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Rococo to Realism 2


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Rococo to Realism 2

  1. 1. Realism
  2. 2. The Realist Era• Typically associated with the 1850’s• Scientific method is used rather than accept dogma• Develops the “Age of Reason”• Industrial Revolution takes shape as factories produce goods cheaper and faster• Migration from rural areas into cities (urbanization), economies change from agrarian to industrial• Major inventions are the train and photography
  3. 3. What is Realism?• Enlightenment put focus on scientific method and observation• Empiricism – knowledge based on what can be measured and directly experienced• What can actually be seen/experienced in the world• Realists only painted subjects they themselves could experience (personal experience)
  4. 4. Realism• context: cultural – role of artist: • no longer to simply reveal beautiful & sublime • aimed to tell the truth • not beholden to higher, idealized reality (i.e., God) – subjects: • ordinary events and objects • working class & broad panorama of society • psychological motivation of characters
  5. 5. Realism and Positivism• Developed by philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857)• All knowledge could be derived from objectivity of scientific observation• (Ahem…anyone ever hear of Aristotle??!!)• Social scientists would deduce laws of human culture• Metaphysical and theological speculation was out• Positivism stressed emphasis on objectivity
  6. 6. Realism: Exploring human evolution & social equality• political context: Marxism• Communist Manifesto (c. 1850) – thesis: all history was history of class struggles – determined by humanity’s relationship to material wealth• Darwin: theory of evolution• Comte: positivism…all knowledge comes from tested scientific proof
  7. 7. Realism in France: Courbet• style: self-educated; copied Spanish, Dutch & Venetian masters @ Louvre• Baroque lighting (e.g., Caravaggio, Rembrandt)• objective record of customs & appearances of contemporary society• fight against official art (salon REJECT) The Stonebreakers, 1850• subjects: “Show me an angel, and Young & old working at miserable job; socialist ideals I’ll paint one” Monmentality of everyday life• No exotic locales, no gods and goddesses, no heroes of history.. Only wht you can see or touch.
  8. 8. GUSTAVE COURBET, The Stone Breakers, 1849. 10
  9. 9. GUSTAVE COURBET, Burial at Ornans, 1849. 11
  10. 10. JEAN-FRANÇOIS MILLET, The Gleaners, 1857. 14
  11. 11. HONORÉ DAUMIER, Rue Transnonain, 1834. 16
  12. 12. HONORÉ DAUMIER, Third-Class Carriage, ca. 1862. 19
  13. 13. American Realism- Eakins the Anatomist• Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) – teacher: Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts • taught anatomy to medical students & figure drawing to art students • disapproved of academic technique of drawing from plaster casts – used nude model – allowed female students to study male nude • Critics called him a “butcher” and “degrading”
  14. 14. THOMAS EAKINS, The Gross Clinic, 1875. 23
  15. 15. Eakins vs. Rembrandt…
  16. 16. JOHN SINGER SARGENT, The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882. 29
  17. 17. John Singer Sargent’s Madame X •American portrait artist much sought after in US and Europe •This portrait caused a scandal in the Paris salon of 1888 •Sargent moved to England and painted quasi impressionist •Captured personality of his subjects •Painterly brushwork, outstanding capture of clothing/fashions
  18. 18. HONORÉ DAUMIER, NadarRaising Photography to the Height of Art, 1862. 36
  19. 19. JOSIAH JOHNSON HAWES and ALBERT SANDS SOUTHWORTH, Early Operation under Ether, Massachusetts General Hospital, ca. 1847. 37
  20. 20. TIMOTHY O’SULLIVAN, A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863. 38
  21. 21. EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE, Horse Galloping, 1878. 39
  22. 22. The Problem ofPhotographyWhat is the purpose of art in the faceof photography?Vermeer used the camera obscuraSome artists reacted againstphotographySome embraced it – much likeVermeerFirst surviving photograph dates to1826, by 1880s portable camerasavailable
  23. 23. NADAR, Eugène Delacroix, ca. 1855. 43
  24. 24. Reaction: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood• Not everyone was enjoying the world produced by industrialization• In England, Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood departed from subject matter of French Realists• Tired of classical themes, focused on medieval stories and spirituality
  25. 25. DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI, Beata Beatrix, ca. 1863. 45
  26. 26. JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS, Ophelia. 46
  27. 27. Symbolism• A loosely organized movement that flourished in the late 1800’s and was closely related to the Symbolist movement in literature. In reaction against both Realism and Impressionism, Symbolist painters stressed arts subjective, symbolic, and decorative functions and turned to the mystical and occult in an attempt to evoke subjective states of mind by visual means.
  28. 28. Gustave Moreau, THESUITORS, 1852.
  29. 29. Gustave Moreau, THEDAUGHTERS OFTESPIO, 1882/83.
  30. 30. Gustave Moreau, OEDUPUS THEWAYFARER, 1888.
  31. 31. Edvard Munch, MADONNA, 1894-95.
  32. 32. Odilin Redon
  33. 33. ÉDOUARD MANET, Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. 62
  34. 34. ÉDOUARD MANET, Olympia, 1863. 63
  35. 35. ADOLPHE-WILLIAMBOUGUEREAU, Nymphs and Satyr, 1873. 64
  36. 36. William Bouguereau, THENYPMHAEUM, 1878.