Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Best Kept Secret in Silicon Valley

3,467 views

Published on

September 2015 lecture at the China Academy of the Art in Hangzhou. I keep updating my presentations on Silicon Valley at www.scaruffi.com/svhistory

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

The Best Kept Secret in Silicon Valley

  1. 1. " The Best Kept Secret in Silicon Valley " (China’s Academy of Art, Hangzhou, September 2015) piero scaruffi scaruffi@stanford.edu
  2. 2. Piero Scaruffi • piero scaruffi p@scaruffi.com scaruffi@stanford.edu • Cultural historian • Technology analyst • 30+ years in Silicon Valley • Pioneered A.I. and Internet applications
  3. 3. 3 Silicon Valley in 1950
  4. 4. 4 Why did it happen here? • The technology, the money and the brains were on the East Coast and in Europe (the great electronic research labs, the great mathematicians, Wall Street, etc) • The great universities were on the East Coast (MIT, Harvard, Moore School, Princeton, Columbia), and in Europe (Cambridge) • Bell Labs, RCA Labs, IBM Labs • East Coast, Britain and Germany won most of the Nobel prizes • Transistor, computer, etc all invented elsewhere
  5. 5. Silicon Valley 2015 • World's #1 company in… – Internet services: Google – Social Media: Facebook – Semiconductors: Intel – Business software: Oracle • Most valued company in the world: Apple • 18,000 startups • Location with the most venture capital: 3000 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park 5
  6. 6. 6 GDP ($million): 1 USA 16,800,000 2 China 9,240,270 3 Japan 4,901,530 4 Germany 3,634,823 5 France 2,734,949 6 Britain 2,522,261 7 Brazil 2,245,673 8 Russia 2,096,777 9 Italy 2,071,307 10 India 1,876,797 11 Canada 1,825,096 12 Australia 1,560,597 13 Spain 1,358,263 14 South Korea 1,304,554 15 Mexico 1,260,915 16 Indonesia 868,346 17 Turkey 820,207 18 Netherlands 800,173 19 Saudi Arabia 745,273 20 Switzerland 650,782 21 Argentina 611,755 San Francisco Bay Area ~600,000 (8 million people) GDP per capita ($): 1 Qatar 98,814 2 Luxembourg 78,670 San Francisco Bay Area 74,815 3 Singapore 64,584 4 Norway 54,947 5 Brunei 53,431 6 United States 53,101 (World Bank, 2013) Nobel Prizes (2014) 1. USA 349 2. Britain 116 3. Germany 101 4. France 66 San Francisco Bay Area 43 • Sweden 30 • Russia 27 • Switzerland 26 • Canada 23 • Austria 22 • Italy 20 • Japan 19
  7. 7. Today 7 1950
  8. 8. 8 Why did it happen here? • The official history of Silicon Valley – Defense/DARPA – Fred Terman at Stanford and Stanford Industrial Park – William Shockley’s lab – Fairchild/Intel/semiconductors – Xerox PARC, SRI Intl/computer-human interface – Apple, personal computing, videogames – Unix, Internet, Relational databases – The dotcoms – Google, Facebook, …
  9. 9. 9 Why is it called “Silicon” valley? • Intel 4004 (1971)
  10. 10. 10 What was special about the San Francisco Bay Area before 1971?
  11. 11. 11 Before 1971… 1902: California Society of Artists 1903: Halcyon, a utopian community 1906: American Arts and Crafts Movement moves to San Francisco (Arthur Mathews) 1907: California College of the Arts and Crafts (Frederick Meyer) The "Montgomery Block" (Frank Pixley's literary magazine the "Argonaut) 1913: Carmel’s artist community (Armin Hansen, Percy Gray, William Merritt 1913: Society of Etchers (Ralph Stackpole)
  12. 12. 12 Before 1971… 1915: The Panama-Pacific International Exposition (Bernard Maybeck’s Palace of Fine Arts) 1921: Ansel Adams’ photographs of Yosemite 1912: Charles Seeger at UC Berkeley, Henry Cowell’s "The Tides of Manaunaun" 1921: East-West Art Society (Chiura Obata) 1930: Henry Cowell (John Cage’s teacher) commissions Leon Theremin to create the first electronic rhythm machine (the "Rhythmicon") 1930: Hans Hofmann @ U.C. Berkeley
  13. 13. 13 Before 1971…
  14. 14. 14 Before 1971… 1930s: Achilles Rizzoli Dominant fine art: photography: Dorothea Lange, Imogen Cunningham, James Weston, 1932: Group f/ exhibition 1930s: Wall painting (Edith Hamlin’s Mission High School mural) 1935: San Francisco Museum of Art (Grace Morley) 1939: Golden Gate International Exposition @ Treasure Island (Ralph Stackpole's 24-meter tall "Pacifica") 1939: Villa Montalvo’s artist residency program
  15. 15. 15 Before 1971… Cunningham: “Three Dancers” (1929) Lange: “Migrant Mother” (1936)
  16. 16. 16 Before 1971… 1943: David Park @ California School of Fine Arts 1945: Photography Department @ California School of Fine Arts/ San Francisco Art Institute (Ansel Adams, Minor White, Dorothea Lange, Imogen Cunningham) 1946: Frank Stauffacher’s "Art in Cinema" series @ Museum of Art + Sidney Peterson’s avantgarde cinema @ California School of the Arts 1947: Mark Rothko @ California College of Arts and Crafts
  17. 17. 17 Before 1971… 1947: Festival of Modern Poetry 1951: “Dynaton” painters @ Mill Valley (surrealist painter Wolfgang Paalen) 1952: Wally Hedrick’s collages of junk metal 1952: King Ubu/Six Gallery artist-run cooperative (Jay DeFeo) 1953: Zen apostle Alan Watts’ radio program at Berkeley's KPFA station
  18. 18. 18 Before 1971… 1950s: "Bay Area Figurative Painting” (David Park, Elmer Bischoff, Richard Diebenkorn) 1950s: Lou Harrison incorporates Chinese opera, Native-American folk, jazz and Indonesian gamelan into Western classical music 1950s: "San Francisco Renaissance" (poets Kenneth Rexroth, Madeline Gleason, Robert Duncan, William Everson, Muriel Rukeyser) 1950s: "Beat generation" (writers Jack Kerouac and Robert Creeley from New York, Michael McClure and Jack Spicer in Berkeley, Gary Snyder and Philip Whalen from Oregon)
  19. 19. 19 Before 1971… 1953: Peter Martin’s and Lawrence Ferlinghetti’s bookstore "City Lights” 1954: Poetry Center @ San Francisco State University (Madeline Gleason) 1955: Allen Ginsberg's recitation of "Howl" @ Six Gallery 1957: Contemporary Bay Area Figurative Painting exhibition 1957: San Francisco International Film Festival 1959: Rat Bastard Protective Association (junk sculptor Bruce Conner) 1959: Ron Davis’ Mime Troupe
  20. 20. 20 Before 1971… 1959: Funk movement (sculptors Peter Voulkos, Robert Arneson) 1960: Wayne Thiebaud @ UC Davis (pop art) 1961: Bruce Baillie and Mildred Strands’ San Francisco Cinematheque + Bruce Baillie’s artist-run cooperative Canyon Cinema 1962: San Francisco Tape Music Center (Morton Subotnick, Pauline Oliveros, Terry Riley) 1962: Michael Murphy’s Esalen Institute at Big Sur for "spiritual healing" 1963: Don Buchla’s electronic synthesizer 1963: First public showing of computer art @ San Jose State University (Joan Shogren)
  21. 21. 21 Before 1971… 1964: Mario Savio’s "Free Speech Movement" at U.C. Berkeley 1965: Max Scherr’s political magazine "Berkeley Barb" 1965: Ken Kesey’s "Merry Pranksters" 1965: Owsley "Bear" Stanley manufactures LSD at home 1965: Ron Davis’ essay "Guerrilla Theatre" 1965: Family Dog Production (the first hippie festival) 1966: Bruce Nauman @ San Francisco Art Institute (pop art)
  22. 22. 22 Before 1971… 1966: Magazine “San Francisco Oracle” 1966: "Diggers", a group of improvising actors and activists 1966: The first "Summer of Love" of the hippies 1966: Black Panther Party 1967: The first "Human Be-In" @ Golden Gate Park 1967: Rock festival @ Monterey 1967: John Lion’s Magic Theatre 1968: Stewart Brand’s "Whole Earth Catalog" 1968: Chip Lord’s Ant Farm ( avantgarde architecture and design)
  23. 23. 23 Before 1971… 1967: Ali Akbar Khan’s College of Music 1968: Robert Crumb’s comic book "Zap Comix" (1968) + first comics-only store in the USA (Gary Arlington) 1969: United Nations’ conference titled "Man and his Environment" in San Francisco 1969: Exploratorium at the Palace of Fine Arts + "Cybernetic Serendipity", an exhibition of computer art 1970: Roger Brand's comic magazine "Real Pulp Comics" 1970: San Francisco celebrates the first "Earth Day"
  24. 24. 24 Before 1971… 1970: Artist in residency program at Xerox PARC 1970: "Gay Pride Parade" 1971: "Feminist Art Program" at the California Institute of the Arts 1971: George Lucas’ Lucasfilms
  25. 25. 25 Why Silicon Valley? • Until the 1960s the Bay Area was mainly famous for – Eccentric artists/writers – Anti-war protests – Anti-capitalist protests – Hippies – Rock music – Environmentalism – Women’s and Gay’s Liberation Movements – Eastern spirituality
  26. 26. 26 Why Silicon Valley? The first major wave of immigration of young educated people from all over the world took place during the hippy era (“Summer of Love”) The first major wave of technology was driven by independents, amateurs and hobbyists (From ham radio to the Homebrew Computer Club)
  27. 27. 27 Why Silicon Valley? • Anti-corporate sentiment • The start-ups implement principles of the hippy commune • SRI Intl and Xerox PARC: computation for the masses, augmented intelligence Xerox PARC The first mouse
  28. 28. 28 Why Silicon Valley? • The Bay Area recasts both Unix and the Internet as idealistic grass-roots movements • Young educated people wanted to change the world • They did
  29. 29. 29 Why Silicon Valley? • Dysfunctional synergy between two opposite poles – The rational and the irrational – Technologists and anti-technologists – Hippies and engineers – Amateurs and corporations – Nerds and outlaws (the "traitors", Jobs, Ellison, Zuckerberg, hackers, Google that copies all the information in the world without permission)
  30. 30. 30 Why Silicon Valley? • Innovation is a vague word: everything is an "innovation". What kind of innovation does Silicon Valley specialize in?
  31. 31. 31 Why Silicon Valley? • What Silicon Valley does best – Not invented here: computer, transistor, integrated circuit, robots, Artificial Intelligence, programming languages, databases, videogames, Internet, personal computers, World-wide web, search engines, social media, smartphones, wearable computing, space exploration, electrical cars, driverless cars…
  32. 32. 32 Why Silicon Valley? • What Silicon Valley does best – Invented here: disrupting products
  33. 33. 33 Why Silicon Valley? • Culture of failure: it comes from the artists (risk inherent in being an artist) • Culture of success: it comes from the artists (congrats if you make a lot of money out of the crazy ideas you had) • Meritocracy: it comes from the artists (industrial power is usually inherited) • Casual work environment - just like an artist’s studio • Silicon Valley is about the garage (like the artists)
  34. 34. 34 Why Silicon Valley? • Crowdfunding, peer-to-peer file sharing, the gift economy and the sharing economy are NOT natural consequences of traditional industrial capitalistic society • but they are a natural consequence of the artists' way of life
  35. 35. 35 Why Silicon Valley? • Lots of art is not enough, otherwise Europe (and the East Coast) would easily outclass Silicon Valley • It is “who” created the spirit of the society that matters: was the spirit created by the artists, by the industry, by the aristocracy, …?
  36. 36. 36 Art/Tech/Science Organizations • Leonardo ISAST leonardo.info (Frank Malina, 1967) • YLEM (Trudy Reagan & Howard Pearlmutter, 1981) • UC Berkeley's Art, Technology, and Culture Colloquium (Ken Goldberg, 1997) • Zero1 zero1.org (Andy Cunningham, 2000) • LASERs lasertalks.com (Piero Scaruffi, 2008) • BAASICS baasics.com (Selene Foster and Christopher Reiger, 2011) • Life Art Science Technology (LAST) festival lastfestival.com (Piero Scaruffi, 2014) • Djerassi's Scientific Delirium Madness (Margot Knight, 2014)
  37. 37. 37www.lasertalks.com
  38. 38. 38 USF Berkeley Stanford UCLA New York Washington UC Santa Cruz UC Davis Austin Toronto Kansas Seattle London Berlin Zurich
  39. 39. 39 The 3rd LAST Festival Life Art Science Technology festival October 2015 Stanford Univ www.lastfestival.cn
  40. 40. LAST Festival • A weekend-long interdisciplinary event consisting of: – 1. A dozen digital interactive art installations (the "Art Expo”) – 2. A symposium (“Engineering the Future”) on the state of the sciences that are shaping the 21st century. – 3. A mini-symposium (“Homo Digitalis”) on the impact that digital media are having on the human mind. – 4. Demos of new technology (“The Playground”) 40
  41. 41. LAST Festival • Schedule: – Friday, 6pm – 10pm: Art Expo – Saturday • 1pm - 5pm: Symposium - Engineering the Future • 1pm - 10pm: Art Expo – Sunday, 1pm-4pm: Homo Digitalis • www.lastfestival.cn 41
  42. 42. 42 Replicating Silicon Valley The rest of the world consistently failed to create their own Silicon Valleys: • Sophia Antipolis (France) • Oulu (Finland) • Skolkovo (Russia) • Hsinchu (Taiwan) • Cyberjaya (Malaysia) • Bangalore (India)
  43. 43. 43 Progress does not need SV • Case study #2: “Western World 1880-1910”
  44. 44. 44 Progress does not need SV • One century ago, within a relatively short period of time, the world adopted: – the car, – the airplane, – the telephone, – the radio – the record – cinema • while at the same time the visual arts went through – Impressionism, – Cubism – Expressionism
  45. 45. 45 Progress does not need SV • while at the same time science came up with – Quantum Mechanics – Relativity • while at the same time the office was revolutionized by – cash registers, – adding machines, – typewriters • while at the same time the home was revolutionized by – dishwasher, – refrigerator, – air conditioning
  46. 46. 46 Progress does not need SV • while at the same time cities adopted high-rise buildings
  47. 47. 47 Progress does not need SV • There were only 5 radio stations in 1921 but already 525 in 1923 • The USA produced 11,200 cars in 1903, but already 1.5 million in 1916 • By 1917 a whopping 40% of households had a telephone in the USA up from 5% in 1900. • The Wright brothers flew the first plane in 1903: during World War I (1915-18) more than 200,000 planes were built
  48. 48. 48 … but it may need the arts… • Accelerating progress happened simultaneously in the sciences and the arts Monet Stravinsky Einstein Gaudi Edison
  49. 49. 49 Creativity • Why did it happen here? In Athens? In Florence? …?
  50. 50. 50 Creativity • Creativity's peaks often correspond with periods of great instability: classical Athens (at war 60% of the time), 12th-13th century Venice (built on a mosquito-infected lagoon by homeless refugees), the Renaissance (Italy split in dozens of small states and engulfed in endemic warfare), the 20th century (two World Wars and a Cold War).
  51. 51. 51 What is unique about humans? • Animals live the same life of their parents • Humans are the only species whose life style changes from generation to generation
  52. 52. 52 What is unique about humans? • Children disobey, teenagers are rebels
  53. 53. 53 What is unique about humans? • Animals only “innovate” when there is a genetic mutation • Humans innovate all the time Beaver civilization over the millennia Human civilization over the millennia
  54. 54. 54 What is unique about humans? • Art is pervasive in nature (eg birds make nests and sing, bees dance, spiderwebs, humpback whale songs, etc) • Each animal has the same aesthetic, generation after generation • Human aesthetic changes from generation to generation
  55. 55. 55 What is unique about humans? ……. Human aesthetic over the centuries Spider aesthetic over the centuries
  56. 56. 56 What is unique about humans? • Being creative is the natural state of the human mind • Creativity is what truly sets humans apart from other living beings • It is unnatural for the human race to be creative only in one field
  57. 57. 57 Welcome to the 21st Century • From Descartes to Relativity and Quantum Mechanics: how can Religion and Science coexist • CP Snow (1959): how can the Humanities and Science coexist
  58. 58. Big Data Images by Margot Gerritsen, Tim Davis & Yifan Hu http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/matrices/
  59. 59. Hessian matrix from a quadratic programming problem
  60. 60. Frequency-domain circuit simulation
  61. 61. Linear programming problem
  62. 62. Computational fluid dynamics: shallow-water equations
  63. 63. Linear programming problem
  64. 64. Social network: people and the web pages they like
  65. 65. 66 Robots 2000: Cynthia Breazeal's emotional robot, "Kismet" 2003: Hiroshi Ishiguro's Actroid, a young woman Which is the robot?
  66. 66. 67 Robots 2004: Mark Tilden's biomorphic robot Robosapien 2005: Honda's humanoid robot "Asimo" Asimo over the years
  67. 67. Robots Special purpose robots: 2001: NEC PaPeRo (a social robot targeting children) 2005: Toyota's Partner (designed for assistance and elderly care applications) 2007: RobotCub Consortium aggreement, the iCub (for research in embodied cognition) 2008: Aldebaran Robotics' Nao (for research and education) 2010: NASA's Robonaut-2 (for exploration)
  68. 68. 69 Robots 2005: Boston Dynamics' quadruped robot "BigDog“ 2008: Nexi (MIT Media Lab), a mobile-dexterous-social robot 2010: Lola Canamero's Nao, a robot that can show its emotions 2011: Osamu Hasegawa's SOINN-based robot that learns functions it was not programmed to do 2012: Rodney Brooks' hand programmable robot "Baxter"
  69. 69. 70 Robots • Stats
  70. 70. 71 Trivia • Japanese robots tend to be female because they look less threatening
  71. 71. 72 Robots in Cinema • “Metropolis” (1927)
  72. 72. 73 Robots in Cinema • “Ex Machina” (2015)
  73. 73. 74 Robots in Theater • Oriza Hirata’s robot theater “I, Worker” (2008) “Sayonara” (2010)
  74. 74. The future? 75
  75. 75. The future?  76
  76. 76. The future? • Moore’s law 77
  77. 77. The future?  • “Taking a step forward is easy… just make sure what you are stepping into” (Piero’s law) 78
  78. 78. The future? • Artists know better! 79
  79. 79. The future! 80Songzhuang (Beijing) China Academy of Art (Hangzhou)
  80. 80. The future! 81

×