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  1. 1. The Industrial Era and the Urban Scene •In the decades after 1850, the industrial technologies of steam power, coal, and iron brought the west into a position of dominance over the less industrialized parts of the world. •Two major art movements realism and Impressionism.
  2. 2. Global Dominion of the West Advancing Industrialism Provided the economic and military basis for the West’s rise to dominion over the rest of the world. Colonialism and the New Imperialism The history of European expansion into Asia, Africa, and other parts of the globe dates back at least to the Renaissance. Marx and Engels In the Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels prophesized that a revolution would make the proletariat the new ruling class. Nietzsche’s New Morality Nietzsche called for a new morality that privileged the “superman.”
  3. 3. Beginning in 1848, the lower classes protested against bad conditions with sporadic urban revolts. This painting presents a somewhat romanticized view of the laboring classes. Jean-François Millet, Gleaners, 1857. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 9" x 3' 8". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC REALITIES
  4. 4. Käthe Kollwitz (1867-–1945)She was a social realist and a feminist whose early prints illustrate peasant rebellions and mass protests. Käthe Kollwitz (1867–1945), March of the Weavers, from "The Weavers Cycle," 1897. Etching, 8 3/8 x 11 5/8 in. The University of Michigan Museum of Art, 1956/1.21.
  5. 5. Between 1855-1861, there were almost 500 peasant uprisings across Europe. Among these movements for economic and social reform, one of the most idealistic was socialism. Käthe Kollwitz (1867–1945), Death and the Mother, 1934. Lithograph, 20 1/8" x 14 5/8"
  6. 6. Late-Nineteenth-Century Architecture Cast-Iron Structures The Skyscraper Joseph Paxton (1803–1865), Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London, 1851. Cast iron, wrought iron, and glass. Destroyed by fire in 1936. Contemporary lithograph by Joseph Nash, Alexandre-Gustav Eiffel (1832–1923), Eiffel Tower, 1889. Iron on a reinforced concrete base, height 934'. Paris.
  7. 7. Eiffel Tower, 1887- 1889, Gustave Eiffel •19th Century more skeletal architecture.. Many buildings (Crystal Palace) had skeleton holding up a exterior curtain of glass or steel. •Land values soared, so buildings went UP (skyscrapers, etc.) •Eiffel specialized in railway bridges •Centerpiece of 1889 Paris Universal Exposition •Innovative elevator swings up diagonally •Also helped with Statue of Liberty and Panama Canal!
  8. 8. Marshall Field Wholesale Store, 1885, Chicago, Henry Hobson Richardson •Influence of Medici palaces from Renaissance •Heavy Romanesque arches •Iron columns for interior supports (Skeletal construction) •Interior arranged around a central court •Feminine department store + masculine warehouse look •Few historical illusions •Chicago School of architecture formed after Great Fire
  9. 9. •Otis invented elevator, which allowed high buildings •Prototype of modern office building •Accent on horizontal thrust •Exterior: decorative terra cotta tiles •“Form follows function” was his motto, now very famous in architecture Wainwright Building, 1890 Louis Sullivan, Chicago School
  10. 10. Realism in the Visual Arts The Birth of Photography Mathew B. Brady, (1861-1865) eyewitness photographs for the American civil war. His staff testify to the importance of the photographer as a chronicler of human life. Mathew B. Brady or staff, Dead Confederate Soldier with Gun, Petersburg, Virginia, 1865. Photograph. The Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  11. 11. French Realism - Gustave Courbet(1819- 1877) Gustave Courbet. Burial at Ornans, 1849. Oil on canvas, 10' 4" x 21' 11". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY. Outspoken socialist, “A painter should paint only what he can see.” Minimizes any display of pomp and ceremony. He banished from his view all sentimentality and artifice.
  12. 12. Gustave Courbet, The Meeting or Bonjour Monsieur Courbet, 1855. Oil on canvas, 50 3/4" x 58 5/8". Musee Fabre, Montpellier. © Reunion des Musees Nationaux / Art Resource, NY. Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)
  13. 13. Jean-francois Millet (1814-1875): “Peasant Painter”Not a socialist, devoted his career to painting the everyday lives of the rural proletariat. Jean-François Millet, Gleaners, 1857. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 9" x 3' 8". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
  14. 14. Daumier’s Social Realism Honore Daumier (1808-1879) Honoré Daumier, Nadar Elevating Photography to the Height of Art, 1862. Lithograph, 10 3/4" x 8 3/4". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. © akg-images. The social realist who was primarily associated with the medium of lithography . Left the world a detailed record of the social life of his time. The ancestors of modern- day political cartoons
  15. 15. Honoré Daumier, Third-Class Carriage, c. 1862. Oil on canvas, 25 3/4" x 35 1/2".
  16. 16. Honoré Daumier (1808–1879), Louis Philippe as Gargantua, 1831. Lithograph, 8 3/8" x 12", Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. Honore Daumier
  17. 17. Honore Daumier Honore Daumier, Freedom of the Press: Don't Meddle with It (Ne Vous y Frottez Pas), 1834. Lithograph, 12" x 17". Private collection, France. © akg- images.
  18. 18. Impressionism Forerunner… Édouard Manet Manet (1832-1883). born into ranks of Parisian bourgeoisie credo: “Painter of modern life” believed that success as an artist only obtained through recognition at the Salon After rejection by salon, set up his own exhibitions Early work was before Impressionists  fully supported their aims  worked closely w/ Monet
  19. 19. The Scandalous Realism of Manet Luncheon on the Grass, Edouard Manet Napoleon III authorized Exhibition of refused artists from the Salon, such as Manet and Monet This painting was found scandalous… modern version of the Pastoral Concert by Titian(or Giorgione?) Figures are not modeled.. Very flat, not relating with each other. Édouard Manet (1832–1883). Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil on canvas, 7' x 9'. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
  20. 20. Pastoral Concert (Fête champêtre) 1508-09 Oil on canvas, 110 x 138 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris Édouard Manet (1832–1883). Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil on canvas, 7' x 9'. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
  21. 21. Olympia, Manet, 1863 •courtesan stares out at us, not modeled figure. •Play by Alexandre Dumas about social climbing prostitute with same name. •Olympia confronts the viewer, she is powerful, NOT an accommodating female nude. • Manet began to gather with other rejects (refuses) in Montmartre. Édouard Manet. Olympia, 1863. Oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 3". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
  22. 22. Olympia, Manet, 1868 Venus of Urbino, Titian, 1538
  23. 23. Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Manet, oil on canvas, 1882 •Barmaid stares out at us •What is the mirror reflecting? •Trapeze in upper far left corner •Composition pushes goods for sale up to the counter •Modern sales technique of products next to a pretty sales girl •More impressionistic than Manet’s early works
  24. 24. Mystery of the Mirror in Manet’s painting
  25. 25. Realism in American Painting Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) , The Agnew Clinic, 1889. Oil on canvas, 6 ft. 2 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 10 1/2 in. University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine.
  26. 26. Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) , The Biglin Brothers Racing, 1873. Oil on canvas, 24 1/4" x 36 1/8". National Gallery of Art Thomas Eakins (1844-1916)
  27. 27. Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Winslow Homer (1836-1910), The Gulf Stream, 1899. Oil on canvas, 28 1/8 in. x 4 ft. 1 1/8 in. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. While realistic in execution the painting may be interpreted as a romantic metaphor for the isolation and plight of black American in the decades following the Civil War.
  28. 28. Impressionism The movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, Impression: Sunrise, which was singled out for criticism by Louis Leroy upon its exhibition. The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. The Impressionist style was probably the single most successful and identifiable "movement" ever, and is still widely practiced today.
  29. 29. Claude Monet Impressionism: Sunrise 1872 •Leader of the Impressionists Aesthetic aim: fleeting effects of light, shadow and atmosphere. Application of paint: thick, heavy layers or strokes (impasto). Influenced by: Baroque “painterliness” (ex: Rubens) Distinguished from Renaissance ideal that used flat, smooth paint surface
  30. 30. Monet’s Rouen Cathedral in sun, 1894, oil on canvas, 40” x 26” (and in sunset…)
  31. 31. Monet’s Water Lilies (c. 1900) Monet did a series of large canvases on water lilies. He frequently painted his house at Giverny with the gardens and Japanese bridge.
  32. 32. The Luncheon of the Boating Party 1881 Renoir Narrative: photographic effect and aura of spontaneity. Light and shadow: fleeting effects of sunlight falls in patches, dappling the surface Handling of paint: loose and rapid thick “impasto” Subjects: outdoor scenes leisure time & gaiety of middle-class Parisians
  33. 33. Renoir’s Moulin de la Galette, oil on canvas, 4 ft x 6’ approximately Dappling effect of fleeting light People not posed, enjoying meals and dancing Photographic randomness of clipped figures
  34. 34. The Dance Class 1881 Degas Pastels and Oil Paintings Subjects: ballet dancers, the opera
  35. 35. Rehearsal on Stage, Edgar Degas, Pastel drawing Worked mostly indoors (not plein aire0 Asymmetrical compositions Feathery brushstrokes showing the dancers’ costumes Japanese print influence in composition Rehearsal on Stage, Degas, 1874, pastel drawing
  36. 36. Degas’ The Absinthe Drinkers (c. 1875)
  37. 37. Young Mother 1891 Mary Cassatt •Friend of Degas & Renoir •Naturalism, innocence of children •Influenced by Japanese prints. Pastel & Oil. •Subjects: Mothers and children, her sister
  38. 38. Breakfast in Bed, Mary Cassatt •Cassatt did a series of paintings and pastel drawings on the theme of mother and child. •Tenderness foreign to other Impressionists •Influential in bringing Impressionist paintings to US where they were a huge hit
  39. 39. Maternal Caress, woodblock print, Mary Cassatt was influenced by Japanese prints tilted style, outlining, pattern, and treatment of space.
  40. 40. Oil on canvas, 32” x 23” Shows her sister at the opera Again, women going about their daily activities Dazzling colors and brushwork Lydia in a Loge, Mary Cassatt, 1879
  41. 41. Summer’s Day, Berthe Morisot, oil on canvas, 1879 •Sister in law of Manet and grandaughter of Fragonard •Sketchy, painterly brushwork •Middle class women •Asymmetrical composition
  42. 42. James Whistler’s Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875 •Subtle harmonies of painting comparable to music •Japanese influence-Japanese signature •Atmospheric effect of fireworks, study in harmony of color, shape, light •Whistler successfully sued a critic over negative comments
  43. 43. Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionism artists were dissatisfied with limitations of Impressionist style. They were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions, it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work. Analyzed structure, and solidity of forms. Still strong influence of Japanese prints.
  44. 44. Post-Impressionism 1885-1905 Characteristics: bright color and visible, distinctive brushwork Trends: more emphasis on composition and form and greater psychological depth. Impact: set the stage for major directions of early 20th century art
  45. 45. Very different from Impressionism’s informal, seemingly accidental quality  intellectual & scientific  methodical application of uniformly sized dots  strongly based on system of rules  mathematical precision  color theory Sunday Afternoon at the Park 1885 Seurat Style: Pointillism
  46. 46. The Bather,1885Cezanne Figure: non-formula Composition: tight, construction of upright & horizontal forms Figure coincides with the lines of landscape: Upper body the sky Lower body the earth. Landscape: conceptual, not ‘plein air.’
  47. 47. Mont Sainte-Victoire, Cezanne, 1887 •Part of a series from mature period •Wanted to make objects geometric constructions with splashes of pure color •Solid and firmly constructed, not dappled momentary glimpse like the Impressionists did (Post Impressionism) •Used perspective by juxtaposing warm colors and receding cool colors
  48. 48. Tilted perspective Contrast of solid forms with flat surfaces Painterly brushstrokes
  49. 49. Van Gogh •Color: vibrant •Forms: simplified and outlined in black contours. Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear 1889 •Brushwork: impasto
  50. 50. Starry Night, Vincent Van Gogh, 28” x 36”, 1889 •Thick short brushstrokes, impasto paint •View from hospital room in St-Remy •At one with forces of nature •Left to right wave impulse in his work, tree looks like green flames reaching to the sky exploding with stars
  51. 51. Manaha No Atua, (Day of the God), Paul Gauguin, oil on canvas. Symbolism (post impressionism), 1894. •Gauguin traveled to Tahiti in search of paradise •Painted native peoples in geometric bright colors •Exotic primitivism •Symbolic, mysterious •Color to express emotion
  52. 52. •1893, Art Nouveau style •Noted graphic designer (not called that then.. Poster designer) •Physically handicapped, short man •Influence of Degas •Influence of Japanese prints •Emphasis on curving lines, text integrated with the forms in the picture. •Toulouse-Lautrec frequented the Moulin Rouge Jane Avril, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, lithograph