A Visual History of the Visual Arts - Part 1

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(This is a new 2014 edition that adds about 100 pages to the original)
A Visual History of the Visual Arts - Part 1 From Impressionism to Surrealism - A free supplement to "A Brief History of Knowledge" (Amazon ebook) - Downloadable version: http://www.scaruffi.com/art/history/index.html

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  • Piero... why calling it "Victorian Era"???? Were english really involved in graphics arts durint XIX and XX century?: NO (and I love preraphaelists...)
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  • Thank you so much!
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  • scaruffi is incredible
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  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • Sergei Diaghilev’s choreographer George Balanchine founds in New York the School of American Ballet (1934), promoting free dance styles borrowed from gymnastics
  • A Visual History of the Visual Arts - Part 1

    1. 1. 1 A Visual History of the Visual Arts Part 1: From Impressionism to Surrealism 1860-1945 Piero Scaruffi www.scaruffi.com
    2. 2. This is a free ebook. Needless to say, it took many months to compile it, and the knowledge comes from many years of study. If you feel like supporting this work, make a donation at www.scaruffi.com/support.html
    3. 3. All the text is mine but you are welcome to do what you like with it as long as it is for nonprofit purposes. All the pictures (mostly in tiny resolution) are from the artist’s website or museum’s websites or my own photo collection. If you feel that a picture is used improperly, just email me. The goal obviously is to spread knowledge, not to make money. To send comments, corrections, complaints, etc: www.scaruffi.com/email.html If a volunteer would like to list all the illustrations and track down where those artworks are located in the world, it would be a nice addition to this file. I just didn’t find the time.
    4. 4. 4 The Victorian Age •Painting/ From Realism to Impressionism –Eduard Manet (1832, France): •“Le Dernier Dejeuner” (1863) - four disconnected characters, violation of the law of perspective, shadows oriented in opposite directions
    5. 5. 5 The Victorian Age •Painting/ From Realism to Impressionism –Eduard Manet (1832, France): •“Music in the Tuileries” (1862) - chaotic scene without a focus, no hierarchy, curved trees
    6. 6. 6 The Victorian Age •Painting/ From Realism to Impressionism –Eduard Manet (1832, France): •“Boats” (1873) - curved horizon •“Boating” (1874) - no horizon
    7. 7. 7 The Victorian Age •Painting/ From Realism to Impressionism –Eduard Manet (1832, France): •“Nana” (1877) - a prostitute and only half of a man •“Woman Reading” (1880) - an independent woman reading and drinking by herself at a cafe
    8. 8. 8 The Victorian Age •Painting/ From Realism to Impressionism –Edgar Degas (1834, France): Movement “La La At the Cirque Fernando” (1879) “The Dance Lesson” (1876)
    9. 9. 9 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Social realism –Gustave Doré (1832, France): “London: A Pilgrimage” (1872 with 180 engravings
    10. 10. 10 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Social realism –Gustave Caillebotte (1848, France) “Les Raboteurs de Parquet/ The Floor Scrapers” (1875)
    11. 11. 11 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Social realism –Hubert von Herkomer (1849, Britain) –Luke Fildes (1844, Britain) “On Strike” (1891) “Applicants for Admission to a Casual Ward” (1874)
    12. 12. 12 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Social realism –Adolph Menzel (1815, Germany) –Stanhope Forbes (1857, Britain) “The Iron-rolling Mill” (1875) “Fish Sale on a Cornish Beach” (1885)
    13. 13. 13 The Victorian Age •Painting/ From Realism to Impressionism –First impressionist exhibition in Paris (1874) –Ordinary life in motion –Light effects –The real subject is the brush stroke itself –The expression of a national loss of confidence (France, a former superpower defeated by a small country, Prussia, in 1870)
    14. 14. 14 The Victorian Age •Painting/ From Realism to Impressionism –Pierre Renoir (1841, France) “Ball at the Moulin de la Galette” (1876)
    15. 15. 15 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Impressionism –Claude Monet (1840, France) •Series painting: the same subject from the same point at different times of the day and of the year (“Haystacks”) •Time and change, not only space •Blurred images (“Water Lilies”) remove boundaries •Colors with no boundaries instead of shapes with boundaries •The ultimate subject of painting is light
    16. 16. The Victorian Age •Painting –Claude Monet (1840, France) Orangerie (1920) “Haystacks” (1891) “Cathedrale de Rouen” (1894)
    17. 17. The Victorian Age •Impressionism –Claude Monet “Bridge Over a Pond of Water Lilies” (1899) “The Artist's Garden at Giverny” (1900)
    18. 18. The Victorian Age •Painting –Claude Monet “Nimphee” (1926)
    19. 19. The Victorian Age •Impressionism –Gustave Caillebotte (1848, France) •Realist, quasi-photographic impressionism –Jean Béraud (1849, France) “Paris Street, Rainy Day” (1877) “The Milliner on the Champs Elysées” (1902)
    20. 20. The Victorian Age •Pointillism –Georges-Pierre Seurat (1859, France) •Sense of tranquillity and civility •Idealized civilized life “La Parade du Cirque” (1888) “La Grande Jatte” (1884)
    21. 21. 21 The Victorian Age •Naïve/Primitive style –Henry Rousseau (1844, France) •Beauty and terror “Sleeping Gypsy” (1897) “Carnival Evening” (1886)
    22. 22. 22 The Victorian Age •Naïve/Primitive style –Henry Rousseau (1844, France) “The Dream” (1910)
    23. 23. 23 The Victorian Age •Pre-Raphaelites –Dante Gabriel Rossetti: “Astarte Syriaca” (1877) –Edward Burne-Jones: “King Cophetua and the beggar maid” (1884)
    24. 24. 24 The Victorian Age •Naturalism and Realism in the USA –Winslow Homer (1836): “Snap the Whip” (1872) –Thomas Eakins (1844): “The Gross Clinic” (1875)
    25. 25. 25 The Victorian Age •Naturalism and Realism in the USA –Abbott Thayer (1849) “Peacock in the Woods” (1907) “White Flamingos, Red Flamingos: The Skies They Simulate” (1909)
    26. 26. 26 The Victorian Age •Photography –Photography makes the "photographic" depiction of reality by painters and sculptors largely irrelevant. –Unable to compete with photography for the reproduction of the outside, artists turn inside. –Artists also begin to make art that speaks about the process of making art, as a form of self- propaganda against the new media of photography, radio and cinema
    27. 27. 27 The Victorian Age •Photography in the USA –William Talbot publishes the first book entirely illustrated by photography: “Pencil of Nature” (1844)
    28. 28. 28 The Victorian Age •Photography –Mathew Brady: “Dunker Church and the Dead” (1862) –Tim O’Sullivan (1840, New York): “A Harvest of Death” (1863) –Julia-Margaret Cameron (1815, India): “The Echo” (1868)
    29. 29. 29 The Victorian Age •Photography –Edward Muybridge (1830, San Francisco): “Galloping Horse” (1878)
    30. 30. 30 The Victorian Age •Photography in the USA –Jacob Riis (1849): book of social journalism “How The Other Half Lives” (1890) “How The Other Half Lives” (1890) “Bandits Roost” (1888)
    31. 31. 31 The Victorian Age •Photography in the USA –Alfred Stieglitz (1864) “Sun Rays” (1889)
    32. 32. 32 The Victorian Age •Photography in the USA –Alfred Stieglitz (1864): Photo-secessionism “The Steerage” (1907) “The Terminal” (1892)
    33. 33. 33 The Victorian Age •Photography in the USA –Paul Strand (1890) “Abstraction, Twin Lakes, Connecticut” (1916) “Porch Shadows” (1915) “House and Billboard” (1916)
    34. 34. 34 The Victorian Age •Photography in Europe –Etienne-Jules Marey (1830, France) •1882: Chronophotography •“Le Mouvement” (1894)
    35. 35. 35 The Victorian Age •Photography in Europe –Antongiulio Bragaglia (1890, Italy) “The Typist” (1911) “Waving” (1911)
    36. 36. 36 The Victorian Age •Painting –Emancipation of color: color becomes “the” painting •Monet •Cezanne •Van Gogh •Gauguin •Matisse
    37. 37. 37 The Victorian Age •Paul Cezanne (1839, France) –Still life and landscape: absence of change, movement, time –Timelessness –Multiple perspectives in the same painting (“Still Life With Fruit Basket” in which each object is painted from a different perspective) –Color instead of line, shading, perspective –Color to create a sense of depth –Cezanne abstracts form the way Van Gogh abstracts color –Reducing objects to the fundamental forms (cones, cylinders, spheres)
    38. 38. 38 The Victorian Age •Paul Cezanne (1839, France) “Still Life With Fruit Basket” “Large Bathers” (1905) “Montagne Sainte-Victoire” (1906) “Bay from L’Estaque” (1886)
    39. 39. 39 The Victorian Age •Van Gogh (1853, Holland) –Emotional use of color Wheatfield with Crows (1890) Night Café (1888) “Starry Night” (1889)
    40. 40. 40 The Victorian Age •Painting –Paul Gauguin (1848, France) •Color to cause emotion •“Color expresses something by itself” •The grass is red in “Vision After the Sermon” •Non-Western traditions •Allegorical quality •Musical quality “Vision After the Sermon” (1888)
    41. 41. 41 The Victorian Age •Painting –Paul Gauguin “La Orana Maria” (1891)
    42. 42. 42 The Victorian Age •Painting –Paul Gauguin (1848, France) “Where Have We Come From” (1897)
    43. 43. 43 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Symbolism –Edvard Munch (1863, Norway) •Human suffering •The age of anxiety “Dance of Life” (1900) “The Scream” (1893)
    44. 44. 44 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Symbolism –Fernand Khnopff (1858, Belgium) “The Caress” (1896)
    45. 45. 45 The Victorian Age •English Arts & Crafts Movement (1880s) –John Ruskin: industrialization has caused tasteless mass-produced goods, decline in creativity, prominence of engineering over art –William Morris: return to handmade crafts and communal life; art is not separate from craft; any object can become an artwork –Nature-inspired textiles, handpainted tiles, stained-glass windows, furniture –First magazine devoted to the visual arts: “The Century Guild Hobby Horse” (1884) William Morris: “Wey” (1884)
    46. 46. 46 The Victorian Age •English Arts & Crafts Movement (1880s) –Return to rural environments –Revival of old techniques –Inspired by British flora and fauna –Revival of fine book printing (Kelmscott Press, Essex House, Doves Press) –1902: The village of Chipping Campden becomes a commune of the arts & crafts guild
    47. 47. 47 The Victorian Age •English Arts & Crafts Movement William Morris’ fantasy novel “The Story of the Glittering Plain” (1891)
    48. 48. 48 The Victorian Age •European Arts & Crafts Movement (1900s) –Henri van de Welde/Velde (1863, Belgium): “The Renaissance in Modern Applied Art” (1901) •Machine-made objects can be art too •Weimar’s “Academy of Fine Arts” (1902), predecessor of the Bauhaus •Architecture can help create a utopian society
    49. 49. 49 The Victorian Age •German Arts & Crafts Movement (1900s) –1907: Werkbund (Craftsmen Association) in Munich –Design for the age of the machine (vs William Morris’ contempt for machine-made goods) –The “Gesamkultur”: culture for a world in which humans and machines coexist –Peter Behrens (1868, Germany) designs furniture, appliances, industrial components and even factories Peter Behrens: Electric kettle (1910)
    50. 50. 50 The Victorian Age •German Arts & Crafts Movement (1900s) –International Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne (1914) Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer: Werkbund Pavilion, Cologne (1914)
    51. 51. 51 The Victorian Age •Ukiyo-e influence (1880s) –Japanese painting style that becomes famous in Europe after Japan is forced to open up by the USA
    52. 52. 52 The Victorian Age •Painting –James Ensor: “Entry of Christ into Brussels” (1888) –Ferdinand Hodler: “Night” (1890)
    53. 53. 53 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Precursors •James Whistler (1834, USA): “Peacock Room” Jules Cheret (1836, France): lithographic posters •Klimt, William Blake, Japanese art, Celtic art •English arts and crafts movement “Peacock Room” (1877)
    54. 54. 54 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Jules Cheret’s posters “liberate” women: neither a whore nor a saint but an independent woman who has fun in sexy dresses
    55. 55. 55 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Posters/ graphic design Paul Berthon's Ermitage card (1897)
    56. 56. 56 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Primacy of ornament, not only as decoration –Unity of the art and its environment –Encompassing more than the traditional arts (eg posters, fashion, furniture) –Florid, organic forms –Influenced by symbolist poetry (spiritual, metaphysical) reacting to materialism of industrial society –Towards abstract art –Not imitation of the past but a truly innovative style
    57. 57. 57 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/ architecture –Victor Horta (1861)’s house for Tassel in Brussels (1893) –Hector Guimard (1867) near Paris (1904) Horta
    58. 58. 58 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Posters and magazine illustrations •Eugene Grasset (1841, Switzerland) Grasset’s poster (1894)
    59. 59. 59 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Posters and magazine illustrations •Jan Toorop (1858, Holland) poster (1894) “The Three Brides” (1893)
    60. 60. 60 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Posters and magazine illustrations •Jan Toorop (1858, Holland) Jan Toorop’s ‘O Grave, where is thy Victory’ (1892)
    61. 61. 61 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Aubrey Beardsley (1872, Britain) Aubrey Beardsley’s illustration for “Mort d’Arthur”(1893) Aubrey Beardsley’s illustration for Wilde’s “Salome” (1894)
    62. 62. 62 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Charles Ricketts (1866, Britain) Illustrations for Wilde’s “The Sphinx” (1894)
    63. 63. 63 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Alphonse Mucha (1860, Czech) Mucha: “Gismunda” (1894) Mucha: poster for “Monaco - Monte Carlo” (1894)
    64. 64. 64 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864, France)
    65. 65. 65 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau –Will Bradley (1868, USA) –Maxfield Parrish (1870, USA) (1898) Parrish (1897)
    66. 66. 66 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau and cousins –England: Decorative Style –Scotland: Glasgow School –Belgium and France: Art Nouveau –Germany: Jugendstil –Austria: Sezessionstil –Italy: Stile Liberty –Spain: Modernista
    67. 67. 67 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/Jugendstil –Magazine “Jugend” (1896, Munich) –Peter Behrens (1868, Germany) (1898)
    68. 68. 68 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/ Glasgow School –Spiritual symbolist overtones –Japanese aesthetics –Mostly Black and White –Geometric Forms –Graceful Lines
    69. 69. 69 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/ Glasgow School –Margaret Macdonald (1865) –Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868) (1896) (1896)
    70. 70. 70 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/ Sezessionstil –1897: Young artists “secede” from the Kunstlerhaus of Wien/Vienna –1898: Art magazine Ver Sacrum –Koloman Moser (1868) Moser’s poster (1902)
    71. 71. 71 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/ Sezessionstil –Gustav Klimt (1862, Austria) •Art Deco ante-litteram •The female body and experience “Beethovenfries” (1902)
    72. 72. 72 The Victorian Age •Gustav Klimt “Adele Bloch-Bauer” (1907) “The Kiss” (1908)
    73. 73. 73 The Victorian Age •Gustav Klimt “Death and Life” (1910) “The Virgin” (1913)
    74. 74. 74 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/ Comics –Winsor McCay (1869): “Little Nemo” (1905-14)
    75. 75. 75 The Victorian Age •Modernism –Separation of life and art –No representational meaning –Emphasis on originality –Complete autonomy of the work of art
    76. 76. 76 The Victorian Age •Modernism –Inherently transgressive –Liberation from the oppression of dogmas –Challenging established art canons –Blurring the border between high and low art –Invention of the "avantgarde" –Style encapsulated in programmatic "movements" –Growing role of art theory
    77. 77. 77 The Victorian Age •Painting –Expressionism •Art expresses the anxiety of the age •Inspired by Dostoevsky, Strindberg, Nietzsche, Munch •“Die Brucke” (Dresden) still representational + “Der Blaue Reiter” (Munich) mostly abstract •Dresden: Emil Nolde, Oskar Kokoschka •Munich: Vasilij Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Franz Marc
    78. 78. 78 The Victorian Age •Expressionism –Oskar Kokoschka (1886, Germany): •“Die Windsbraut/ Bride of the Wind” (1914) •“The Prometheus Triptych” (1950)
    79. 79. 79 The Victorian Age •Expressionism –Egon Schiele (1890, Austria) “Embrace” (1917) “The Self Seer II” (1913) “Self-Portrait Masturbating” (1911)
    80. 80. 80 The Victorian Age •Expressionism –Vasilij Kandinskij (1866, Russia): •First abstract watercolor (1910) •Art with no subject “Gelb-Rot-Blau” (1925) “Study for Composition 7” (1913)
    81. 81. 81 The Victorian Age •Vasilij Kandinskij “Composition IX” (1936) “Composition X” (1939)
    82. 82. 82 The Victorian Age •Expressionism (quasi) –Franz Marc (1880, Germany) –Max Beckmann (1884, Germany) Marc: “The Fate of the Animals” (1913) “Night” (1919)
    83. 83. 83 The Victorian Age •Painting –Fauve/ Wild Beast (1905) •Exaggerated colors and shapes •Henri Matisse (1869, France) “Le bonheur de vivre” (1905) “Le chambre rouge” (1908)
    84. 84. 84 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Fauve –Matisse: large paintings that “scream color” “The Dance” (1909) “Music” (1910)
    85. 85. 85 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Before cubism –Frantisek Kupka (1871, Czech) •Geometric abstraction “First Step” (1909) “Disks of Newton” (1912)
    86. 86. 86 The Victorian Age •Painting/ Before cubism –Pablo Picasso (1881): “Les Demoiselles d'Avignon” (1907) •Influenced by Gauguin and Cezanne •Influenced by African sculpture •The models are prostitutes Optical synthesis of perspectives. Simultaneous vision. Not yet cubist (too erotic and too colorful)
    87. 87. 87 The Victorian Age •Painting –Cubism •For the first time since the Renaissance the goal is not an accurate representation of reality •Disposal of perspective (paintings with no depth) •Simultaneous views of an object (different perspectives can coexist) •New conception of space •New process of visual composition •Formalistic (about the pictorial technique itself) •Mostly monochrome, mostly linear (not curve) •Very few external influences (Cezanne)
    88. 88. 88 The Victorian Age •Painting –Cubism •Reaction against symbolism •Focus on objects of ordinary life •A dialogue between representation and abstraction: analytic (the subject is abstracted according to the principle of simultaneous vision, but the painting contains clues to reconstruct it) or synthetic (abstractions are used to create the subject, from abstraction to representation)
    89. 89. 89 The Victorian Age •Painting –Cubism •For the first time in history, novelty (for the sake of novelty) prevails over skills •Even collages of ordinary materials incorporated into the paintings (1912) •1925: End of Cubism (Picasso’s surrealist “Les Trois Danseuses”) •Art has become fashion: the art world is in perennial need of a novelty •Art becomes big business •The artist becomes a star and a rich person
    90. 90. 90 The Victorian Age •Painting –Cubism •A return to non-representational art: modern art reconnects with ancient art (and, in spirit, with Islamic and Eastern art)
    91. 91. The Victorian Age •Cubism –Georges Braque (1882, France) •Cezanne’s strategy of turning 3D into 2D via form disassembly and multiple perspectives “Violin and Palette” (1909) “Violin and Candlestick” (1910)
    92. 92. The Victorian Age •Cubism –Georges Braque (1882, France) “The Portuguese” (1911)
    93. 93. 93 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Pablo Picasso (1881, Spain) “L'Accordeoniste” (1911) “Ma Jolie” (1911) “Female Nude” (1910)
    94. 94. 94 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Pablo Picasso •“Three Musicians” (1921) •“Ambroise Vollard” (1910)
    95. 95. 95 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Marcel Duchamp (1887) “Nu descendant un escalier n° 2” (1912) “Nu descendant un escalier n° 1” (1911) (after Etienne-Jules Marey’s chronophotos)
    96. 96. 96 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Marcel Duchamp (1887) “Passage of the Virgin to the Bride” (1912) “The Bride” (1912)
    97. 97. 97 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Ferdinand Leger (1881) •Chaotic industrial world •Machine romanticism “Nudes in the Forest” (1910) “The City” (1919) “The City” (1919)
    98. 98. 98 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Ferdinand Leger (1881) •Monochrome figures •Dynamic background “Le Grand Dejeuner” (1921) “The City” (1919)
    99. 99. 99 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Francis Picabia (1879, France) •Occult cubism/ Orphism based on kabbala, alchemy and extra dimensions “Dances at the Spring” (1912) “Catch as Catch Can” (1913)
    100. 100. 100 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Robert Delaunay (1885, France) •Late fauvism and proto-expressionism, abstraction “Eiffel Tower in Trees” (1910) “St-Severin” (1909) “Simultaneous Windows on the City” (1912)
    101. 101. 101 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Robert Delaunay (1885, France) •Geometric abstraction “City of Paris” (1912)
    102. 102. 102 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Juan Gris (1887, France) •Synthetic cubism •Rediscovery of light and color “Man in the Cafe” (1912) “Portrait of Picasso” (1912)
    103. 103. 103 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Albert Gleizes (1881) –Jean Metzinger (1883) “Bathers” (1913) “Bathers” (1913)
    104. 104. 104 The Victorian Age •Cubism –Lyonel Feininger (1871, USA) “Harbor Mole” (1913)
    105. 105. 105 The Victorian Age •Orphism –Cubism with strong colors –Sonia Delaunay (1885, France) “Le Bal Bullier” (1913)
    106. 106. 106 The Victorian Age •After Cubism –Abstraction: Mondrian, Malevich, Kupka, Delaunay... –Neoclassicic revivalism ("return to order"): •Picasso (1915) •Constructivism (Russia, 1915) •Amédée Ozenfant's Purism (1917) •Pittura Metafisica (Italy, 1919) •Precisionism (1920) •Art Deco (France, 1925) •New Objectivity (Germany, 1925)
    107. 107. 107 The Victorian Age •Futurism –Futurist manifesto (1910) –Glorifying the future, not the past –Industrial and urban romanticism –Worship of machines –Representation of motion (multiple overlapped images of the same object as it moves) –Concerned with the time dimension (whereas cubism was concerned with space and impressionism with light)
    108. 108. 108 The Victorian Age •Futurism –Filippo Marinetti (1876) •Writing is a visual art •Inspired by Mallarme’s “Un coup de des jamais n'abolira le hasard/ A throw of the dice will never abolish chance” (1897) and Apollinaire’s “Calligrammes”1918) “Les mots en liberté futuristes/ The Futurist words-in- freedom” (1919)
    109. 109. 109 The Victorian Age •Futurism –Carlo Carra (1881) –Gino Severini (1883) “Funeral of the Anarchist Galli” (1911) “Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin” (1912)
    110. 110. 110 The Victorian Age •Futurism –Umberto Boccioni (1882) “City Rises” (1912) “States of Mind - Farewells” (1911) “States of Mind - Those who Remain” (1911) “Riot in the Galleria” (1909)
    111. 111. 111 The Victorian Age •Futurism –Giacomo Balla: “Dynamismo of a Dog on Leash” (1912) –Umberto Boccioni: “Unique Forms of Continuity in Space” (1913)
    112. 112. 112 The Victorian Age •Futurism –Antonio Sant’Elia (1888, Italy) “La Citta` Nuova” (1914)
    113. 113. 113 The Victorian Age •Futurism –Joseph Stella (1877, USA) “Brooklyn Bridge” (1918) “Battle of Lights, Coney Island” (1914)
    114. 114. 114 The Victorian Age •Cubism and Futurism –Kazimir Malevich (1879, Ukraine): “Scissor Grinder” (1912)
    115. 115. 115 The Victorian Age •Cubism and Futurism –Natalia Goncharova (1881, Russia): “Airplane over Train” (1913)
    116. 116. 116 The Victorian Age •Vorticism (1914) –Cubism + Futurism –Wyndham Lewis (1882, Britain) –Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (1891, France) –Jacob Epstein (1880, USA) Jacob Epstein: Oscar Wilde Memorial (1912) Wyndham Lewis: "Before Antwerp (1915)
    117. 117. 117 The Victorian Age •Vorticism (1914) Wyndham Lewis: "A Battery Shelled" (1919) Henri Gaudier- Brzeska: "Hieratic Head" (1914) Henri Gaudier- Brzeska: "Red Stone Dancer" (1913)
    118. 118. 118 The Victorian Age •Dada –1916: Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich –International: German (Jean/Hans Arp, Hugo Ball, Max Ernst, John Heartfield, Hannah Hoch, Kurt Schwitters), Romanian (Tristan Tzara), French (Andre Breton, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia), US (Man Ray/ Emmanuel Radnitzky) but mostly expatriates –Nihilistic –Sardonic –Provocative –A reaction against expressionism –Also agitprop (Heartfield and Grosz): a reaction against apolitical cubism
    119. 119. 119 The Victorian Age •Dada –An attack on traditional forms of art –Transient and irrelevant objects –Enemy: the bourgeoisie –Dada negates everything, including itself –1922: End of Dada (Andre Breton promotes it to an art movement and therefore kills it)
    120. 120. 120 The Victorian Age •Dadaism –Marcel Duchamp (1887, France) •“Fountain” (1917) •“Tu m” (1918) with safety pins and nut and bolt •“LHOOQ” (1919) a readymade Mona Lisa with moustaches
    121. 121. 121 The Victorian Age •Dadaism –Marcel Duchamp: “The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors Even” (1923) - painting on clear glass –A “machine drawing”
    122. 122. 122 The Victorian Age •Dadaism –Francis Picabia’s mecanomorphs “Young American Girl in a State of Nudity” (1915)
    123. 123. 123 The Victorian Age •Dadaism –Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (1874, Germany) •"She's not a futurist: she is the future" (Marcel Duchamp) •Nonsensical cabaret poetry (in Berlin) •Futuristic bohemian fashion (in New York) •Quasi-pornographic street theater (in New York)
    124. 124. 124 The Victorian Age •Dadaism –Man Ray/ Emmanuel Radnitzky (1890, USA) •Readymade: “The Enigma of Isidore Ducasse” (1920), a sewing machine wrapped in an army blanket
    125. 125. 125 The Victorian Age •Painting –Surrealism •1924: Breton’s manifesto •Mainly literature •Inspirational line: “As beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on an operating table” (Lautreamont) •“A linking of two realities that by all appearances have nothing to link them, in a setting that by all appearances does not fit them” (Max Ernst) •Spontaneous creativity •Automatism •1939: World War II ends Surrealism and some migrate to the USA
    126. 126. 126 The Victorian Age •Painting –Surrealism •Freudian influence: dreams, subconscious •Distortion of space and time •Metaphors of time (shadow, clocks) •Not only depth, but exaggerated depth
    127. 127. The Victorian Age •Pittura Metafisica –Anti-modernist –The individual as a mannequin –Giorgio DeChirico (1888, Italy) •The hidden reality •Barren silent cityscapes 127 “Enigma dell'Ora” (1912) “Melancholy and Mystery of a Street” (1914)
    128. 128. 128 The Victorian Age •Giorgio De Chirico “Hector and Andromache” (1917) “Nostalgia dell’Infinito” (1917) “Il grande metafisico” (1917)
    129. 129. 129 The Victorian Age •Carlo Carra (1881) “The Metaphysical Muse” (1917)
    130. 130. 130 The Victorian Age •Painting –Marc Chagall (1887, Russia) •Russian and Jewish folklore •Childish cartoonish fantastic imagery •Cubism and surrealism •Collapse of the laws of Physics “Over the City” (1918) “I and the Village” (1911)
    131. 131. 131 The Victorian Age •Painting –Marc Chagall (1887, Russia) “Promenade” (1918) “Birthday” (1915)
    132. 132. 132 The Victorian Age •De Stijl (1917-31) –Pure geometric abstraction is the ultimate consequence of cubism –Schoenmaekers’ book “Het nieuwe wereldbeeld/ The New Image of the World” (1915): cosmic importance of the orthogonal, cosmic importance of the three fundamental colors (red, yellow, blue) –Piet Mondrian Gerrit Rietveld (1888, Holland): The Red - Bleu chair (1917)
    133. 133. 133 The Victorian Age •De Stijl –Piet Mondrian (1872, Holland) •Geometric abstraction •Primary colors •“Each element is determined by its contrary” “Composition No. VII” (1913) •Cubism •Symbolism •Theosofy "Composition No. 10" (1915)
    134. 134. 134 The Victorian Age •De Stijl –Piet Mondrian •Neo-plasticism “Composition with Yellow, Red, Black, Blue, Gray” (1920) "Komposition mit hellfarbigem Dammbrett" (1919)
    135. 135. 135 The Victorian Age •De Stijl –Theo van Doesburg (1883, Holland) “Card Players” (1916) “Card Players - Composition IX Opus 18 ” (1917) “Arithmetic Composition” (1930)
    136. 136. 136 The Victorian Age •Suprematism –Kazimir Malevich –The straight line represents human domination over chaotic nature –The supremacy of mind over matter –A painting exists regardless of the world –“It is not an empty square… it is full of the absence of any object” –Kupka’s abstract lesson
    137. 137. 137 The Victorian Age •Suprematism –Kazimir Malevich “White on White” (1918) “Black trapezium and red square” (1915)
    138. 138. 138 The Victorian Age •Collage –Braque and Picasso (“papiers colles”) –Kazimir Malevich (1879, Ukraine) “Warrior of the First Division Moscow” (1914)
    139. 139. 139 The Victorian Age •Collage –Kurt Schwitters (1887, Germany): cubism + expressionism + found materials (wood, metal, cardboard, wool, wire, leather…) “Das Kreisen/ Revolving” (1919) “Merz 94 Grunflec” (1920) “Merzbild Rossfett ” (1919)
    140. 140. 140 The Victorian Age •Russia –Constructivism •Merging art and engineering •Harmony between art and new technology •The materials themselves have an artistic propensity •Utilitarian art instead of art for art’s sake, art to serve society’s needs •Practical art prevails over fine art
    141. 141. 141 The Victorian Age •Russia –Constructivism •Downplaying painting and sculture •Against artistic genius (against inspiration, intuition, etc) •Towards the death of all isms •Communism is creating a new society, and art should give it a new shape •Architecture is revolution
    142. 142. 142 The Victorian Age •Constructivism –Vladimir Tatlin (1895) “Monument to the Third International” (1920) “Painting Relief” (1914)
    143. 143. 143 The Victorian Age •Constructivism –Konstantin Melnikov (1890, Russia) “Kauchuk Club ” (1929) “Soviet Pavilion” (1925)
    144. 144. 144 The Victorian Age •Constructivism –Naum Gabo (1890) "Kinetic Construction" (1920) "Constructed Head No.2” (1915)
    145. 145. 145 The Victorian Age •Constructivism –Naum Gabo •But later: Transparent plastic material so that space becomes the ultimate sculptural medium “Linear Construction No 1" (1946) “Linear Construction No 2" (1949)
    146. 146. 146 The Victorian Age •Constructivism –El Lissitzky (1890) “Proun 99” (1925) “Proun Room” (1923) “Proun RVN2” (1923)
    147. 147. 147 The Victorian Age •Constructivism –Alexander Rodchenko (1891) •Kinetic sculpture •Graphic design and photomontage “Hanging Sculpture” (1920) Cover for “Miss Amend” (1924)
    148. 148. 148 The Victorian Age •Constructivism –Alexander Rodchenko (1891) •Minimalism “Monochrome triptych” (1921)
    149. 149. 149 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Frédéric Bartholdi (1834, France): Statue of Liberty (1886)
    150. 150. 150 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Auguste Rodin (1840, France) •Graeco-Roman and Renaissance art The Burghers of Calais (1889) The Three Shades (1886) The Thinker (1902)
    151. 151. 151 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Auguste Rodin (1840, France) The Gates of Hell (1917)
    152. 152. 152 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Constantin Brancusi (1876, Romania) •Simple elegant post-cubist geometry •Direct carving (1906) •African influence •Spiritual (quasi-Zen) quality “Mademoiselle Pogany” (1912) “The Kiss” (1909) “Bird in Space” (1928) “Beginning of the World” (1924)
    153. 153. 153 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Alfred Gilbert (1854, Britain): metal, polychrome –Amedeo Modigliani (1884, Italy) "Head" (1912) “Eros Fountain“, Piccadilly Circus (1893)
    154. 154. 154 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Alexander Archipenko (1887, Ukraine) •Cubism •“Medrano I” (1912, lost): made of various polychromed materials (wood, glass, and metal fiber) “Dancers” (1912) “Medrano II” (1913) “Walking Woman” (1912)
    155. 155. 155 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Jacques Lipchitz (1891, Lithuania) •Cubism •“There is no difference between painting and sculpture” “Sailor with Guitar” (1914) “Still Life with Musical Instruments” (1918) “Man with a Guitar” (1915)
    156. 156. 156 The Victorian Age •Sculpture –Jacques Lipchitz (1891, Lithuania) “Joie de Vivre” (1927)
    157. 157. 157 The Victorian Age •Fashion –Charles Worth (opened 1858 in Paris) revolutionizes the fashion industry –Callot Seurs, the first fashion house run by women (1895) –Leon Bakst (costume designer of Diaghilev/Stravinsky ballets) –Paul Poiret allows women to display their body –Mariano Fortuny –Coco Chanel
    158. 158. 158 The Victorian Age •Neogothic Architecture –Augustus Pugin: Houses of Parliament, London (1840) –Ralph Adams Cram: St John the Divine, New York (1892)
    159. 159. 159 The Victorian Age •Neogothic Architecture –George Gilbert Scott: Midland Grand/ St Pancras Renaissance, London (1873) –Giles Scott: Anglican Cathedral, Liverpool (1910) London Liverpool
    160. 160. 160 The Victorian Age •Revivalist Architecture –Charles Garnier: Opera, Paris (1861) –Joseph Poalaert: Palais de Justice, Brussels (1866) –Henry Richardson: Trinity Church, Boston (1872) –Paul Abadie: Sacre Coeur, Paris (1874) –Giuseppe Sacconi: Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele (1885) –John-Francis Bentley: Westminster Cathedral, London (1895) –Richard Morris Hunt: Court of Honor at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago (1893) launches the "City Beautiful" Movement
    161. 161. 161 Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele Sacre Coeur Court of Honor at the Columbian Exposition Westminster Cathedral Brussels The Victorian Age
    162. 162. 162 The Victorian Age •Revivalist Architecture –Christian Jank: Neuschwanstein Castle (1869- 92) –George Hauberisser: Neues Rathaus, Munich (1909) –Alexander Gornostajev: Uspenski Cathedral, Helsinki (1868)
    163. 163. 163 Neuschwanstein Uspenski, Helsinki Munich
    164. 164. 164 The Victorian Age •Art Noveau –Antoni Gaudi (1852) •Sagrada Familia, Barcelona (1883-..) •Casa Batllo, Barcelona (1905) –Otto Wagner: Steinhof Asylum, Vienna (1907) –Joseph Maria Olbricht: Secession Gallery, Vienna (1899)
    165. 165. 165 The Victorian Age •Art Noveau Steinhof Asylum Secession Gallery Casa Batllo Sagrada Familia
    166. 166. 166 The Victorian Age •Art Nouveau/ USA –Louis Sullivan (1856) •Carson Pirie Scott, Chicago (1904) •“Form ever follows Function” –Bernard Maybeck (1862) •Palace of Fine Arts, San Francisco (1915)
    167. 167. 167 The Victorian Age •Architecture of the Victorian Age –Richard Turner: Palm House, Kew (1845) –Joseph Paxton: Crystal Palace, London (1851) –Gustave Eiffel: Tour Eiffel (1889) –Hendrik Berlage: Stock Exchange, Amsterdam (1898) –Daniel Burnham: Flatiron, New York (1902) –William Kendall: Municipal Building, New York (1914) –Eliel Saarinen: Railway Station, Helsinki (1910) –Cass Gilbert: Woolworth Building, New York (1913)
    168. 168. The Victorian Age Flatiron Woolworth Municipal Helsinki Crystal Palace
    169. 169. 169 The Victorian Age •Skyscrapers –Steel frame and electricity (elevators and lighting) make high-rise buildings feasible for rebuilding Chicago after the great fire (1871) –William LeBaron-Jenney’s “Home Insurance Company Building” (1885) –Paul Sullivan publishes the article “The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered” (1896)
    170. 170. 170 The Victorian Age •Expressionism –Peter Behrens (1868): Turbine Hall, Berlin (1909) –Max Berg: Jahrhunderthalle, Breslau (1913) –Peter Jensen Klint (1853): Grundtvig Church, Copenhagen (1927) –Henry van de Velde (1863): Werkbund Theatre, Cologne (1914, destroyed) –Hans Poelzig (1869): Grosses Schauspielhaus, Berlin (1918, destroyed) –JM Van der Meij: Scheepvaarthuis, Amsterdam (1912)
    171. 171. 171 The Victorian Age Turbine Hall Jahrhunderthalle Grundtvig Church Werkbund Theatre
    172. 172. 172 The Victorian Age •Expressionism –Bruno Taut (1880): Glass House, Cologne (1914) –Hans Poelzig (1869): Grosses Schauspielhaus, Berlin (1919) –Erich Mendelsohn (1887): Einsteinturm, Potsdam (1921)
    173. 173. 173 The Victorian Age •Expressionism –Kurt Schwitters (1887, Germany) •Merzbau (1923)
    174. 174. 174 The Victorian Age •Proto-modernism –1910: Adolf Loos' "Ornament and Crime": elimination of ornament from useful objects (proto- Bauhaus) –1913: Fagus Works by Walter Gropius
    175. 175. 175 The Victorian Age •Cinema –Auguste and Louis Lumière –Stellan Rye/ Paul Wegener –Abel Gance “The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station” (1896) “J'accuse” (1918) “The Student from Prague” (1913)
    176. 176. 176 The Victorian Age •Cinema –Georges Melies (1861, France) “Tunneling the English Channel” (1907) “A Trip to the Moon” (1902) “The Kingdom of Fairies” (1903)
    177. 177. 177 The Victorian Age •Cinema –Louis Feuillade (1873, France) “Fantomas” (1913) “The Vampyres” (1915) “Judex” (1916)
    178. 178. 178 The Victorian Age •Cinema –David Wark Griffith (1875) “The Birth of a Nation” (1915) “Intolerance” (1916)
    179. 179. 179 The Modernist Age •Bauhaus, Weimer (1919-24) –Walter Gropius (1883, Germany) –Marriage of art and craft (Gropius 1919) –Marriage of art and technology (Moholy- Nagy 1923, “the machine is the spirit of this century”) –Utopian goal of a spiritual society –Inspired by the collective total creativity of the Gothic cathedrals Wilhelm Wagenfeld (1900, Germany): Table lamp (1924) Joost Schmidt: Poster for the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition
    180. 180. 180 The Modernist Age •Bauhaus, Weimer (1919-24) –László Moholy-Nagy (1895, Hungary) •Film, •Painting, •photogram (camera-less photography), •Kinetic sculpture, •poster, •Photomontage (“photoplastic”), •Etc •Creative photography is superior to painting (1923) (1922) (1924)
    181. 181. 181 The Modernist Age •Bauhaus, Dessau (1925-32) –1926: “Bauhaus” magazine –No distinction between applied and fine art –Constructivism + De Stijl –Product design, steel furniture, architecture, visual communications (graphic design, poster) –Design as a vehicle to change the world Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886, Germany): “MR Chair” (1927) Marcel Breuer (1902, Hungary): tubular steel Wassily Chair (1925)
    182. 182. 182 The Modernist Age •Bauhaus, Dessau (1925-32) Herbert Bayer (1961) for the future the bauhaus gave us assurance in facing the perplexities of work; it gave us the know-how to work, a foundation in the crafts, an invaluable heritage of timeless principles as applied to the creative process. it expressed again that we are not to impose aesthetics on the things we use, to the structures we live in, but that purpose and form must be seen as one. that direction emerges when one considers concrete demands, special conditions, inherent character of a given problem, but never losing perspective that one is, after all, an artist, the bauhaus existed for a short span of time but the potentials, inherent in its principles have only begun to be realized, its sources of design remain forever full of changing possibilities.
    183. 183. 183 The Modernist Age •Art as visual communication –De Stijl (Holland) + Constructivism (Russia) + Bauhaus (Germany) –Giving a visual representation to the mood of a rational scientific century –The arts become a means of communication –Birth of graphic design as an independent discipline
    184. 184. 184 The Modernist Age •New Objectivity (social realism in Germany) –Reaction against Expressionism and Dada –Return to figuration –Veristic painters: Max Beckmann, George Grosz, Otto Dix, Heinrich Maria Davringhausen (1894) –Franz Roh’s book “Post-Impressionism - Magic Realism” (1925)
    185. 185. 185 The Modernist Age •New Objectivity: universal bestiality Dix: “Trench” (1923) Beckmann: “Night” (1919)
    186. 186. 186 The Modernist Age •New Objectivity (social realism in Germany) –George Grosz (1893, Germany) “Metropolis" (1917) “The Agitator" (1928)
    187. 187. 187 The Modernist Age •New Objectivity –Otto Dix (1891, Germany) “Metropolis” (1928), a three-part representation of German society in the 1920s, from misery to decadence
    188. 188. 188 The Modernist Age •Unism –Wladyslaw Strzeminski (1893, Poland) "Composition Unistic" (1934) "Architectonic Composition 9c" (1929)
    189. 189. 189 The Modernist Age •Unism –Katarzyna Kobro (1898, Poland) "Spacial Composition" (1928) "Spacial Composition #4" (1929)
    190. 190. 190 The Modernist Age •Art in the USA –Alfred Stieglitz’s art gallery 291 (1906) –The “Armory Show” (1913) publicizes the European avantgarde –Synchromism (1913) is the first movement of abstract painting –Gallery of Living Art at NYU (1927) is exclusively devoted to contemporary art –Museum of Modern Art (1929) –Exodus of talents from Germany after Nazism disbands the Bauhaus (1933) –Surrealists relocate to New York after Nazist occupation of Paris (1941)
    191. 191. 191 The Modernist Age •Art in the USA –European teachers of the 1930s: Hans Hofmann (UC Berkeley, New York, Provincetown), Josef Albers (Black Mountain College in North Carolina), Moholy-Nagy (Chicago), etc
    192. 192. 192 The Modernist Age •Georgia O’Keeffe (1887, USA) –“An artist that has no progenitors” (Hal Foster) –Influence of photography –Magnificence of nature –Musical quality “The Sheldon with Sunspots” (1926) “New York Street with Moon” (1925) “Black Iris III” (1926)
    193. 193. 193 The Modernist Age •Georgia O’Keeffe “Blue Morning Glories II” (1935) “The Lawrence Tree” (1929)
    194. 194. 194 The Modernist Age •Mark Tobey (1890, USA) –Bahai religion, Zen Buddhism, Chinese painting contrasting urban life “Boogie” (1936) “Pattern of Conflict” (1944) “World Egg” (1944)
    195. 195. 195 The Modernist Age •Precisionism –Futurism + Cubism + monumental celebration of the city (“cubist realism”) –Painting of industrial architecture (factories, bridges, etc) –Mass production as a national epic –“Spiritual control over the machine” (Paul Strand) –Similar to New Objectivity, opposite to Constructivism –Classicizing the machine
    196. 196. 196 The Victorian Age •Precisionism –Joseph Stella (1877, USA) “The Voice of the City of New York Interpreted” (1922)
    197. 197. 197 The Modernist Age •Precisionism –Charles Sheeler (1883) “American Landscape” (1930) “Classic Landscape” (1931)
    198. 198. 198 The Modernist Age •Realism in the USA –Edward Hopper (1882): “Automat” (1927) –Grant Wood (1891): “American Gothic” (1930) –Isabel Bishop (1902): “Tidying Up” (1941)
    199. 199. 199 The Modernist Age •Realism in the USA –Alice Neel (1900) "Dominican Boys on 108th Street" (1955) "Two Girls in Spanish Harlem" (1941)
    200. 200. 200 The Modernist Age •Surrealism –Joan Miró (1893, Spain) •A chaotic world inhabited by improbable beasts •Witty •“Anti-painting” (Miró) “Dutch Interior I” (1928) “Dog barking to the Moon” (1926)
    201. 201. 201 The Modernist Age •Surrealism –Joan Miró “Harlequin’s Carnival” (1925)
    202. 202. 202 The Modernist Age •Surrealism –Joan Miró “The Hunter” (1924)
    203. 203. 203 The Modernist Age •Surrealism –Rene Magritte (1898, Belgium) •Science & magic •Allegorical •Illusionistic “The Lovers” (1928) “Chateau des Pyrenees” (1959) “Faux Miroir” (1928) “Lovers” (1928)
    204. 204. •Magritte: “Condition Humaine” (1934) •Magritte: “Time Transfixed” (1935) Surrealism 204 “Condition Humaine” (1934) “Le Viol” (1934)
    205. 205. The Modernist Age •Surrealism –Salvador Dali (1904, Spain) •Microscopic hyper-realism (super-realism?) •Tragic (despite his personal sarcastic wit) •The Freudian subconscious •The irrational •Madness “Persistence de la Memoire” (1931)
    206. 206. 206 The Modernist Age •Salvador Dali (1904, Spain) “Crucifixion” (1954) “Soft Construction with Boiled Beans” (1936)
    207. 207. 207 Surrealism Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1937)
    208. 208. 208 •Surrealism –Andre Masson (1896) The Modernist Age “The Labyrinth” (1938) “Pasiphae” (1943)
    209. 209. 209 •Surrealism –Paul Delvaux (1897) The Modernist Age “Venus Asleep” (1944) “Night Train” (1947) “Entrance to the City” (1940)
    210. 210. 210 •Surrealism –David Siqueiros (1896, Mexico) The Modernist Age "Collective Suicide" (1936) Siqueiros: “Echo of a Scream” (1937)
    211. 211. 211 •Surrealism –Pavel Tchelitchew (1898, Russia) The Modernist Age "Phenomena" (1938)
    212. 212. 212 •Surrealism –Yves Tanguy (1900) The Modernist Age “Indefinite Divisibility” (1942) “Demain/ Tomorrow” (1938)
    213. 213. 213 •Surrealism –Yves Tanguy (1900) The Modernist Age “Multiplication of the Arcs” (1954) “The Furniture of Time” (1939)
    214. 214. 214 The Modernist Age •Surrealism –Maurits Cornelis Escher (1898, Holland) “Hand with Reflecting Sphere” (1935) “Relativity” (1953)
    215. 215. 215 The Modernist Age •Escher “Waterfall” (1961)
    216. 216. 216 The Modernist Age •Fritz Kahn (1888, Germany): "Das Leben des Menschen/ The Life of Man" book series (1926) illustrates the human body as a community of cooperative machines and/or homunculi Artists unknown (Kahn did not draw them)
    217. 217. 217 The Modernist Age •Surrealism –Max Ernst (1891, Germany) •Impenetrable alien landscapes populated with alien monsters and machines •Horror “Europe After the Rain II” (1942)
    218. 218. 218 The Modernist Age Surrealism Max Ernst “Elephant Celebes” (1921) “The Forest” (1928)
    219. 219. 219 The Modernist Age Surrealism Max Ernst ““La Ville Entiere” (1936)
    220. 220. 220 The Modernist Age Surrealism Man Ray (1890, USA) “Le Violon d'Ingres” (1924) “Noire et Blanche” (1926)
    221. 221. 221 The Modernist Age Surrealism Ivan Albright (1897, USA) "The Picture of Dorian Gray" (1944) “The Wild Bunch" (1951)
    222. 222. 222 The Modernist Age Surrealism Ivan Albright (1897, USA) "The Temptation of St. Anthony" (1945)
    223. 223. 223 The Modernist Age •Cross-pollination –Chaim Soutine (1894, Russia) •VanGogh + Expressionism •“Maudit” (also destroyed or reworked most of his paintings) “Gnarled Trees” (1921) eye “Side of Beed” (1925)
    224. 224. 224 The Modernist Age •Cross-pollination –Chaim Soutine “The Village” (1923) “Houses with Painted Roofs” (1921)
    225. 225. 225 The Modernist Age •Cross-pollination –Josef Albers (1888, Germany) •Bauhaus + Constructivism •Optical illusions “The City” (1928)
    226. 226. 226 The Modernist Age •Cross-pollination –Paul Klee (1879, Germany) •Between abstract and representational •Expressionism, Cubism and Surrealism •Children’s art •“Art does not reproduce the visible, it makes visible” “Fish Magic” (1925) “Red Balloon” (1922)
    227. 227. 227 The Modernist Age •Paul Klee “Sunset” (1930) “Ad Parnassum” (1932)
    228. 228. 228 The Modernist Age •Cross-pollination –Pablo Picasso (1881, Spain): “Guernica” (1937) •Cubism and expressionism •Focus on the victims •A painting not as the addition of elements but as the subtraction of elements
    229. 229. 229 The Modernist Age •Cross-pollination –Stanley Spencer (1891, Britain) “The Resurrection of the Soldiers” (1929)
    230. 230. 230 The Modernist Age •Cross-pollination –Frida Kahlo (1910, Mexico) •The self-portrait as an exploration of one’s sexual and cultural identity “The Two Fridas” (1939) “Self-portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird” (1940)
    231. 231. 231 The Modernist Age •Mexican Muralists –Mexican renaissance at the end of the civil war (1920) –National program of murales (1921) –A monumental and heroic form of art –Social realism –Agit-prop, nationalism, populism –A synthesis of Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism AND revivalism –Pre-Hispanic art –Italian Renaissance
    232. 232. 232 The Modernist Age •Mexican Muralists –Jose-Clemente Orozco (1883) –David-Alfaro Siqueiros (1896) Orozco: “The Epic of American Civilization” (1932) Siqueiros: “Portrait of the Bourgeoisie” (1940)
    233. 233. 233 The Modernist Age •Diego Rivera (1886, Mexico) Detroit Institute of Art (1933)
    234. 234. 234 The Modernist Age •Diego Rivera “Man Controller of the Universe” (1940) “Conquest” (1935)
    235. 235. 235 The Modernist Age •Social Realism in the Soviet Union (1934) –An update of Peredvizhniki/ Wanderers (1870) and of Germany’s New Objectivity –Aleksandr Deineka (1899, Russia) –Isaak Brodsky (1883, Russia) –Aleksandr Gerasimov (1881, Russia) Deineka: "Textile Workers" (1927) Gerasimov: “Lenin” (1930)
    236. 236. The Modernist Age •Photography –Edward Steichen (1879, USA) –Man Ray (1890, USA): see surrealism –Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908, France) "Quai de Javel/ Ragpickers” (1932) “Gloria Swanson” (1924)
    237. 237. The Modernist Age •Photography –Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895, Hungary) experiments with several techniques (cameraless photography, superimposition, Radio Tower, Berlin (1928) New Year’s Morning 7am (1930)
    238. 238. The Modernist Age •Photomontage –László Moholy-Nagy “The World Foundation” (1927)
    239. 239. The Modernist Age •Photomontage –Dadaists •Nonsense •Destruction of meaning •Fragmentation •Anti-art for the avantgarde elite –Socialists (John Heartfield, Gustav Klutsis, Alexander Rodchenko) •Didactic information for the masses •Sense, meaning, narrative
    240. 240. The Modernist Age •Photomontage –Hannah Höch (1889, Germany): Dada “Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Beer-Belly of the Weimar Republic ” (1919) “Beautiful Girl” (1920)
    241. 241. The Modernist Age •Photomontage –Helmut Herzfeld/ John Heartfield (1891, Germany) “Hurray the Butter is Finished” (1935) "I will change the face of Italy in the next 15 years so that no one will recognize it again." “The Face of Fascism” (1928)
    242. 242. The Modernist Age •Photomontage –Gyorgy Kepes (1906, Hungary) “Cosmological Eye” (1941) “Juliet” (1937) "Shadow Picture" (1938)
    243. 243. The Modernist Age •Photomontage –El Lissitsky –Alice Lex-Nerlinger (1893, Germany) –Edmund Teske (1911, USA) –Clarence John Laughlin (1905, USA) Lex: “Seamstress” (1930) “The Constructor” (1924) Teske: “Shirley Berman and Demolition” (1938) Laughlin: “The Mirror of Long Ago” (1946)
    244. 244. The Modernist Age •Photomontage –Val Telberg (1910, Russia) “Event at Golgotha” (1956) “Portrait of a Friend” (1947) (1954)
    245. 245. 245 The Modernist Age •New Objectivity –Karl Blossfeldt (1865, Germany): "Prototypes of Art" (1928), photographs of plant details –Albert Renger-Patzsch (1897, Germany): "The World is Beautiful" (1928) –August Sander (German, 1876): "Face of our Time" (1929)
    246. 246. 246 The Modernist Age •New Objectivity –Karl Blossfeldt (1865, Germany): "Prototypes of Art" (1928), photographs of plant details
    247. 247. 247 The Modernist Age •New Objectivity –Albert Renger-Patzsch (1897, Germany): "The World is Beautiful" (1928) Snake Mushroom
    248. 248. 248 The Modernist Age •Photography/ California –Ansel Adams (1902): Yosemite (1921) –Imogen Cunningham (1883, USA) –Dorothea Lange (1895, USA) Lange: “Migrant Mother” (1936) Cunningham: “Three Dancers” (1929)
    249. 249. 249 The Modernist Age •Photo-journalism –1842: the Illustrated London News, the first illustrated magazine –1861: Mathew Brady photographs the Civil War for Harper's Weekly –1855: Roger Fenton photographs the Crimean War for the Illustrated London News
    250. 250. 250 The Modernist Age •Photo-journalism –1891: Leopold Ullstein founds the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung that uses innovative technology to mix text and photos –1925: Leica introduces a camera built by Oskar Barnack that uses 35mm film –1928: Photo-journalist Erich Salomon joins the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung
    251. 251. 251 The Modernist Age •Photo-journalism –1930: Henry Luce’s Fortune magazine, specialized in photo-journalism –1932: Henri Cartier-Bresson’s exhibition in New York –1936: Kodak's Kodachrome and Agfa Agfacolor –1936: Life magazine –April 1938: William-Robert Moore’s 35mm Kodachromes photos of Austria in National Geographic magazine
    252. 252. 252 The Modernist Age •Photojournalism –W. Robert Moore (1899) Hong Kong 1932 Burma 1929 Ethiopia 1930
    253. 253. 253 The Modernist Age •Photojournalism –Margaret Bourke (1904, USA) Bourke: "Kentucky Flood“ (1937)
    254. 254. 254 The Modernist Age •Photography –Gjon Mili (1904, Albania) "Strobe Shot of Nora Kaye Dancing on Pointe" (1947) “Stroboscobic Study - Dancing" (1936) "Stroboscopic study of nude descending staircase" (1942)
    255. 255. 255 The Modernist Age •Photography –Andreas Feininger (1906, USA) "Wysse, Sweden, Beach” (1934) “Pattern Made by Helicopter Wing Lights” (1949) "Stroboscopic study of nude descending staircase" (1942) “The Gyro Globe Coney Island” (1949)
    256. 256. 256 The Modernist Age •Photography –Photography becomes the main medium for the production of images in the industrial society –Advertising and Graphic Design drive demand for photography –Illustrated magazines (1930s) drive the demand for photography –Photography makes the sculpture of the entire world available to Western artists (Andre Malraux: an "imaginary museum", 1947)
    257. 257. 257 The Modernist Age •Photography –Photography eliminates painting's elitist requirement of manual skills that favors males –Germany: •1890: The Lette Verein opens a Photographic School for women •Opportunities in advertising, especially fashion, and family portraits •1931: 20% of photo studios in Berlin are owned by women •Travel photography
    258. 258. 258 The Modernist Age •Photography/ German women –Lotte Jacobi (1896, Germany) –Germaine Krull (1897, Germany) –Aenne Biermann (1898, Germany) –Lisette Model (1901, Austria) –Lotte Rosenberg-Errell (1903, Germany) –Gisele Freund (1912, Germany) Lotte Errell: "Kurdish Wedding Procession" (1934)
    259. 259. 259 The Modernist Age •Photography/ German women Lotte Jacobi: "Niura Norskaya" (1929) Aenne Biermann: "Paris" (1929) Lisette Model: “Reflection” (1939) Lotte Jacobi: "Lotte Lenya Weill" (1928)
    260. 260. 260 The Modernist Age •Germaine Krull (1897, Germany) "Metal" (1928) "The Friends" (1924) "Nude Study" (1930)
    261. 261. 261 The Modernist Age •Germaine Krull (1897, Germany) "Magic Mirror" “Love Abstractions - Poiret Poster" (1926) "Velo Wheels" (1929)
    262. 262. 262 The Modernist Age •Graphic design –Herbert Bayer (1900, Austria) •Bauhaus philosophy •No capital letters (only one alphabet for only one function: to write) •Elementary geometry forms Bauhaus magazine cover (1928)
    263. 263. 263 The Modernist Age •Graphic design –Jan Tschichold (1902, Germany) •Bauhaus + DeStijl + Constructivism •Design for communicating function •Asymmetrical organization of the text is more natural than symmetric one Brochure (1928) Book cover (1925)
    264. 264. 264 The Modernist Age •Graphic design –Henry Beck (1903, Britain) London Underground map (1933)
    265. 265. 265 The Modernist Age •Graphic design –Piet Zart (1885, Holland) •Repetition and contrast •Slogans •Free mix of text and photographs •Deliver the concept in simple visual terms that still draw attention (1924)
    266. 266. 266 The Modernist Age •Graphic design –Herbert Matter (1907, Switzerland) •Multi-layered photo collages –Luigi Martinati (1893, Italy) (1935) : Croceria Aerea del Decennale (1933)
    267. 267. 267 The Modernist Age •Graphic design/Russia –Gustav Klutsis (1895, Latvia) –Alexander Rodchenko –El Lissitzky "The Fifth Plan" (1930) (1920) (1919)
    268. 268. 268 The Modernist Age •Graphic Design/Russia –Vladimir Stenberg (1899) and Georgii Stenberg (1900) "The Fifth Plan" (1930) (1929) (1929) (1925)
    269. 269. 269 The Modernist Age •Graphic design –Lester Beall (1903, USA) •“readable” even by illiterates –Erte (1892, Russia) –Joseph Binder (1898, Austria) –Ladislav Sutnar (1897, Bohemia) •“Catalog Design Progress” (1950) Rural Electrification Adm poster (1937)
    270. 270. 270 The Modernist Age •Graphic design/ USA –Martin Munkacsi (1896, Hungary) •Uses the Leica miniature camera (1925) –Norman Rockwell (1894, USA) Munkacsi: Harper’s Bazar (1940) Rockwell: “Willie Gillis’ Package from Home” (Saturday Evening Post, 1941)
    271. 271. 271 The Modernist Age •Graphic design/ USA –Erte/ Roman Tyrtov (1892, Russia): Art Deco
    272. 272. 272 The Modernist Age •Art Deco –1912: Andre Vera’s essay “Le Nouveau Jardin” –1919: Compagnie des Arts Francais –1925: Paris exhibition on decorative art Jean Puiforcat's kitchenware Jean Dunand’s lacquered wood (1926) Eileen Gray (1878, Ireland): table (1924)
    273. 273. 273 The Modernist Age •Art Deco –Alfred Gilbert’s metallurgy and polychromatism –Cheap elephant ivory from African colonies –Diffusion of Achille Collas’ pantograph (1850) Dumitru Chiparus’ “Les Girls” (1928) Claire Colinet’s “Ankara Dancer” (1924)
    274. 274. 274 The Modernist Age •Art Deco –Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876, France): La Maison Cubiste at the Salon d'Automne (1912) –Pierre Patout (1879): Pavillon du Collectionneur (1925)
    275. 275. 275 The Modernist Age •Art Deco –William van Alen: Chrysler Building (1930) –John Wade & George Dietel’s Buffalo City Hall (1931) –Ralph Stackpole's San Francisco Stock Exchange (1930)
    276. 276. 276 The Modernist Age •Art Deco –Tamara de Lempicka/ Maria Górska (1898, Poland) “The Sleeping Girl” (1930) “Self-Portrait in Green Bugatti” (1929) “Portrait of Madame M.” (1932)
    277. 277. 277 The Modernist Age •Comics –Buck Rogers (1929, by Phil Nowlan & Dick Calkins) –Flash Gordon (1934, Alex Raymond) –Brick Bradford (1933, Clarence Gray & William Ritt)
    278. 278. 278 The Modernist Age •Imaginary architecture –Achilles Rizzoli (1896) • Art Nouveau + Symbolism "Grace Popich Symbolically Sketched" (1938)
    279. 279. 279 The Modernist Age •Imaginary architecture –Achilles Rizzoli (1896)
    280. 280. 280 The Modernist Age •Primitivism in Europe –Carl Einstein's book on African sculpture "Negerplastik" (1915) –Darius Milhaud's ballet "La Creation du Monde" (1923), with sets by Leger –Josephine Baker's night club shows (1925-34) –Marcel Griaule's ethnographic expeditions (1928-33) –Michel Leiris' article “The Ethnographer’s Eye" (1930) –Georges Luquet's anthropological study "L'Art Primitif" (1930) –Alberto Giacometti's sculpture
    281. 281. 281 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Alberto Giacometti (1901, Switzerland) •African and Oceanian primitivism •Launches the vogue of erotically-charged objects within surrealism “Suspended Ball” (1931) “Disagreeable Object to be Thrown Away” (1930) “Head Skull” (1934) “Invisible Object” (1935)
    282. 282. 282 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Alberto Giacometti (1901, Switzerland) •The spirit of existentialism •Elongated bronze sculptures “Diego in a Cloak” (1954)
    283. 283. 283 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Jean/Hans Arp (1887, Germany) •Biomorphic •"Arp fused the landscape with the body" (Barbara Hepworth) (“Cloud Shepherd” (1953) Ciudad Universitaria, Caracas) “Human Concretion without Oval Bowl” (1933)
    284. 284. 284 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Antoine Pevsner (1886, Russia) •Quasi-mathematical •Bronze or copper “Construction in Space in Third and Fourth Dimensions” (1959) “Construction in the Egg” (1948) “Construction in Space” (1933)
    285. 285. 285 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Alexander Calder (1898, USA) •Stainless steel sculpture “Black Beast” (1940) “La Grande Vitesse” (1969) “Man” (1967)
    286. 286. 286 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Meret Oppenheim (1913, Switzerland): surrealism "Le Dejeuner en Fourrure/ Breakfast in Fur" (1936)
    287. 287. 287 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Henry Moore (1898, Britain) •Direct carving instead of modeling and casting •Between abstraction and figuration •Primitivism harking back to universal forms of Cycladic, African, pre-Columbian art Reclining Figure (1934) Reclining Figure (1936)
    288. 288. 288 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Henry Moore (1898, Britain) “Large Reclining Figure” (1951) "Three Piece Sculpture - Vertebrae" (1968) "Upright Internal/External Form" (1953)
    289. 289. 289 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Henry Moore (1898, Britain) Sheep Piece (1972) "Oval with Points" (1970) “Hill Arches" (1978) "Draped Reclining Mother and Baby" (1983)
    290. 290. 290 The Modernist Age •Sculpture –Barbara Hepworth (1903, Britain) “Sculpture with Color and String “ (1939-61) “Two Segments and a Sphere“ (1936) “Large and Small Form” (1934)
    291. 291. 291 The Modernist Age •Kinetic Sculpture –Marcel Duchamp: "Bicycle Wheel" (1913) –Naum Gabo (1890): "Kinetic Construction" (1920) –Man Ray (1890): “Object to Be Destroyed/ Indestructible Object “ (1923)
    292. 292. 292 The Modernist Age •Kinetic Sculpture –László Moholy-Nagy: "Light Space Modulator" (1930) –Alexander Calder (1898): "Mobile" (1932)
    293. 293. 293 The Modernist Age •Sculpture/ Junk assemblage –Joseph Cornell (1903, USA) •Autobiographical obsessions "Medici Slot Machine" (1942) "Pharmacy" (1943)
    294. 294. 294 The Modernist Age •Installation –Robert Whitman (1935, USA) •Art + Technology (also a founder of EAT) "Two Holes of Water- 3" (1966) for seven automobiles, video projections, closed-circuit television sets, etc
    295. 295. 295 The Modernist Age •New York –Museum of Modern Art (1929) –Whitney Museum (1931) –Guggenheim Museum (1937)
    296. 296. 296 The Modernist Age •New York –New forms of presentation –Frederick Kiesler designs "Art of the Century" at Peggy Guggenheim's gallery (1942) •curved walls, unframed paintings hanging from the ceiling, paintings on a conveyor belt, paintings viewed from peepholes, projections, light shows, biomorphic chairs –Marcel Duchamp designs the exhibition "First Papers of Surrealism" in New York's MOMA (1942) •a jungle of strings to obstruct the view and the movement inside the space
    297. 297. 297 The Modernist Age •Architecture/ The International Style –No style –Spartan materialism and rational planning –Hidden idealistic intent (urban or environmental concerns) –Walter Gropius (1883, Germany) •Bauhaus, Dessau (1925) •Moves to the USA –Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886, Germany) •Moves to the USA –Richard Neutra (1892, Austria) •Moves to the USA
    298. 298. 298 The Modernist Age •Architecture/ The International Style Richard Neutra’s Kaufmann House (1946) Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth House (1951)
    299. 299. 299 The Modernist Age •Architecture/ The International Style –Charles-Édouard Jeanneret/ Le Corbusier (1887) •“Vers Une Architecture” (1923) •“Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau” (1925) •Villa Savoye (1931) •Influence of Frederick Winslow Taylor’s "The Principles of Scientific Management" (1911) and Henry Ford’s assembly line: labor efficiency, industrial standardization
    300. 300. 300 The Modernist Age •Architecture –LeCorbusier Millard House (1923) Notre-Dame-de-Haut, Ronchamp (1950-1955) Chandigarh High Court, India (1952) LaTourette monastery, France (1957-60) Villa Savoye (1931)
    301. 301. 301 The Victorian Age •Architecture of the Modernist Age –Adolf Loos (1870): Chicago Tribune tower (1922, canceled) –Albert von Huffell: Church of the Sacred Heart, Brussells (1921 design) –Bragnar Ostberg: Stadshuset/ City Hall, Stockholm (1923) –Walter Gropius (1883, Germany): Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany (1926) –Graham, Anderson, Probst & White: Wrigley Building, Chicago (1925) –Dominikus Boehm (1880): Frielingsdorf Church, Koeln, Germany (1927)
    302. 302. Stockholm Chicago 302 Brussels Koeln
    303. 303. 303 The Modernist Age •Architecture of the Modernist Age –Rudolph Steiner (1861): Goetheanum II, Switzerland (1928) –Hannibal Gonzalez (Spain): Plaza de Espana, Sevilla (1929) –William van Alen (1883): Chrysler Building, New York (1930) –Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon: Empire State Building, New York (1933) –Hood, Reinhard, Hofmeister, etc: Rockefeller Center, New York (1931-37) –Various: Casa della Civilta` Italiana, EUR, Roma (1938-1942)
    304. 304. 304 The Modernist Age •Architecture of the Modernist Age Sevilla Goetheanum II Rockefeller EUR
    305. 305. 305 The Modernist Age Sevilla Chrysler Empire State Bldg
    306. 306. 306 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Frank Lloyd Wright (1867, USA): •Integrating architecture with nature •Rectilinear design vs curvilinear art nouveau •Emphasis in the interior instead of the façade •Asymmetry Fallingwater House (1937) Millard House (1923) Guggenheim Museum (1956)
    307. 307. 307 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Ideal city •Ebenezer Howard: “Garden City” (1902) •Antonio Sant’Elia: “Citta` Nuova” (1914)
    308. 308. 308 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Garden Cities •Ebenezer Howard's Letchworth (1903) •Public parks and private lawns •Wide boulevards •Radial rather than linear •Separate areas for commercial, industrial, residential and public districts •Dresden-Hellerau (1909) Letchworth
    309. 309. 309 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Ideal city •Hugh Ferriss: “The Metropolis of Tomorrow” (1929) •Frederick Kiesler: “City in Space” (1925)
    310. 310. 310 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Ideal city •Le Corbusier: Contemporary City (1922) –High-density population –Open spaces for the community not the individual –“A house is a machine for living in” •Frank Lloyd Wright: “Broadacre City” (1931) –Low density population –Open space for the individual
    311. 311. 311 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Ideal city •Le Corbusier: “Plan Voisin” for rebuilding Paris (1925) •Frank Lloyd Wright: “Broadacre City” (1931)
    312. 312. 312 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Ideal city •What gets implemented is instead driven by economics - Rockefeller Center, New York (1931-37) - or fascism - Marcello Piacentini’s EUR, Roma (1938-42)
    313. 313. 313 The Modernist Age •Architecture –Manhattan in 1930
    314. 314. 314 The Modernist Age •Industrial Design –Radios –Kitchen Appliances –Furniture –Cars
    315. 315. 315 The Modernist Age •Industrial Design/ Home and Office –1925: The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris –1928: Gió Ponti's magazine Domus –1937: Lázló Moholy–Nagy founds the new Bauhaus in Chicago –Gio Ponti (1891, Italy): ceramics, appliances, furniture Alvar Aalto (1898, Finland): 406 plywood lounge chair (1939) Alfonso Bialetti (1888, Italy): Moka Express coffeemaker (1933) Raymond Loewy (1893, France): Gestetner Duplicator (1929)
    316. 316. 316 The Modernist Age •Industrial design/ Automotive –Hans Ledwinka (1878, Austria): Tatra V570 (1933) –Ferdinand Porsche (1875, Germany): Volkswagen Beetle (1938) –Raymond Loewy (1893, France): Locomotive S1 for the Pennsylvania Railroad (1938) –Giovanni Bertone (1884, Italy): Fiat Ardita (1934) –Harley Earl (1893, USA): Buick Y-Job (1938)
    317. 317. 317 The Modernist Age •Cinema 1920-45 –Robert Wiene: The Cabinet of Dr Caligari (1920) –Victor Sjostrom: Phantom Chariot (1920)
    318. 318. 318 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Erich von Stroheim: “Greed” (1924) –King Vidor (1894, USA): “The Crowd” (1928)
    319. 319. 319 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Sergei Ejzenstein (1898, Russia) “Battleship Potemkin” (1925)
    320. 320. 320 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Fritz Lang (1890, Germany) “Metropolis” (1926)
    321. 321. 321 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Fritz Lang “M” (1931) “Doctor Mabuse” (1922) “The Testament of Dr Mabuse” (1932)
    322. 322. 322 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (1888, Germany) "Nosferatu" (1922) "Sunrise" (1927) “The Last Man" (1924)
    323. 323. 323 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Georg Wilhelm Pabst (1885, Austria) "Secrets of a Soul" (1926) "Joyless Street" (1925)
    324. 324. 324 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Josef von Sternberg (1894, Austria) "Morocco" (1930) "The Blue Angel" (1930) "Shangai Express" (1932)
    325. 325. 325 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Dziga Vertov: "Man With a Movie Camera" (1929) –Alexander Dovzhenko: "Earth" (1930)
    326. 326. 326 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Marx Brothers "Animal Crackers" (1930) "A Night at the Opera" (1935) "Duck Soup" (1933) "Monkey Business" (1931)
    327. 327. 327 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Charles Chaplin (1889, Britain) “Limelight" (1952) "The Circus" (1928)
    328. 328. 328 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Charles Chaplin (1889, Britain) "Modern Times" (1936) "The Gold Rush" (1925) "City Lights" (1931) "The Great Dictator" (1940)
    329. 329. 329 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Buster Keaton –"Sherlock, Jr." (1924) –"The Navigator" (1924) –"The General" (1927)
    330. 330. 330 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Howard Hawks (1896, USA) •Gangster: "Scarface" (1932) •Screwball: "Bringing Up Baby" (1938) •Musical: "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" (1953)
    331. 331. 331 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Howard Hawks •Western –"Red River" (1948) –"Rio Bravo" (1959)
    332. 332. 332 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Busby Berkeley: musical "Gold Diggers of 1933" (1933) “Footlight Parade" (1933)
    333. 333. 333 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Busby Berkeley: musical “Dames" (1934)
    334. 334. 334 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Frank Capra (1897, USA) "John Doe" (1941) "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" (1939) "It Happened One Night" (1934) "It's A Wonderful Life" (1946)
    335. 335. 335 The Modernist Age •Cinema –George Cukor: women –Ernst Lubitsch: sex “Sylvia Scarlett" (1935) “It Should Happen To You " (1954) "Ninotchka" (1939) "Trouble in Paradise" (1932)
    336. 336. 336 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Rene` Clair –Jean Vigo “Under the Roofs of Paris" (1930) "A Nous La Liberte`" (1932) "Atalante” (1934) "Zero For Conduct" (1933)
    337. 337. 337 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Tod Browning: "Freaks" (1932) –James Whale: "Frankenstein" (1931) –Ernest Schoedsack: "King Kong" (1933)
    338. 338. 338 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Yasujiro Ozu (1903, Japan) "I Was Born But" (1932) "Late Spring" (1949) "Early Summer" (1951) "Tokyo Monogatari" (1953)
    339. 339. 339 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Marcel Carne`: "Children of Paradise" (1945) –Jean Renoir: "La Grande Illusion" (1937)
    340. 340. 340 The Modernist Age •Cinema –John Ford (1894, USA) "Fort Apache" (1948) "Stagecoach" (1939)
    341. 341. 341 The Modernist Age •Cinema –John Ford (1894, USA) "The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance" (1962) "My Darling Clementine" (1946)
    342. 342. 342 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Orson Welles (1915) “Citizen Kane” (1941) “The Magnificent Ambersons” (1942) “Lady from Shanghai” (1948)
    343. 343. 343 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Orson Welles (1915) “Touch of Evil” (1958)
    344. 344. 344 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Alfred Hitchcock (1899, Britain) "Spellbound" (1945) "Shadow of a Doubt" (1943) "Psycho" (1960)
    345. 345. 345 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Alfred Hitchcock (1899, Britain) "Vertigo" (1958) "Rear Window" (1954) "North By Northwest" (1959)
    346. 346. 346 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Preston Sturges: “Sullivan Travels” (1941) –Otto Preminger: "Laura" (1944) –Michael Curtiz: "Casablanca" (1942)
    347. 347. 347 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Billy Wilder (1906, USA) "Double Indemnity" (1944) "Sunset Boulevard" (1950) "The Seven Year Itch" (1955)
    348. 348. 348 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Billy Wilder (1906, USA) "Some Like It Hot" (1959) "The Apartment" (1960)
    349. 349. 349 The Modernist Age •Cinema –Maya Deren (1917, Ukraine) "Meshes of the Afternoon" (1943)

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