  Christian...
San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
<ul><li>The central section is surrounded by two superposed  ambulatories . The upper one, the  matrimoneum , was reserved...
Justinian, Bishop Maximianus and attendants north   wall apse mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
Theodora and attendants south   wall apse mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
Abraham and the Three Angels ( Philoxeneos) , and the Sacrifice of Isaac north lunette mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy c...
Sacrifice of Abel, Sacrifice of Melchisedech north lunette mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
Sant’Apollinare in Classe Ravenna, Italy 533-549
<ul><li>When the  UNESCO  inscribed eight Ravenna sites on the  World Heritage List , it cited this basilica as &quot; an ...
Saint Apollinaris amid sheep Sant’Apollinare in Classe Ravenna, Italy 533-549 mosaic
 
<ul><li>  Jesus became radiant,  spoke with  Moses  and  Elijah , and was  called &quot;Son&quot; by  God . It is one of t...
Transfiguration of Jesus apse mosaic, Church of the Virgin Monastery of Saint Catherine Mount Sinai, Egypt ca. 565 mosaic
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child  between Saints Theodore and George, icon 6th or early 7th century encaustic on wood 2 ft. 3 ...
 
<ul><li>Anicia Juliana  ( Constantinople ) was a Roman imperial princess, the daughter of the Western Roman Emperor  Olybr...
 
<ul><li>The  Rabbula Gospels , or  Rabula Gospels , (Florence, Biblioteca Mediceo Laurenziana, cod. Plut. I, 56) is a 6th ...
 
Katholikon and Church of the Theotokos Hosios Loukas, Greece Katholikon early 11th century, Church of the Theotokos, 10th ...
<ul><li>A  Katholikon'  or   Catholicon  is the  major   temple  (church building) of a  monastery , or  diocese  in the  ...
Apse of the Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century mosaic
Dome of the Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century fresco
Dome of the Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century fresco
Nativity of Christ Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century mosaic
Baptism of Christ Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century mosaic
 
<ul><li>Pantocrator  or  </li></ul><ul><li>Pantokrator  (is one of many  names applied to God . When the Hebrew Bible was ...
Crucifixion  in the Church of the Dormition Daphni, Greece ca. 1090-1100  mosaic
 
Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy begun 1063
<ul><li>  is the  most famous of the city's  churches  and one of the best known examples of  Byzantine architecture .   <...
interior of Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1180 mosaic
interior of Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1180 mosaic
<ul><li>The Greek word (anástasis) meaning &quot; resurrection &quot; which  gave rise to the names   </li></ul>Anastasis ...
Pala d’Oro from Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1105 gold cloisonné with precious stones
<ul><li>Pala d’Oro  ( Italian , &quot; Golden  Pall &quot; or &quot;Golden Cloth &quot;) is the high  altar   retable  of ...
 
Apse Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190  mosaic
Pantocrator Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190  mosaic
Theotokos and Child, angels and saints Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190  mosaic
<ul><li>  Hodegetria  is an  iconographic </li></ul><ul><li>depiction of the  Theotokos   </li></ul><ul><li>holding the  C...
Hodegetria, icon (back) ca. 1150-1200 tempera on wood
Hodegetria, icon ca. 1150-1200 tempera on wood
Christ enthroned with Saints (Harbaville Triptych) ca. 950 ivory 9 1/2 in. x 5 1/2 in. high
David composing the Psalms Paris Psalter ca. 950-970 tempera on vellum 14 1/8 in. x 10 1/4 in.
Israelites’ Flight from Egypt Paris Psalter ca. 950-970 tempera on vellum 14 1/8 in. x 10 1/4 in.
 
Anastasis apse fresco in parekklision of the Church of Christ in Chora Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey ca. 1310-1320  f...
 
Christ as Savior of Souls, icon early 14th century tempera, linen and silver on wood 3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 1/2 in.
Annunciation, reverse of 2-sided icon early 14th century tempera and linen on wood 3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 3/2 in.
Annunciation, obverse of 2-sided icon early 14th century tempera, linen and silver on wood  3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 3/2 in.
 
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child, icon Late 11th to early 12th century tempera on wood 2 ft. 6 1/2 in. x 1 ft. 9 in.
<ul><li>Andrei Rublev  ( Russian : Андре́й Рублёв, also transliterated  Andrey Rublyov  and other permutations is consider...
<ul><li>In  Eastern Christianity  an  </li></ul><ul><li>iconostasis  (plural:  iconostases ) is a wall of  icons  and reli...
 
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Byzantine

art history
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Byzantine

  1. 1. Byzantine Art William V. Ganis, PhD
  2. 3. Byzantine Art <ul><li>Byzantine art  is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the  Byzantine Empire  from about the 4th century until the  Fall of Constantinople  in 1453. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>In 323 Emperor Constantine moved the capitol of the Roman Empire to Byzantium.  It was then renamed Constantinople.   </li></ul><ul><li>     The majority of the art in this period and place were created for the Eastern Orthodox Church .   The Eastern Orthodox preferred a somber reflected tone to worship instead of the large congregational worship of the West.  This focus is also reflected in their art and architecture . The figures in their art appear flat and one dimensional with little use of shadowing to give any life-like appearance.    Figures are almost always from the front with somber and solemn looks coming from starring  eyes.    Faces were long and narrow .  In all, very little attempt was made for realism in the painting and mosaic depictions.   </li></ul><ul><li>During the Eighth and Ninth Centuries, the painting  of people was prohibited by the iconoclasts .  This was started by Emperor Leo III in 726.  He stated that the painting of people was a form of idolatry and that all icons (painting of people) should be destroyed.   This spilt the empire into two sections which became know as the Iconoclastic Crisis.  The painting and mosaics came back again in the Ninth century till the fall of the Empire to the Turks.   </li></ul><ul><li>     Sculpture was very limited in the Byzantine Era.  The only sculpture which developed was limited mostly to small ivory book covers. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Justinian I  or  Justinian the Great , was the second member of the  Justinian Dynasty (after his uncle,  Justin I ) and  Eastern Roman Emperor  from 527 until his death. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the greatness of the classical Roman Empire. </li></ul>Justinian as world conqueror (Barberini Ivory) mid-6th century ivory 1 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 10 1/2 in.
  4. 5. Justinian as world conqueror (Barberini Ivory) mid-6th century ivory 1 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 10 1/2 in.
  5. 6. <ul><li>Saint Michael has specific roles within Roman Catholic teachings that range from acting as the chief opponent of Satan to the saving of souls at the hour of death. </li></ul>Saint Michael the Archangel early-6th century ivory 1 ft. 5 in. x 5 1/2 in.
  6. 7. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
  7. 8. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
  8. 9. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
  9. 10. <ul><li>Anthemius of Tralles  was a  Greek  professor of  Geometry  in  Constantinople  (present-day  Istanbul  in Turkey) and  architect , who collaborated with  Isidore of Miletus  to build the church of  Hagia Sophia  by the order of  Justinian I . </li></ul>Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
  10. 11. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
  11. 12. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
  12. 13. Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey 532-537
  13. 14. <ul><li>Theotokos  is the  Greek  title of  Mary, the mother of Jesus  used especially in the  Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , and  Eastern Catholic Churches . </li></ul>Virgin (Theotokos) and Child enthroned Apse mosaic, Hagia Sophia 867 mosaic
  14. 16. San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
  15. 17. <ul><li>Saint Vitalis of Milan , known as  San Vitale  in  Italian  and  Saint Vital  in  French , was an early  Christian   martyr </li></ul><ul><li>The church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius in 527, when Ravenna was under the rule of the  Ostrogoths , and completed by the 27th Bishop of Ravenna,  Maximian  in 548 during the Byzantine  Exarchate of Ravenna . The architect of this church is unknown , but he was certainly among the best architects of his time. </li></ul>San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
  16. 18. San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
  17. 19. San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
  18. 20. <ul><li>The central section is surrounded by two superposed  ambulatories . The upper one, the  matrimoneum , was reserved for married women . A series of mosaics in the lunettes above the  triforia  depict sacrifices from the Old Testament : </li></ul>Apse Mosaic San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547 mosaic
  19. 21. Justinian, Bishop Maximianus and attendants north wall apse mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
  20. 22. Theodora and attendants south wall apse mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
  21. 23. Abraham and the Three Angels ( Philoxeneos) , and the Sacrifice of Isaac north lunette mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
  22. 24. Sacrifice of Abel, Sacrifice of Melchisedech north lunette mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic
  23. 25. Sant’Apollinare in Classe Ravenna, Italy 533-549
  24. 26. <ul><li>When the  UNESCO inscribed eight Ravenna sites on the  World Heritage List , it cited this basilica as &quot; an outstanding example of the early Christian basilica in its purity and simplicity of its design and use of space and in the sumptuous nature of its decoration&quot;. </li></ul>Sant’Apollinare in Classe Ravenna, Italy 533-549
  25. 27. Saint Apollinaris amid sheep Sant’Apollinare in Classe Ravenna, Italy 533-549 mosaic
  26. 29. <ul><li>  Jesus became radiant, spoke with  Moses  and  Elijah , and was called &quot;Son&quot; by God . It is one of the  miracles of Jesus  mentioned in the Gospels. </li></ul>Transfiguration of Jesus apse mosaic, Church of the Virgin Monastery of Saint Catherine Mount Sinai, Egypt ca. 565 mosaic
  27. 30. Transfiguration of Jesus apse mosaic, Church of the Virgin Monastery of Saint Catherine Mount Sinai, Egypt ca. 565 mosaic
  28. 31. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, icon 6th or early 7th century encaustic on wood 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 7 3/8 in.
  29. 33. <ul><li>Anicia Juliana  ( Constantinople ) was a Roman imperial princess, the daughter of the Western Roman Emperor  Olybrius , of the Anicii , by  Placidia . </li></ul><ul><li>The  Vienna Dioscurides  or  Vienna Dioscorides  is an early  6th-century   illuminated manuscript  of  De  Materia Medica  by  Dioscorides  in Greek. It is an important and rare example of a  late antique  scientific text. </li></ul>Anicia Juliana Between Magnanimity and Prudence folio 6 of the Vienna Dioskorides from Honoratai near Constantinople (Istanbul) ca. 512 tempera on parchment 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 11 in.
  30. 35. <ul><li>The  Rabbula Gospels , or  Rabula Gospels , (Florence, Biblioteca Mediceo Laurenziana, cod. Plut. I, 56) is a 6th century  illuminated Syriac   </li></ul><ul><li>Gospel Book . One of the finest Byzantine works produced in  Asia , and one of the earliest Christian manuscripts with large miniatures, it is distinguished by the miniaturist's predilection for bright colours, movement, drama, and  expressionism . </li></ul>Ascension of Christ Rabbula Gospels From Zagba, Syria 586 tempera on vellum 1 ft. 1 in. x 10 1/2 in.
  31. 37. Katholikon and Church of the Theotokos Hosios Loukas, Greece Katholikon early 11th century, Church of the Theotokos, 10th century
  32. 38. <ul><li>A  Katholikon'  or   Catholicon  is the major   temple  (church building) of a  monastery , or  diocese  in the  Eastern Orthodox Church .  </li></ul>Katholikon and Church of the Theotokos Hosios Loukas, Greece Katholikon early 11th century, Church of the Theotokos, 10th century
  33. 39. Apse of the Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century mosaic
  34. 40. Dome of the Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century fresco
  35. 41. Dome of the Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century fresco
  36. 42. Nativity of Christ Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century mosaic
  37. 43. Baptism of Christ Katholikon Hosios Loukas, Greece 11th century mosaic
  38. 45. <ul><li>Pantocrator  or  </li></ul><ul><li>Pantokrator  (is one of many  names applied to God . When the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek as the  Septuagint ,  </li></ul><ul><li>Pantokrator  was used to translate the Hebrew title  El Shaddai . Christians ascribed this title to Jesus. </li></ul>Pantocrator dome mosaic in the Church of the Dormition Daphni, Greece ca. 1090-1100 mosaic
  39. 46. Crucifixion in the Church of the Dormition Daphni, Greece ca. 1090-1100 mosaic
  40. 48. Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy begun 1063
  41. 49. <ul><li>  is the most famous of the city's  churches  and one of the best known examples of  Byzantine architecture .  </li></ul>Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy begun 1063
  42. 50. interior of Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1180 mosaic
  43. 51. interior of Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1180 mosaic
  44. 52. <ul><li>The Greek word (anástasis) meaning &quot; resurrection &quot; which gave rise to the names </li></ul>Anastasis From west vault of Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1180 mosaic
  45. 53. Pala d’Oro from Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1105 gold cloisonné with precious stones
  46. 54. <ul><li>Pala d’Oro  ( Italian , &quot; Golden  Pall &quot; or &quot;Golden Cloth &quot;) is the high  altar   retable  of the  Basilica di San Marco  in  Venice . It is universally recognized as one of the most refined and accomplished works of  Byzantine craftsmanship , with both front and rear sides decorated. </li></ul>Archangel Pala d’Oro from Saint Mark’s Cathedral Venice, Italy ca. 1105 gold cloisonné with precious stones
  47. 56. Apse Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190 mosaic
  48. 57. Pantocrator Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190 mosaic
  49. 58. Theotokos and Child, angels and saints Cathedral at Monreale Monreale, Sicily, Italy ca. 1180-1190 mosaic
  50. 59. <ul><li>  Hodegetria is an  iconographic </li></ul><ul><li>depiction of the  Theotokos   </li></ul><ul><li>holding the  Child Jesus  at her side while pointing to Him as the source of salvation for mankind </li></ul>Hodegetria, icon (front) ca. 1150-1200 tempera on wood
  51. 60. Hodegetria, icon (back) ca. 1150-1200 tempera on wood
  52. 61. Hodegetria, icon ca. 1150-1200 tempera on wood
  53. 62. Christ enthroned with Saints (Harbaville Triptych) ca. 950 ivory 9 1/2 in. x 5 1/2 in. high
  54. 63. David composing the Psalms Paris Psalter ca. 950-970 tempera on vellum 14 1/8 in. x 10 1/4 in.
  55. 64. Israelites’ Flight from Egypt Paris Psalter ca. 950-970 tempera on vellum 14 1/8 in. x 10 1/4 in.
  56. 66. Anastasis apse fresco in parekklision of the Church of Christ in Chora Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey ca. 1310-1320 fresco
  57. 68. Christ as Savior of Souls, icon early 14th century tempera, linen and silver on wood 3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 1/2 in.
  58. 69. Annunciation, reverse of 2-sided icon early 14th century tempera and linen on wood 3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 3/2 in.
  59. 70. Annunciation, obverse of 2-sided icon early 14th century tempera, linen and silver on wood 3 ft. 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 3/2 in.
  60. 72. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child, icon Late 11th to early 12th century tempera on wood 2 ft. 6 1/2 in. x 1 ft. 9 in.
  61. 73. <ul><li>Andrei Rublev  ( Russian : Андре́й Рублёв, also transliterated  Andrey Rublyov  and other permutations is considered to be the greatest  medieval   </li></ul><ul><li>Russian   painter  of  Orthodox   icons  and  frescoes . </li></ul><ul><li>Trinity  depicts the three  angels  who visited  Abraham  at the oak of  Mamre but the painting is full of symbolism and often interpreted as an icon of the  Holy Trinity . </li></ul>Andrei Rublyev Three Angels, icon ca. 1410 tempera on wood 4 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 9 in.
  62. 74. <ul><li>In  Eastern Christianity  an  </li></ul><ul><li>iconostasis  (plural:  iconostases ) is a wall of  icons  and religious paintings, separating the  nave  from the  sanctuary  in a  church .  Iconostasis  also refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church. The iconostasis evolved from the Byzantine   templon , a process complete by the fifteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The word comes from the  Greek  εἰκονοστάσι(-ον) ( eikonostási(-on) , still in common use in Greece and Cyprus), which means &quot;icon stand&quot;. </li></ul>Iconostasis

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