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Disaster and Management
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Disaster and Management

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  • Simulate earthquake with flickering lights
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    • 1. DISASTER A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be ostensively defined as any tragic event stemming from events such as earthquakes, floods, catastrophic accidents, fires, or explosions. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.
    • 2. TYPES OF DISASTER Generally, disasters are of two types – Natural and Manmade. Based on the devastation, these are further classified into major/minor natural disaster and major/minor manmade disasters. Some of the disasters are listed below,
    • 3.  Major natural disasters:  • Flood  • Cyclone  • Drought  • Earthquake  Major manmade disaster:  • Setting of fires  • Epidemic  • Deforestation  • Pollution due to prawn cultivation  • Chemical pollution.  • Wars
    • 4.  Minor natural disasters:  • Cold wave  • Thunderstorms  • Heat waves  • Mud slides  • Storm  Minor manmade disaster:  • Road / train accidents, riots  • Food poisoning  • Industrial disaster/ crisis  • Environmental pollution
    • 5. Disaster Management  Disaster management (or emergency management) is the term used to designate the efforts of communities or businesses to plan for and coordinate all the personnel and materials required to either mitigate the effects of, or recover from, natural or man-made disasters, or acts of terrorism. Disaster management does not avert or eliminate the threats, although their study is an important part of the field.  Emergency management consists of five phases: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
    • 6. PREVENTION  Prevention was recently added to the phases of emergency management. It focuses on preventing the human hazard, primarily from potential natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Preventive measures are taken on both the domestic and international levels, designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. Not all disasters, particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and injury can be mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards.
    • 7. MITIGATION  Personal mitigation is a key to national preparedness. Individuals and families train to avoid unnecessary risks. This includes an assessment of possible risks to personal/family health and to personal property, and steps taken to minimize the effects of a disaster, or take procure insurance to protect them against effects of a disaster.
    • 8. PREPAREDNESS  Preparedness focuses on preparing equipment and procedures for use when a disaster occurs. Preparedness measures can take many forms including the construction of shelters, implementation of an emergency communication system, installation of warning devices, creation of back-up life-line services (e.g., power, water, sewage), and rehearsing evacuation plans.
    • 9.  The response phase of an emergency may commence with Search and Rescue but in all cases the focus will quickly turn to fulfilling the basic humanitarian needs of the affected population. This assistance may be provided by national or international agencies and organizations.  On a personal level the response can take the shape either of a shelter in place or an evacuation
    • 10.  The recovery phase starts after the immediate threat to human life has subsided. The immediate goal of the recovery phase is to bring the affected area back normalcy as quickly as possible. During reconstruction it is recommended to consider the location or construction material of the property.
    • 11. WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE  Earthquake is a violent tremor in the earth’s crust, sending out a series of shock waves in all directions from its place of origin or epicenter.  Earthquakes constitute one of the worst natural hazards which often turn into disaster causing widespread destruction and loss to human life.  Earthquake risk  Seismic risk = hazard x exposure x vulnerability x location
    • 12. Earthquake: Aftershock:  a sudden slipping or movement of a portion of the Earth’s crust, followed by a series of vibrations.  an earthquake of less intensity that follows the main earthquake Earthquake Terminology * As defined by FEMA
    • 13. Causes of Earthquake Earthquake may be caused by two types of forces. 1) Techtonic occurrence: techtonic occurrence like faulting, breaking of rocks, raising or sinking of layers of the earth, folding of the strata or vapour seeking to escape from the earth. 2) volcanic activity: violent eruptions and intrusion of igneous magma from below the earth.
    • 14. Causes of Earthquake Earthquakes are caused by sudden release of energy in rocks. Plates in the form of rocks are moving very slowly and earthquake occur when moving plates grind and scrape against each other. The point at which an earthquake originates is the focus or hypocenter and the point on the earth’s surface; directly above this is epicenter. The study of earthquake is called seismology.
    • 15. Associated Hazards Collapsing of buildings & bridges Disruption of gas, electricity & phone services Landslides & Avalanches Flash Floods Fires Tsunamis
    • 16. Before an Earthquake Hits 1) Check for Hazards 2) Identify Safe Places Indoors & Outdoors 3) Learn How to Shut off Gas Valves 4) Have Emergency Supplies on Hand 5) Develop a Communication Plan
    • 17. Check for Hazards  Fasten shelves and décor securely to walls  Place heavy objects on lower shelves  Hang heavy items away from places where people sit  Store any flammable products securely on bottom shelves in proper containers
    • 18. Identify Safe Places  Under sturdy furniture pieces such as a heavy desk or table  Against an inside wall  Away from any and all glass  Away from heavy furniture that might fall over  In the open, away from buildings, trees, electrical lines, overpasses etc.
    • 19. Workplace Disaster Supplies  Flashlight & extra batteries  Battery-operated radio  Emergency food and water  Nonelectric can opener  Medication  First Aid kit and manual  Tools & Supplies
    • 20. Communication Plan  Persons to identify after earthquake ceases:  Emergency Contact (family member/friend)  Your buddy property  Out of town contact
    • 21. What to do during an earthquake  Don’t try to take cover in a doorway during an earthquake. The door may slam on you.  Don’t run during the shaking or use the stairways or elevators. Many people are killed just outside buildings because of falling bricks and other debris.  Don’t turn on the gas again if you have turned it off; let the Gas-company do it.  Don’t use your telephone for the first 90 minutes after an earthquake, except for a medical or fire emergency. You could tie up the lines needed for emergency response.
    • 22. Two Vital Tips If you’re indoors, stay there! Steer clear of:  Bookshelves  Storage racks  Windows  Glass and Mirrors  Light Fixtures  Any other heavy objects
    • 23. If you are in house; • Don’t use lift for getting down from building. • Be prepared to move with your family. If you are in shop ,school or office; • Don’t run for an exit. •Take cover under a disk/table. •Move away from window glass. •Do not go near electric point and cable. Keep away from weak portion of the building and false ceiling.
    • 24. If you are outside; • Avoid high buildings , walls , power lines and other objects that could fall and create block. • Don’t run through streets. • If possible , move on to an open area away from hazard including trees. If you are in vehicle; • Stop in a safe open place. • Remain inside vehicle. • Close window , doors and vents.
    • 25. DUCK under a strong table or other protection COVER your head with your hands or other object HOLD the position until safe
    • 26. After the Quake  Move very carefully  Use caution when exiting or entering buildings  Check for injured or trapped persons  Do not move unless in immediate danger  Check water supplies  Salvage canned goods  Turn-on battery-operated radio for latest safety reports
    • 27. Immediately check for fires  Fires start from broken gas line and appliance connections  Use a flashlight when looking for gas leaks or fire hazards, do not use a lighted match or lantern!  Don’t use electrical switches or appliances if gas leaks are suspected because sparks can ignite gas from broken lines  Never touch downed powerlines or objects in contact with downed powerlines
    • 28. Utilize your Communication Plan  Contact:  Emergency Contact (family member/friend)  Your buddy property  Out of town contact (if quake is severe)
    • 29.  Floods are the most common and widespread of all natural disasters. India is one of the highly flood prone countries in the world. Around 40 million hectares of land in India is prone to floods as per National Flood Commission report. Floods cause damage to houses, industries, public utilities and property resulting in huge economic losses, apart from loss of lives. Though it is not possible to control the flood disaster totally, by adopting suitable structural and non-structural measures the flood damages can be minimised. For planning any flood management measure latest, reliable, accurate and timely information is required. In this context satellite remote sensing plays an important role.
    • 30. Floods are caused by many factors:  Heavy precipitation,  Severe winds over water,  Unusual high tides,  Tsunamis,  Failure of dam levels,  Retention ponds, or other structures that contained the water
    • 31.  Severe winds over water  Even when rainfall is relatively light, the shorelines of lakes and bays can be flooded by severe winds—such as during hurricanes—that blow water into the shore areas.  Unusual high tides  Coastal areas are sometimes flooded by unusually high tides, such as spring tides, especially when compounded by high winds and storm surges.
    • 32.  Effects of Floods  Flooding has many impacts.  It damages property and endangers the lives of humans and other species.  Rapid water runoff causes soil erosion and concomitant sediment deposition elsewhere (such as further downstream or down a coast).  The spawning grounds for fish and other wildlife habitats can become polluted or completely destroyed
    • 33.  Some prolonged high floods can delay traffic in areas which lack elevated roadways.  Floods can interfere with drainage and economic use of lands, such as interfering with farming.  Structural damage can occur in bridge abutments, bank lines, sewer lines, and other structures within floodways.  Waterway navigation and hydroelectric power are often impaired. Financial losses due to floods are typically millions of dollars each year.
    • 34. DISASTER MANAGEMENT FLOOD
    • 35.  Flood Warning Definitions: Minor Flooding Minor flooding causes inconvenience such as closure of minor local roads and low bridges. Moderate Flooding Low lying areas will be inundated requiring removal of stock, equipment and evacuation of isolated homes. Main traffic bridges may be covered. Major Flooding Higher areas will be inundated with isolation of towns and properties, causing extensive damage. Local Flooding Where intense rain can be expected to cause high run-off in restricted areas, but doesn't cause significant rises in main streams. Significant River Rises This term is used when river rises are expected but it is not certain what flood levels will be exceeded in main streams. This term will be used by the Bureau of Meteorology to alert landholders of the need to remove pumps and irrigation equipment from waterways and plan for stock removal.
    • 36. What can you do when you receive a flood warning?  Listen to your local radio station for severe storm advice and warnings.  Plan to move vehicles, outdoor equipment, garbage, chemicals and poisons to higher locations.  Plan which indoor items you will raise or empty if water threatens your home (e.g. freezers and refrigerators).  Check your emergency kit and safeguard your pets.
    • 37. What to do if you need to evacuate?  Pack warm clothing, essential medications, valuables, personal papers, mobile phone, photos and mementos in waterproof bags to be taken with your emergency kit.  Raise furniture, clothing and valuables on to beds, tables and into roof spaces.  Empty freezers and refrigerators, leaving doors open;  Turn off power, water and gas.  Whether you leave or stay, put sandbags in the toilet bowl and over all laundry/bathroom drain holes to prevent sewage back-flow.  Lock your home and take recommended evacuation routes for your area.  Don’t drive in water of unknown depth and current.
    • 38. What do you do if you stay or on your return?  Listen to your local radio station for official Advices and Warnings;  Don’t allow children to play in, or near flood waters;  Avoid entering floodwaters. If you must, wear solid shoes and check depth and current with a stick;  Stay away from drains, culverts and water over knee- deep;  Don’t use gas or electrical appliances which have been in flood water until checked for safety;  Don’t eat food which has been in flood waters; and  Boil tap water until supplies have been declared safe.
    • 39.  Out of the country's total geographical area of 329 million hectares about 45 million hectares is flood prone. Till March 2007, an area of 18.22 m ha has been provided with protection against floods by way of construction of embankments, drainage channels, town protection works and providing raised platforms.  The Union Government is providing Central assistance to the flood prone States to take up some of the critical works. The Central Government is also providing Central assistance to the border and North Eastern States for taking up certain priority works.  The Government of India has launched a "Flood Management Programme" as a State sector scheme, to provide Central assistance to the States during XI plan for taking up flood control, river management, drainage development, flood proofing and anti-sea erosion works.
    • 40.  A network of Flood Forecasting and Warning System has been established by the Central Water Commission in State river basins and flood forecasts are being issued through 175 stations, out of which 147 are river level forecasting stations and 28 are inflow forecasting stations spread over 9 major river basins. During the flood season 2008-09, 6,675 flood forecasts (with 97% accuracy) were issued to the state Government/local administration in order to take timely action to save live stocks and public properties. Forecasts about  Water levels likely to be attained in rivers as a result of floods and  Volume of inflow into reservoirs, are formulated and disseminated to various administrative authorities of Central Government, State Government and District Administration, media and other users on the basis of time data.
    • 41. CYCLONE A cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth.
    • 42. CYCLONE: HOW IS IT FORMED Tropical cyclones form only over warm ocean waters near the equator. To form a cyclone, warm, moist air over the ocean rises upward from near the surface. As this air moves up and away from the ocean surface, it leaves is less air near the surface. So basically as the warm air rises, it causes an area of lower air pressure below. Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes in to the low pressure area. Then this new “cool” air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. And the cycle continues…
    • 43. CYCLONE: HOW IS IT FORMED As the warmed, moist air rises and cools the water in the air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean’s heat and water evaporating from the ocean surface. As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the centre. It is very calm and clear in the eye, with very low air pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.
    • 44. CYCLONE: WARNINGS During a Cyclone: • Turn off all electricity, gas and water and unplug all appliances • Keep your Emergency Kit close at hand • Bring your family into the strongest part of the house • Keep listening to the radio for cyclone updates and remain indoors until advised • If the building begins to break up, immediately seek shelter under a strong table or bench or under a heavy mattress • BEWARE THE CALM EYE OF THE CYCLONE. Some people venture outdoors during the eye of the cyclone, mistakenly believing that the cyclone has passed. Stay inside until you have received official advice that it is safe to go outside.
    • 45. CYCLONE: WARNINGS After a Cyclone: The time immediately after a cyclone is often just as dangerous as the initial event itself. Many injuries and deaths have occurred as a result of people failing to take proper precautions while exploring collapsed buildings and sightseeing through devastated streets. • Do not use electrical appliances which have been wet until they are checked for safety • Boil or purify your water until supplies are declared safe • Stay away from damaged powerlines, fallen trees and flood water
    • 46. MITIGATION STRATEGIES Land Use Policy The most effective and least expensive mitigation strategy available is restriction to development in areas at risk from tropical cyclones. By not permitting building of homes and businesses in areas threatened by flooding, you immediately reduce the greatest risk of loss of life. At opposition to this solution is the economic benefit of developing in coastal areas. Many enterprises, including transportation, seaports, large industry complexes tied to proximity of ports, and of course tourism make the high risk areas for tropical cyclone impact desirable for population centers growth. We have found only minimal restrictions to growth in high risk areas worldwide, thus must look to other strategies to mitigate the reality of development in the coastal regions.
    • 47. MITIGATION STRATEGIES Building Codes Proper building codes that specify the resistance to wind, wind driven debris, and height above defined flood risks are another well defined strategy for mitigating property loss. Considerable advances in structural design and building materials have occurred over the past several decades. In the United States there have been a number of code related improvements that will result in less loss of property and provide a higher level of safety to people. Various engineering associations have developed building techniques to meet design criteria to protect against wind. Where building codes are adopted and builders are careful to learn and follow the engineering practices, successful mitigation takes place. On the other hand, where local politics subverts the carefully designed engineering code or where the construction practice is flawed, failures still occur.
    • 48. MITIGATION STRATEGIES Preparedness Preparedness is taking the necessary actions for a person, family, business, city and country to minimize the loss of life and property from and impending event. Preparedness involves making plans, identifying and procuring resources needed, and testing your plans through exercises. At the state and local level, officials need to have in place action plans and resources to respond when a storm threatens. Transportation and industry issues, as well as vulnerable population issues, require longer lead times in order to get ready. Preparedness for the general public centers on having the supplies one needs to survive on hand, a means of protecting one’s house, and, if required, a plan for evacuation if in a high risk area due to storm surge.

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