Tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries (WWW'2007)
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Tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries (WWW'2007)

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Tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries (WWW'2007) Tutorial on Semantic Digital Libraries (WWW'2007) Presentation Transcript

  • Tutorial – Semantic Digital Libraries - Introduction - Sebastian R. Kruk , Stefan Decker , Bernhard Haslhofer, Predrag Kneževic , Sandy Payette, Dean Krafft
  • Tutorial overview
    • Who we are
      • Sebastian R. Kruk, DERI Galway – Ireland
      • Stefan Decker, DERI Galway – Ireland
      • Bernhard Haslhofer, University of Vienna - Austria
      • Predrag Knezevic, Fraunhofer IPSI – Germany
      • Sandy Payette, Cornell University, USA
      • Dean Krafft, NSDL, USA
    • In the next 3,5 hours we want to
      • give you a brief introduction to the Semantic Web, and show how SW is related to digital libraries
      • present existing semantic digital library systems
      • discuss the current problems and future directions of semantic digital libraries and get feedback from you
    • After this tutorial you will know
      • what is the semantic digital library system
      • existing solutions in various degrees of detail
  • Tutorial Schedule Existing Solutions - JeromeDL 2:15 - 3:00 Conclusions, discussion & future of SemDL 4:30 - 5:00 Existing Semantic Digital Libraries solutions (BRICKS, FEDORA, SIMILE) 3: 15 - 4:30 Coffee break 3:00 - 3: 15 Introduction to Semantic Digital Libraries 1:30 - 2:15 Time View slide
  • The Semantic Web – A Brief Introduction
    • Current Web vs. Semantic Web?
      • An extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. [Tim Berners-Lee]
      • Current Web was designed for humans, and there is little information usable for machines
    • Was the Web meant to be more?
      • Objects with well defined attributes as opposed to untyped hyperlinks between Internet resources
      • A network of relationships amongst named objects, yielding unified information management tasks
    • What do you mean by “Semantic”?
      • the semantics of something is the meaning of something
      • Semantic Web is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand
    View slide
  • Outline
    • Introduction to Semantic Web
    • Semantic Digital Libraries
  • The Semantic Web – A Brief Introduction
    • Where are we in the “S emantic W eb layer cake”?
    You Are Here!
  • The Semantic Web – A Brief Introduction
    • The challenge for the Semantic Web
      • The Semantic Web can’t work all by itself
      • For example, it is not very likely that you will be able to sell your car just by putting your RDF file on the Web
      • Need society-scale applications: Semantic Web agents and/or services, consumers and processors for semantic data, more advanced collaborative applications
  • The Semantic Web – What is RDF ?
    • Describing things on the S emantic W eb
      • RDF (Resource Description Framework)
        • a data format for describing information and resources,
        • the fundamental data model for the Semantic Web
      • Using RDF, we can describe relationships between things like:
        • A is a part of B or
        • Y is a member of Z
        • and their properties ( size , weight , age , price …) in a machine-understandable format where each thing has a
      • RDF graph-based model delivers straightforward machine process ing
      • Putting information into RDF files makes it possible for “scutters” or RDF crawlers to search , discover , pick up , collect , analyse and process  information from the Web
  • The Semantic Web – What is RDF ?
    • A simple RDF example
      • Statement:
      • “ Stefan Decker is the creator of the resource (web page) http://www.stefandecker.org ”
      • Structure:
        • Resource (subject) http://www.stefandecker.org
        • Property (predicate) http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator
        • Value (object) “ Stefan Decker ”
      • Directed graph:
    http://www.stefandecker.org dc:creator Stefan Decker
  • The Semantic Web – How RDF can help us?
    • How RDF can help us?
    • identify objects
    • establish relationships
    • express a new relationship  just add a new RDF statement
    • integrate information from different sources  copy all the RDF data together
    • RDF allows many points of view
    • What is an Ontology?
      • „ An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.“
    • Tom Gruber, 1993
    • Ontologies are social contracts
      • Agreed, explicit semantics
      • Understandable to outsiders
      • (Often) derived in a community process
    • Ontology markup and representation languages:
      • RDF and RDF Schema
      • OWL
      • Other: DAML+OIL , EER , UML , Topic Maps , MOF , XML Schemas
    The Semantic Web – Ontologies and Schemata
    • Defines small vocabulary for RDF:
      • Class, subClassOf, type
      • Property, subPropertyOf
      • domain, range
    • Vocabulary can be used to define other vocabularies for your application domain
    The Semantic Web – RDF Schema Person Student Researcher subClassOf subClassOf Jeen type hasSuperVisor domain range Frank type hasSuperVisor
    • OWL – The Web Ontology Language
          • Owl took Christopher Robin’s notice from Rabbit and looked at it nervously. He could spell his own name WOL , and he could spell Tuesday so that you knew it wasn’t Wednesday, and he could read quite comfortably when you weren’t looking over his shoulder and saying "Well?" all the time...
    • provides a vocabulary for defining classes, their properties and their relationships among classes.
    The Semantic Web – OWL owl :disjointWith s s s s Animal Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore
    • Based on Description Logics
    • OWL is a W3C Recommendation
  • The Semantic Web – Applications
    • Semantic Web cannot be and is not only a set of recommendations
    • Semantic Web is becoming reality by applications that support it and are based on it
    • Enabling technologies:
      • RDF Storages: Sesame, Jena, YARS
      • Reasoners: KAON, Racer
      • Editors: Protege, SWOOP, MarcOnt Portal
    • End-User applications:
      • Semantic wikis: Makna, SemperWiki
      • Semantic blogs
      • Semantic digital libraries
  • Outline
    • Introduction to Semantic Web
    • Semantic Digital Libraries
  • What is a Semantic Digital Library?
    • Semantic digital libraries
      • integrate information based on different metadata, e.g.: resources, user profiles, bookmarks, taxonomies – high quality semantics = highly and meaningfully connected information
      • provide interoperability with other systems (not only digital libraries) on either metadata or communication level or both – RDF as common denominator between digital libraries and other services
      • delivering more robust, user friendly and adaptable search and browsing interfaces empowered by semantics
  • Evolution of Libraries Social Semantic Digital Library Involves the community into sharing knowledge Semantic Digital Library Accessible by  machines, not only with machines Digital Library Online, easy searching with a full-text index Library Organized collection
  • Different Kind of Libraries (Evolution of Libraries)
    • Classic libraries
    • Scientific libraries
    • Digital libraries
    • Semantic libraries
  • How are Semantic Digital Libraries different?
    • Semantic digital libraries extend digital libraries by
      • describing and exposing its resources in a machine ‘understandable’ way
      • resources can be
        • contents, digital artefacts
        • organization of objects (e.g. collections)
        • users, user communities
        • controlled vocabularies, thesauri, taxonomies
      • expose the semantics of their metadata in terms of an ontology
        • defined using a formal language
      • deliver mediation services for communication with other systems
  • Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries?
    • Metadata is the key concept
    • the Web does not have metadata
      • the idea of a Semantic Web is nice but difficult to implement
    • many digital libraries do have metadata in place
    • we simply must make them available in a machine understandable format
    • the Semantic Web provides the format: RDF
  • Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries?
    • Knowledge in bibliographic records
    • Digital Libraries already have controlled vocabularies, taxonomies or even ontologies in place
    • the challenge is to model this knowledge in a machine understandable way
    • the Semantic Web provides ontology language s:
      • RDF Schema
      • OWL
      • SKOS
  • A Sample Bibliographic Record Copyright 2000 The J. Paul Getty Trust & College Art Association, Inc . Terms taken from Controlled Vocabularies Vincent van Gogh; painter: Gogh, Vincent van (Dutch painter, 1853-1890) Creation-Creator/Role J. Paul Getty Museum Current Location-Repository Name irises , nature , soil , etc. Subject-Matter 1889, earliest: 1889, latest: 1889 Creation-Date Irises Title paintings Object/Work type Paintings Classification
  • Knowledge Organization Systems
    • tools that present the organized interpretation of knowledge structures
    • semantic tools - meaning of words and other symbols as well as (semantic) relations between symbols and concept
    • organize information and promote knowledge management
    • Examples:
      • classification and categorization schemata (organize materials at a general level)
      • subject headings (provide more detailed access)
      • authority files (control variant versions of key information such as geographic names and personal names)
      • highly structured vocabularies, such as thesauri
      • traditional schemes, such as semantic networks and ontologies
  • Taxonomy of Knowledge Organization Systems
    • Term Lists
      • Authority files ( FOAF )
      • Glossaries
      • Dictionaries
      • Gazetteers
    • Classifications and Categories ( DMoz )
      • Subject headings
      • Classification schemes
      • Taxonomies
      • Categorization Schemes.
    • Relationship Lists
      • Thesauri ( WordNet, MeSH )
      • Semantic networks
      • Ontologies
    (Hodge, 2000)
  • Simple Knowledge Organization Systems (SKOS)
    • basic structure and content of concept schemes such as
      • thesauri,
      • classification schemes,
      • subject heading lists,
      • taxonomies,
      • 'folksonomies ',
      • other types of controlled vocabulary
    • core concepts:
      • narrower and broader
      • isSubjectOf and subject ; isPrimarySubjectOf and primarySubject
      • member and Collection; memberList and OrderedCollection
      • related and semanticRelation
      • note, definition; altLabel and prefLabel ; symbol and altSymbol
  • Benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries
    • Problems of today’s libraries
    • rapidly growing islands of highly organized information
      • How to find things in a growing information space?
        • is it enough to have a full-text index (à la Google)?
        • typical “end-users” versus “expert users”
    • converging digital library systems
      • e.g. uniform access to Europe’s digital libraries and cultural heritage
  • Benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries
    • T he two main benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries
    • new search paradigms for the information space
      • Ontology - based search / facet search
      • Community-enabled browsing
    • providing interoperability on the data level
      • integrating metadata from various heterogeneous sources
      • Interconnecting different digital library systems
  • Searching the Sample Bibliographic Record
    • Full-text search
      • “ Paintings ” AND “ Van Gogh ” AND “ flowers ”  no result
    • Semantic query
      • if the knowledge that “ irises ” are “ flowers ” is modeled in an ontology (e.g. subclass-hierarchy)
      • we can query for all “ Paintings ” by “ Van Gogh ” with subject “ flowers ” and retrieve also the picture with subject “ irises ”
    Copyright 2000 The J. Paul Getty Trust & College Art Association, Inc . Vincent van Gogh; painter: Gogh, Vincent van (Dutch painter, 1853-1890) Creation-Creator/Role J. Paul Getty Museum Current Location-Repository Name irises , nature , soil , etc. Subject-Matter 1889, earliest: 1889, latest: 1889 Creation-Date Irises Title paintings Object/Work type Paintings Classification
  • Semantic Digital Libraries and Existing DL Systems
    • how to handle the legacy (meta-)data problem
    • lifting existing (meta-)data to a semantic level
      • simple solutions like MARC21  DublinCore
      • complex ontologies like MarcOnt Ontology for capturing concepts from different standards
    • legacy libraries expose their metadata via well established protocols - the metadata can be imported into semantic DLs
    • semantic DLs can play a role of integration champions in the information retrieval process in heterogeneous networks:
      • OAI-PMH
      • Z39.50
      • Dienst
  • Application A reas for Semantic Web T echnologies
    • Thesauri & Controlled Vocabularies
      • qualified DublinCore
      • DMoz, DDC-based taxonomies
      • SKOS, WordNet and other thesauri
    • Schema Mappings / Crosswalks
      • MarcOnt Ontology – aims to cover concepts from MARC21, BibTeX and DublinCore
      • MarcOnt Mediation Services – an open mediation framework between common legacy metadata standards
    • Metadata Integration
      • RDF as a common data model for integrating metadata from various autonomous and heterogeneous data sources
      • OWL for modeling the data source’s semantics
      • SPARQL as a common query language
  • Semantic DL as Evolving Knowledge Space
    • In state-of-the-art digital libraries users are consumers
      • Retrieve contents based on available bibliographic records
    • Recent trends: user communities
      • Connetea
      • Flickr
    • In Semantic digital libraries users are contributers as well
      • Tagging (Web 2.0)
      • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering
      • Annotations
    • Semantic Digital libraries enforce the transition from a static information to a dynamic (collaborative) knowledge space
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems
    • JeromeDL
      • a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability
    • BRICKS
      • aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain.
    • FEDORA
      • delivers flexible service-oriented architecture to managing and delivering content in the form of digital objects
    • SIMILE
      • extends and laverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services
  • Tutorial – Semantic Digital Libraries - Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions – Sebastian R. Kruk, Stefan Decker Predrag Kneževi ć , Bernhard Haslhofer, Sandy Payette, Dean Krafft
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems
    • JeromeDL
      • a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability
    • BRICKS
      • aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain.
    • FEDORA
      • delivers flexible service-oriented architecture to managing and delivering content in the form of digital objects
    • SIMILE
      • extends and laverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services
  • Tutorial 7 – Semantic Digital Libraries - Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions – JeromeDL Sebastian R. Kruk
  • Outline
    • JeromeDL - Motivation and Overview
    • JeromeDL - Architecture and Ontologies
    • JeromeDL - Semantic Services
    • JeromeDL - Social Services
    • JeromeDL - Semantics in Use
  • JeromeDL - Introduction
    • Joint effort of DERI, National University of Ireland, Galway and Gdansk University of Technology (GUT)
    • Distributed under BSD Open Source license
    • Digital library build on semantic web technologies to answer requirements from: librarians, scientists and everyone.
  • JeromeDL – Motivations Use Cases
    • Librarians:
      • support for rich metadata (MARC21) in uploading resources, accessing bibliographic information and searching
      • persistent identifiers
    • Scientists:
      • easy publishing (designed as a institute/university digital library)
      • creating hierarchical networks of digital libraries
      • support for accessing, sharing and searching using bibliography metadata (BibTeX)
    • Everyone:
      • simple search (incl. natural language queries)
      • community-aware information sharing and browsing,
      • support for interationalization
  • JeromeDL - Motivations
    • Support for different kinds of bibliographic medatata, like: DublinCore , BibTeX and MARC21 at the same time.
      • Making use of existing rich sources of bibliographic descriptions (like MARC21) created by human.
    • Supporting users and communities:
      • user s ha ve control over their profile information ;
      • community-aware profiles are integrated with bibliographic descriptions
      • support for community generated knowledge
    • Delivering communication between instances:
      • P2P mode for searching and users authentication
      • Hierarchical mode for browsing
  • Outline
    • JeromeDL - Motivation and Overview
    • JeromeDL - Architecture and Ontologies
    • JeromeDL - Semantic Services
    • JeromeDL - Social Services
    • JeromeDL - Semantics in Use
  • JeromeDL – Architecture
    • Resources and annotations repository
    • Middleware:
      • query processing
      • community space
      • resources management
    • User interface agents:
    • Communication to the outside world
    • Administrative interface
  • Bibliographic Description in JeromeDL <?xml version =&quot;1.0&quot; encoding =&quot;UTF-8&quot; ?> <rdf:Description rdf:about =&quot;http://...id=828374765&quot; > <dc:title> JeromeDL - Adding Semantic Web Technologies to DLs </dc:title> <dc:creator> Sebastian Kruk </dc:creator> <dc:description> In recent years... </dc:description> </rdf:Description> 01450cas 922004331i 450000100...019c19329999gw qr|p| ||||0 |0ger | a0044-2992 9a200412140219bVLOADc200404071525dvkulc200310071018dvbjc200303101205dkopumky200209211341zVLOAD aGD U/MPcGD U/MPdGD U/MFdGD U/KKsdWR O/EJ0 ager1 aZ. Kunstgesch. 0aZeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte00aZeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte.18aZfK aMünchen ;aBerlin :bDeutscher Kunstverlag,c1932-. c26-29 cm. aKwart.0 a1 Bd. (Juni 1932)-. aOpis na podst.: LCC. aW 1932 założycielami czasopisma byli Wilhelm Waetzoldt i Ernst Gall.... These all can be represented in RDF @ InProceedings { jeromedexa2005, author = &quot;Sebastian Ryszard Kruk and ... &quot;, title = &quot;{JeromeDL - Adding Semantic ...}&quot;, booktitle = &quot;{In Proceedings to DEXA 2005}&quot;, year = 2005}
  • Structure ontology in JeromeDL
  • Bibliographic (MarcOnt) Ontology in JeromeDL
  • Community-aware (FOAFRealm) ontology
  • Ontologies in JeromeDL
  • Metadata and Services in JeromeDL
  • Outline
    • JeromeDL - Motivation and Overview
    • JeromeDL - Architecture and Ontologies
    • JeromeDL - Semantic Services
    • JeromeDL - Social Services
    • JeromeDL - Semantics in Use
  • MarcOnt Initiative – Overview
    • Motivation:
    • Provide set of tools for
    • collaborative ontology
    • development
    • MarcOnt Initiative goals:
    • Create a framework for collaborative ontology improvement (E-learning)
    • Provide domain experts with tools to share their knowledge
    • Offer tools for data mediation between different data formats
  • MarcOnt Portal and MarcOnt Ontology
    • MarcOnt Ontology:
    • Central point of MarcOnt Initiative
    • Translation and mediation format
    • Continuos collaborative ontology improvement
    • Knowledge from the domain experts
    • MarcOnt Portal (source of knowledge):
    • Suggestions
    • Annotations
    • Versioning
    • Ontology editor
  • MarcOnt Mediation Services for Legacy Metadata Format translation RDF Translator Format co-operation MarcOnt Mediation Services
  • Outline
    • JeromeDL - Motivation and Overview
    • JeromeDL - Architecture and Ontologies
    • JeromeDL - Semantic Services
    • JeromeDL - Social Services
    • JeromeDL - Semantics in Use
  • Social Services in JeromeDL
    • Involve users into sharing knowledge
      • Blogs – comments and discussions about documents and resources
      • Tagging – collaborative classification
      • Wikis – collaboratively edited additional descriptions, such as summaries and interesting facts
    • Preserve knowledge for future use
      • Users can learn from experience of others instantly
      • Recommend new, interesting resources based on users’ profiles
  • FOAF - Describing Social Networks
    • FOAF - Stands for Friend-of-a-Friend
    • Defines properties for a person (but it does not have to be a person, can be an “agent”)
    • Does not only have to contain one person per file
    • Can build a network of people with foaf:knows links
    • FOAF can be easily extended to meet requirements, as in the case of FOAFRealm for identity management…
  • Identity management with FOAFRealm
    • Identity defined with extended FOAF metadata
    • Policies expressed by social networking
      • Distance between owner and requester
      • Friendship level between owner and requester, calculated across digraph of social network
    • Support for single registration and sign on
    • Distributed identity management with HyperCuP (“D-FOAF”)
    • FOAFRealm is currently implemented as a plugin for Tomcat (Realm/Valve implementation), with PHP and .NET versions coming soon
  • What is S ocial S emantic C ollaborative F iltering?
    • Goal: t o enhance individual bookmarks with shared knowledge within a community
    • Users annotate catalogues of bookmarks with semantic information taken from DM oz or WordNet vocabularies
    • Catalogs can include ( transclusion ) friend's catalogues
    • Access to catalogues can be restricted with social networking-based polices
    • SSCF delivers:
      • Community-oriented, semantically-rich taxonomies
      • Information about a user's interest
      • Flows of expertise from the domain expert
      • Recommendations based on users previous actions
      • Support for SIOC metadata
  • Example of S ocial S emantic C ollaborative F iltering foaf:knows xfoaf:include xfoaf:bookmark
  • Social Networks in Digital Libraries Resource xfoaf:Annotation user_C creator_B foaf:knows marcont:hasCreator creator_A foaf:knows foaf:knows xfoaf:Directory user_D xfoaf:owns xfoaf:linksTo xfoaf:isIn
  • Support for online communities in SSCF
  • Outline
    • JeromeDL - Motivation and Overview
    • JeromeDL - Architecture and Ontologies
    • JeromeDL - Semantic Services
    • JeromeDL - Social Services
    • JeromeDL - Semantics in Use
  • JeromeDL – Delivering Semantic Content
    • Providing semantic annotations during uploading process:
      • open module for handling any taxonomies
      • keywords based on WordNet and free tagging
      • defining structure of resources in the JeromeDL ontology
    • Lifting legacy metadata to MarcOnt ontology
    • Community maintained annotations
      • social semantic collaborative filtering
      • semantic descriptions based on the FOAF metadata
  • Annotating Library Resources
  • JeromeDL – Semantic Information In Use
    • Searching:
      • Keyword-based search with semantic query expansion
      • Semantic search:
        • Direct RDF quering
        • Natural language templates
    • Browsing
      • Exibit
      • MultiBeeBrowse
    • Sharing:
      • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering
      • Semantically Interlinked Online Communities
    • Heterogeneous communication:
      • Bibster , A9 , OAI -PMH
  • Exposing Semantic Annotations
  • Filtering Resources in JeromeDL
  • Sharing Knowledge with SSCF
  • Information Retrieval in JeromeDL Fulltext Index Structure Repository MarcOnt Repository Resources’ Content FOAFRealm Repository (typed) keywords RDF & NL Query OpenSearch RSS collaborative filtering types translation semantic query expansion RDF Repositories Secure Snapshot local interface distributed interface
  • Networks of Digital Libraries
    • ELP (Extensible Library Protocol) implementation
      • communication within JeromeDL network
      • adapters for communication with other networks
    • D-FOAF integration (distributed user profile management)
      • single sign on and single registration within D-FOAF network
    • HyperCuP integration (scalable P2P network)
    • Independent ELP network entry point: http://search.jeromedl.org/
    0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 2
  • Tutorial – Semantic Digital Libraries - Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions – BRICKS Predrag Knežević Fraunhofer IPSI Institute Germany Bernhard Haslhofer University of Vienna Austria
  • Outline
    • BRICKS Overview
    • BRICKS Components
    • BRICKS Applications
  • What is BRICKS?
    • A software infrastructure for building digital library networks
      • Transparent access to distributed resources
      • Multilinguality
      • Easy installation & maintainance
    • A set of end-user applications
      • Network & content management
      • Web 2.0 tagging/annotations
      • Domain specific applications
    • A business model
      • Open source, platform independent
      • Low cost infrastructure
      • User communities  sustainability
  • BRICKS Architecture
    • A decentralized P2P network
      • Avoid central coordination
      • Highly Scalable, increased reliability
      • Minimized maintainance costs
    • Each P2P Node is a set of SOA components
      • Web Service interface
      • Platform independent
      • Flexible composition
    • Components for
      • Storing, accessing and protecting digital objects
      • (Semantic) search & browsing
      • P2P commmunication
  • Accessing Data
  • A Look into a BNode { BNode
  • Outline
    • BRICKS Overview
    • BRICKS Components
    • BRICKS Applications
  • Collection Manager
    • Single access point for all content and metadata related operations (local and remote)
    • Physical Collection
      • Similar to folder/directory hierarchy in a file system
      • Bound to a single BNode
      • Each digital content object belongs to exactly one collection
    • Logical Collection
      • Virtual folder for organizing content items independent of their physical location
      • Links to content items from various physical collections on different BNodes
      • A content item might belong to many of them
    • Stored Query similar to database views
  • Content Manager
    • Two ways to handle content in BRICKS
      • Stored locally at site of a member party, accessed via URL
      • Stored within BRICKS
    • Based on Java Content Repository (JCR)
    • Provides a meta-content model
      • Re-use of existing content models
      • Use standard models
  • Metadata Manager
    • Metadata descriptions  RDF
      • Suitable for any application scenario
      • Express relationships between objects
      • React to changes without changing the model
    • Schema defintions  OWL
      • No fixed schema
      • Extensible (e.g. Application profiles)
      • Semantic concepts instead of schematic strucutures
    • SPARQL
      • Metadata queries over ontology concepts
      • Queries for graph patterns
  • Security Manager
    • Transparently invoked by the Framework
      • any service call is checked
    • Context-aware policies based on RBAC (via XACML rules)
      • supporting Roles, Groups, at DLObject level
    • Permission declaration through Javadoc @tags
    • Federated identity is managed through an adapted version of OpenSAML
    • Reputation-based Trust calculation integrated
    • Web-based GUI for security configuration
  • Digital Rights Management
    • DRM Component
      • Support for licenses based on MPEG-21 REL license declaration standard
      • Generic API for the integration of commercial DRM systems
    • Watermarking
      • Open-source watermarking tool for images
      • Other tools can be integrated
    • BRICKS Store web application for commercial content
    • Creative Commons support for other content in BRICKS
  • Outline
    • BRICKS Overview
    • BRICKS Components
    • BRICKS Applications
  • Application: BRICKS Workspace
    • What does it demonstrate?
      • A web application (thin client) accessing BRICKS Foundation services
      • Web 2.0 image annotations
      • Reference application
    • Primary customers
      • General end-users (citizens)
      • Application developers
    • Technology
      • Struts based interface to the BCH
  • Application: BRICKS Desktop
    • What does it demonstrate?
      • A rich client application accessing BRICKS foundation services
      • Direct access to the BCHN
    • Primary customers
      • Expert end-users (researchers, educators)
      • Application developers
    • Technology
      • Eclipse based rich client interface
  • Application: Annotation Tool
    • What does it demonstrate?
      • Tool which allows end-users to annotate images
      • Creation of annotation threads
      • Supervised Annotations
    • Primary customers
      • End-users
      • Institutions with large image collections
    • Technology
      • Web Application
  • Application: Online Exhibition Authoring Tool
    • What does it demonstrate?
      • Creating and publishing online exhibitions using contents that is available in the BRICKS network
    • Primary customers?
      • Expert end-users (curators)
    • Technology
      • Web Application
  • Application: Archeological Finds Identifier
    • What does it demonstrate?
      • A web application for comparing findings (e.g. ancient coins) with objects in reference collections
      • Application of complex domain ontology (CIDOC-CRM)
      • Map visualization of GIS-Metadata
    • Primary customers?
      • Museum curators, archaeologists, students, amateurs,
    • Technology
      • Struts based interface
  • References
    • BRICKS Community Web Site
      • http://www.brickscommunity.org/
      • Main Contact: silvia.boi@metaware.it
    • Related (de-facto) standards
      • Resource Description Framework (RDF)
        • http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/
      • OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL)
        • http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-guide/
      • SPARQL
        • http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/
      • Java Content Repository (JCR)
        • http://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=170
    • Tools and Libraries
      • Jackrabbit
        • http://jackrabbit.apache.org/
      • Jena Semantic Web Framework
        • http://jena.sourceforge.net/
  • Tutorial – Semantic Digital Libraries - Existing Semantic Digital Libraries Solutions – Fedora Sandy Payette Director, Fedora Project Cornell University Dean Krafft, PI, NSDL Cornell University
  • Outline
    • Fedora
    • NSDL - National Science Digital Library
  • Fedora Semantic Digital Libraries enable … Scholarly and Scientific Workbenches “ Web 2.0” Collaborative Repositories Museum Exhibits with Lesson Plans Linking Data and Publications blog and wiki
  • The Fedora Project
    • Fedora
      • F lexible
      • E xtensible
      • D igital
      • O bject
      • R epository
      • A rchitecture
    • History
      • Cornell Research (1997-2002)
        • DARPA and NSF-funded research and reference implementations
        • Distributed, Interoperable Repositories (experiments with CNRI)
      • Open Source Project (2002-present)
        • Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (2002-2009)
        • Joint development by Cornell University and University of Virginia
        • Transitioning into non-profit organization (Fedora Commons 501c3)
  • Fedora - Technology Integration Semantic Repository Enterprise Preservation
    • Information Networks
    • Contextualization
    • Relationships
    • Query
    • Inference
    • Workflow
    • Messaging
    • Transactions
    • Replication
    • Digital Objects
    • Manage
    • Access
    • Versioning
    • Storage
    • Integrity Check
    • Monitoring
    • Alerting
    • Migration
  • Motivations: Fedora and Semantic Technologies
    • A natural model for exposing repository as network of objects
      • Object-to-object relationships
      • Relationships to external entities
      • Query the graph; traversal to discover related stuff
    • Indexing based on generalizable data model
      • Graph-based data model is a common reduction
      • Avoid fixed schema problems and metadata mud wrestling
    • Extensible enrichment of object descriptions
      • Keep overlaying statements from multiple ontologies
      • Organic evolution
    • Powerful queries and inference for repository management
      • Transitive relationships among objects
      • Dependency analysis;
      • Detection/Extraction of sub-graphs
      • Provenance of disseminations
  • RDF in the Fedora Digital Object Model
  • Digital Objects contain their RDF assertions
    • Assert relationships from Fedora base ontology
      • Collection – member
      • Whole – part
      • Equivalence
      • Description Of
      • More…
    • Assert relationships/properties from community ontologies
      • isAnnotationOf
      • isRecommendedBy
      • isCertifiedBy
      • More ….
  • Example: Digital Objects with “compositional semantics”
  • Use Case: scholarly objects and annotation in the humanities musuem and library objects commercial web content scholarly objects URI-100 xx:recommends URI-55 yy:certifies
  • 3 Objects – 3 RDF “Relationships” Datastreams <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;info:fedora/uva:pid-11> <ais:annotationOf rdf:resource=“info:fedora/uva:pid-3”/> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;info:fedora/uva:pid-3&quot;> <uva:hasPartLetter rdf:resource=&quot;info:fedora/uva:pid-2&quot;/> <uva:hasPartDiagram rdf:resource=&quot;info:fedora/uva:pid-1&quot;/> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;info:fedora/uva:pid-10> <ais:providesContextFor rdf:resource=“info:fedora/uva:pid-3”/> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
    • NOT the core object store - RI is a graph-based index of the repository
    • Automatic, incremental indexing into triplestore
    • Search/query the repository via Fedora RI Query Interface
    Fedora RDF-based Resource Index (RI) RDF Index of Repository RDF datastream Fedora object properties DC datastream Digital Object Store
  • RI Graph - view 1 (abbreviated) …
  • RI Graph - view 2 (abbreviated) …
  • RI Implementation: The Triplestore Challenge
    • Scalability
      • Few triplestores perform well for 100M+ triples
      • Kowari – we tested to 180M triples
      • MPTStore – we tested to 250M triples
    • Performance
      • Jena - easy to get out of memory
      • Sesame Native - slow for complex queries
      • Kowari
        • Fast queries and full-featured query language (iTQL)
        • Instability and corruption problems
      • MPTStore
        • Very fast for SPO queries (limited support for complex queries)
        • Add/modify significantly faster than Kowari
      • Mulgara
        • Fork of Kowari; complex queries; models; inference
        • Major bug fixes to fix stability and corruption problems
        • XA2 transactions
        • Claims support for billions of triples
  • Outline
    • FEDORA
    • NSDL - National Science Digital Library
  • Demo Use Case: Object-Centered Sociality
  • What is NSDL committed to?
      • NSDL 2.0 as a platform for developing digital library tools
      • Support for communities across the full range of science, technology, engineering and mathematics research, learning and education
      • The library as a shared, collaborative, contributory space
      • Supporting the creation of context around library resources to enhance discovery, use, and understanding
  • NSDL Semantic Digital Library repository requirements
    • Supports storing both content and metadata
    • Allows arbitrary relationships among resource and metadata objects: organization, annotation, citation
    • Accessible through web service architecture of remixable data sources and transformations
  • NSDL Data Repository (NDR)
    • Implemented in Fedora 2.2 with MPTStore and journalling
    • Moderately large: 4.7 million digital objects, 250 million RDF triples
    • D.O.s: resources, metadata, agents, metadata providers, aggregators
    • A REST API to allow authenticated access by other applications
    • In production at nsdl.org
  • NSDL as Semantic Digital Library : collaboration, context, and contribution
    • The NDR and services provide the platform, but we still need the applications
    • Solution 1: Leverage the existing successful models: blogs, wikis, bookmarking/tagging
    • Solution 2: Leverage the existing software: WordPress, MediaWiki, Connotea, Sakai
    • Solution 3: Engage with partners and the broader community to build applications to the platform
  • Expert Voices
    • The NSDL Blogosphere, live at http://expertvoices.nsdl.org
    • Topic-based discussions (e.g. forensics) linked to related library resources
    • A way for NSDL community members to become NSDL contributors: of resources, questions, reviews, annotations, metadata
    • Wordpress-based multi-user multi-blog application (open source, plug-in architecture)
    • Owner controls publication of entries as NSDL resources and visibility of comments
    • Entries can contain linked references to NSDL resources, references to URLs that should become resources, and new resource metadata
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  • OurNSDL: NDR-integrated Wiki
    • Community of approved contributors (e.g. teachers, librarians, scientists) are granted edit access on OurNSDL wiki
    • New resources and metadata are created as wiki pages and reflected into the NDR
    • Non-wiki-based NDR resources and metadata are displayed as read-only wiki pages, subject to comment and linking, with links reflected back into RDF relationships in NDR
    • User and project pages organize NDR resources, again reflected back into repository as RDF
    • Now implementing MediaWiki extensions; beta release expected 2Q07
  • NDR Entry for Soft Matter Wiki Wiki Entry New Metadata New Audience MD Referenced New Resource 1 Referenced Existing Resource 2 Annotates Metadata for Metadata for Member of Metadata Provider Metadata Provider Existing Collection Soft Matter Wiki Member of Inferred relationship between resources
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  • NSDL 2.0 Ecosystem … Protocol: OAI-PMH HTTP REST NDR API STEM Collections Search Service Archive Service Fedora-based NDR
  • NSDL 2.0 and the Semantic Web
    • NSDL 2.0 applications situate resources in context, aiding both discovery and use
    • Users become contributors, adding new resources, ratings, annotations, and organizational structure – frequently as a side effect of using the library
    • Fedora-based semantic web technology organizes resources, ties context to content, maintains provenance, enables discovery, empowers the user, and powers the library
  • Tutorial – Semantic Digital Libraries - Comparison and the Future - Sebastian R. Kruk, Stefan Decker Bernhard Haslhofer, Predrag Kneževic, Sandy Payette
  • System Features Comparison General Properties JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora OS Support Any Any Any Hardware Requirements 500MB RAM, min 128MB HD 500MB RAM, min 100MB HD Depends Software Requirements Java 1.5, Tomcat 5.5, Sesame Java 1.4/1.5 Java 1.5, Tomcat, Kowari/Mulgara or MPTStore Current Stage Research Stable version 2.0.1 Second Prototype Production Version 2.2 No. Installations 12+ ~ 8 ~50 monitored; large # of downloads unmonitored Support Model Open Source Open Source Open Source
  • System Features Comparison Architectural Aspects JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Distribution Distributed searching (P2P), aggregated browsing (hierarchical) Fully decentralized (P2P) Objects as surrogates for distributed content; federation via search services; Alvis P2P Architecture Granularity Low (main building blocks) High (many Components) Moderate (core repository service with configurable modules; loosely coupled services) DB - Support Any Sesame-complient backend H2, HSQL, Postgres, MySQL, Oracle, SQLServer MySQL, Postgres, Oracle, McKoi
  • System Features Comparison Content & Metadata Aspects JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Content Types All All All Content Models Any Any Metadata Schema MarcOnt + extensions Any OWL- Any Query types Full-text, Filed-Search, Ontology-based, NL Query Templates Full-text, Field-Search, Ontology-based Field Search, Ontology-based (itql, rdql, spo), Full-Text (Lucene or Zebra backed service)
  • System Features Comparison Security & DRM Aspects JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Security Model FOAFRealm RBAC XACML Policy Granularity Resource, Degrees of seperation Component, Method, Object Object, Datastream, Dissemination method DRM Model Fair use DRM under development MPEG-21 REL DRM Enabling Tool Support Watermarking
  • System Features Comparison Semantic Aspects & Community Features JeromeDL BRICKS Fedora Reasoning Recommendation engine based on Prolog Configurable inference engine Holding pattern; look to Mulgara; Tagging Free tagging, Wordnet-based Annotation middleware/apps (e.g., NSDL/NDR; PLoSONE/Topaz) Taxonomies Any (JOnto) Any Knoledge Sharing SSCF component middleware/apps (e.g., NSDL/NDR; PLoSONE/Topaz) Communities SIOC and FOAF compli a nce
  • The future - Social Semantic Digital Libraries
    • Why current (semantic) digital libraries are not enough?
      • digital libraries should not be for librarians only but for average people
      • they concentrate on delivering content/information, not on knowledge sharing within a community of users
      • digital libraries have lost human-part of their predecessors
  • The future - Social Semantic Digital Libraries
    • What could be the solution?
      • make users/readers involved in the content annotation process
      • allow users/readers to share their knowledge within a community
      • provide better communication between users in and across communities
  • The future - Social Semantic Digital Libraries
    • What is Web 2.0?
      • The Web where “ordinary” users can meet, collaborate, and share using whatever is newly popular on the Web (tagged content, social bookmarking, AJAX, etc.)
      • The term Web 2.0 was made popular by Tim O’Reilly: http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
      • Popular examples include: Bebo, del.icio.us, digg, Flickr, Google Maps, Skype, Technorati, Wikipedia…
  • The future - Social Semantic Digital Libraries (3)
    • Web 2.0 focuses include:
      • The Web as a platform for social and collaborative exchange
      • Reusable community contributions
      • Subscriptions to information, news, data flows, services
      • Mass-publishing using web-based social software
    • Social software for communication and collaboration:
      • IM, IRC, Forums, Blogs, Wikis, Social Network Services, Social Bookmarks, MMOGs…
  • Social Semantic Information Spaces
  • Comparing Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 / Semantic Web 2.0 Semantic Social Networks Online Social Networks Buddy Lists, Address Books Semantic Social Information Spaces - - Social Semantic Digital Libraries Google Scholar, Book Search CiteSeer, Project Gutenberg Semantic Forums and Community Portals Community Portals Message Boards Semantic Blogs Blogs Personal Websites Semantic Search Google Personalised, DumbFind Altavista, Google Semantic Wikis Wikis Content Management Systems Semantic Web 2.0 Web 2.0 Web 1.0
  • Geo, Time, and Machine Tagging
    • Geo-tagging for resources with a specific geographical location
    • Time-tagging – community driven process of assigning auxiliary multimedia content
    • Machine-tagging – ability to mix structured annotations into tags
    • ROI-tagging :
      • Regions of interest
      • ERP game
      • Asynchonous version with annealing of annotations for less frequently visited libraries
  • SDL in eLearning
    • One of potential sources of future e-Learning systems
    • On the verge between formal (libraries) and informal (communities) learning sources
    • Semantic interoperability with Learning Management Systems
    • Improve knowledge creation, delivery and sharing
  • SDL in Future Museums
    • Museums have physical objects
    • Should bind digital annotations with physical objects
    • Real-virtual tours
      • Start with real, guided tour
      • Ubiquitous browse through context information
      • Locate other exhibitions in the vicinity
      • Share your knowledge and experience with others, leave bread-crumbs for others
      • Get the most of the exhibition during your visit
  • Discussion – Feedback The Librarian from Unseen University in Ankh-Morpork (formerly Dr. Horace Worblehat)