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Art in the 19 th century


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Unit 8

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Art in the 19 th century

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • The end of the 18th century marked a transition from Rococo art, which embodied the aesthetics of the Ancient Greece and Rome, and on rationality. • Art in the 19th century reflected the social and political transformations of the time. In 1830, the Romantic movement, which was closely linked to a surge in nationalist sentiment, reflected the people´s emotions and passions.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • The failure of the 1848 revolutions and social problems related to industrialisation in the mid-19th century the led to an artistic movement called Realism. • At the same time, industrialisation revolutionised the style of architecture, with the introduction of new materials such as iron and glass.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • At the turn of the century, art broke away from the accepted objective representations of reality, opening the way for the avant-garde movements of the 20th century
  5. 5. ART ROCOCO IN SPAIN • In 18th century Spain, the Rococo style was mainly found inside royal and aristocratic palaces.
  6. 6. ART ROCOCO IN SPAIN • Sculptures during this period depicted religious scenes, that were mainly carved from wood and painted. • Francisco Salzillo (Prayer in the Garden) and Narciso Tomé (El Transparente, the altarpiece of the Cathedral of Toledo) were notable sculptors from this period.
  7. 7. ART ROCOCO IN SPAIN • Rococo painting in Spain tended to portray aristocrats in scenes of intimacy or chivalry. • The paintings often depicted love scenes or inanimate objects in bodegones (types of still life paintings). • Luis Paret and Alcázar were prominent Spanish Rococo painters.
  8. 8. NEOCLASSICISM • Neoclassicism was a movement in Europe between 1760 and 1830 that was inspired by Enlightenment thought, the Revolution in France and the discovery of ancient archaeological sites during that period. The revival of Greek and Roman ARCHITECTURE • Neoclassical architecture was based on the ancient Greek and Roman models (columns, arches and domes). • It did not follow the excessive ornamentation of the Rococo style and limited a building's decoration to its facade, leaving the walls bare except for simple stucco motifs.
  9. 9. NEOCLASSICISM • The construction of public buildings (libraries and museums) took precedence over religious architecture. • During the Napoleonic era, commemorative columns and triumphal arches were built. • Important neoclassical figures included French architects Jacques- Gabriel Soufflot (the Pantheon in Paris) and Alexandre-Pierre Vignon (the Madeleine) and German architect Leo von Klenze (the Propylaea in Munich).
  10. 10. ARCHITECTURE IN CAST-IRON • During the same period, architecture was also influenced by two important factors that emerged from the Industrial Revolution: The development and mass production of new materials. The use of iron and steel, the invention of cement and the widespread use of glass in walls meant that the design and construction of buildings changed. Industry, transport networks and cities had new requirements. Cities needed buildings that were functional, practical and spacious, and that could be built quickly and economically.
  11. 11. ARCHITECTURE IN CAST-IRON • The tower built by engineer Gustave Eiffel for the World Fair in Paris in 1889 became the highest building in the world and a symbol of the modern age. • At the same time, the first skyscrapers in the United States of America were built, designed by architects from the Chicago School.
  12. 12. ROMANTICISM • Romanticism was a movement that spread across Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. • The Romantic Era not only encompassed an artistic movement, but an intellectual one too that had clear political connotations. The new era opposed the ideals of the previous century's Classical period. • Romanticism was based on the principles of freedom, individualism and the free expression of emotions. • SCULPTURE • Romantic sculpture aimed to express movement and emotion using dynamic forms. The gestures and facial features of figures were especially important and sculptures often focused on patriotic themes.
  13. 13. ROMANTICISM SCULPTURE • Romantic sculpture aimed to express movement and emotion using dynamic forms. • The gestures and facial features of figures were especially important and sculptures often focused on patriotic themes.
  14. 14. ROMANTICISM PAINTING • Romanticism had a strong influence on 19th century art. • Paintings from the Romantic era had five distinguishing characteristics: - A preference for diversity over uniformity, and praise for the individual and tradition. - An aspiration to individual and national freedom. - An appreciation of historicism as a tool for learning about one's roots. - A sentimental, religious understanding of nature. - A passion for the exotic and the imagination, leading to an interest in North African Muslims and Asian culture.
  15. 15. Tirol , de FRANZ MARC C.D. FRIEDRICH – Wanderer above the Sea of fog
  16. 16. REALISM • In the middle of the 19th century, Romanticism was replaced by Realism. • This change was due to several factors: The failure of the 1848 revolutions put an end To many of the hopes and illusions that had inspired the Romantic era with its idealised vision of society and progress. Industrialisation led to a new system that was full of contradictions and brought with it misery, poverty, child labour and exploitation. Scientific advances presented observation and description as the best tools for understanding reality.
  17. 17. REALISM Artists during this period, therefore, moved towards a more realistic aesthetic. They were interested in understanding the reality of the period and depicting it accurately. Realistist sculpture Realist aesthetics and ideals created detailed art, especially notable in the faces and bodies of figures. Portraits were common in Realist art, as were scenes reflecting different aspects of society such as work or everyday life. The most important Realist sculptors were Jean- Baptiste Carpeaux (France) and Constantin Meunier (Belgium).
  18. 18. REALISM REALIST PAINTING • The most distinguishing feature of Realist paintings was their accurate portrayal of everyday life and the problems that arose from industrialisation (injustice, exhaustion from overwork, etc.). • The invention of the photograph in 1839 had a huge influence on the work of artists during that period. • Compositions changed and paintings adopted a style that was similar to the frames captured by an instant camera.
  19. 19. IMPRESSIONISM • The Impressionist movement began towards the end of the 19th century. • The style of painting in this period placed a lot of emphasis on the play of light, and how it could alter a scene and the objects within it. • To better capture these qualities, artists observed reality by painting in plein air and used their own personal vision to interpret this reality.
  20. 20. IMPRESSIONISM • In Impressionist art, colour took precedence over form. Impressionism incorporated short, quick brushstrokes, placing colours side by side so that at a distance they faded into one. • The Impressionist movement started in France with artists Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Pierre- Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. Edouard Manet. Boating Claude Manet. The Japanese Bridge Pierre Auguste Renoir. Paseo en bote en la Sena
  21. 21. POST-IMPRESSIONISM • In the mid-1880s, several artists began to distance themselves from the Impressionist movement to explore geometry, colour, lines and expression. • These artists were called Post- Impressionists. • The most important Post-Impressionist painters included Edgar Degas, Georges Pierre Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Henri Toulouse Lautrec and Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin. Edgar Degas. The Rehearsal Paul Cezanne. Card Players Henri Toulouse Lautrec
  22. 22. SYMBOLISM • Symbolism was a movement that appeared at the same time as Post- Impressionism. • Symbolists painted biblical and mythological scenes, and imaginary dream worlds. • The most common figures in Symbolist work were women, appearing as angels or evil beings. Puvis de Chavannes: Mujeres a orillas de mar El baño del caballo, de Joaquín Sorolla
  23. 23. MODERNISM • Modernism was a movement that emerged in Europe between 1890 and 1910. • It was also known as Art Nouveau (France), Stile Liberty (Italy), Jugendstil (Germany) and Sezessionstil (Austria). • The Modernist movement broke away from academic tradition. It took advantage of the technology and industry available at that time, believed strongly in the integral nature of the arts and supported the tradition of craft.
  24. 24. MODERNISM ARCHITECTURE • Curved lines, wavy lines and symmetry were prominent features of Modernist buildings. The forms were inspired by nature, giving architects a certain amount of creative freedom. • Modernist architecture incorporated work by craftsmen who decorated both the interior and exterior of buildings. They created wrought iron structures, glass doors and windows and ceramic mosaics. • Victor Horta and Antoni Gaudí are considered two of the most important architects from the Modernist period.
  25. 25. VICTOR HORTA
  26. 26. MODERNISM SCULPTURE AND PAINTING • Modernist sculpture, like the architecture of the period, broke away from academic tradition. • It focused on the human form and used curved lines. • The faces of the figures were particularly expressive. • Sculpture was sometimes incorporated as a decorative addition to a building. • Modernist paintings represented symbolic, conceptual scenes. Artists were inspired by nature and often included women in their paintings.
  27. 27. MODERNISM THE DECORATIVE ARTS • At the turn of the century, the decorative arts sector (forging metals, glassworks, ceramics, textiles and furniture) started to play an increasingly important role. The growth of this industry was inspired by the desire to combine art with everyday life. • The English Arts and Crafts Movement was an example of this trend. • The movement, led by William Morris, promoted the creation of unique artisan products.