DISASTER MANAGEMENTThe World is alwayschanging. disasters arechanges which are sogreat they may causedamage to the shape ofthe land or to the lives of people and otherliving things. Great changes happen deep insidethe Earth and on its surface. The changes on theouter part of the Earth happen because ofdifferent kinds of weather.
D – I – S – A – S – T – E – R PARADIGM Disaster Paradigm : D: Detection I: Incident Command S: Safety & Security A: Assess Hazards S: Support T: Triage & Treatment E: Evacuation R: Reallocation &Redeployment
WHAT IS DISASTER ? Disaster- dis·as·ter (noun) A Calamity orDisaster, as you know, is an Unfortunatehappening ; A catastrophe. A grave misfortune. A total failure . A serious disruption of the functioning ofa community or a society causingwidespread human, material, economic,or environmental losses which exceedthe ability of the affected community orsociety to cope using its own resources.
PHASES OF DISASTER :-1. Shock2. Awareness (impact period)3. Euphoria (thread period)4. Exhibits fear and anger(inventory period)5. Resolution (rescue period)
VOLCANIC ERUPTION :A volcanic eruption is thespurting out of gasesand hot lava from anopening in the Earth’scrust.
EARTHQUAKE :An earthquake is aviolent shaking of theground. Sometimes it isso strong that theground splits apart.When parts of theearth, called plates,move against eachother giant shockwaves move upwardstowards the surfacecausing theearthquake.
CYCLONE OR HURRICANE :A Cyclone is a fiercestorm with storm windsthat spin around it in agiant circle. During acyclone trees can beuprooted, buildings canbe destroyed and carscan be overturned.
FLOOD :A flood is caused by anoverflow of water whichcovers the land that isusually dry. Floods arecaused by heavy rainor by snow melting andthe rivers burst theirbanks and overflow.
AVALANCHE :An Avalanche is amovement of snow, iceand rock down amountainside.Avalanches can becaused by – snowmelting quickly snowfreezing, melting thenfreezing againsomeone skiing a loudnoise or an earthtremor
DROUGHT :A drought is the lack ofrain for a long time.In 1968 a drought beganin Africa.Children born during thisyear were five yearsold before rain fellagain.
FOREST FIRE OR BUSHFIRE :Fires can burn out ofcontrol in areas offorest or bush land.Fires are caused bylightning, sparks ofelectricity or carelesspeople.Wind may blow abushfire to areas wherepeople live.
LANDSLIDES :Landslip is a geologicalphenomenon which includes awide range of groundmovement, such as rock falls,deep failure of slopes andshallow debris flows.
TSUNAMIS :Tsunami is a faultmovement on sea floor,accompanied by anearth quake. A landslide occurring underwater or above the sea,and then plunging in tothe water.
SNOW STORMS :Snowstorms are stormswhere large amounts ofsnow fall. It may occurin the late autumn andearly spring as well.Very rarely, they mayform in summer.
EPIDEMIC DISEASE : Epidemic DiseaseOutbreaks of Disease A biological agents areused in attacksbecause they causethe most illness anddeath among humans,they include: -Anthrax,Botulism,Plaque, Smallpox, Cholera,and H1N1.
FIRE:Fire is the rapidoxidation of a materialin the chemical processof combustion,releasing heat, light,and various reactionproducts.
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS :The terms “chemical accident”refer to an event resulting inthe release of a substance orsubstances hazardous tohuman health and/or theenvironment in the short orlong term. that can causepeople illness, injury,disability or death.
BOMB BLAST :Blast bomb is a termused for a type ofimprovised explosivedevice which is usingto destroy mass peoplein particular area as aweapon.
ROAD ACCIDENTS :Road accidents A trafficcollision (motor vehiclecollision, motor vehicleaccident, or car crash)is when a road vehiclecollides with anothervehicle.
SOME DISASTER PRONEAREAS ~AROUND WORLD AND INDIA
DISASTER MANAGEMENT : Disaster management (or Emergencymanagement) is the discipline of dealing withand avoiding risks. It is a discipline that involves preparing fordisaster before it occurs, disaster response(e.g., emergency evacuation, quarantine, massdecontamination, etc.), and supporting, andrebuilding society after natural or human-madedisasters have occurred.
DISASTER PREPAREDNESSIt is to ensure that in timeof disaster appropriatesystem, procedure andresources are in place toassist those afflicted bythe disaster and enablethem to help themselves
PRECAUTION AGAINSTEARTHQUAKE•Immediately seek a safe location such asbeneath a table or desk•Cover the back of your head and your eyes tominimize injury from flying debris.•Do not take elevators during an earthquake.•If cooking, turn off heating elementsimmediately.•If outdoors, stay in open areas away frombuildings, power lines, trees, and other potentialhazards.•If driving, stop quickly but safely and stay in thevehicle. Do not stop near power lines, bridges,overpasses, or other potentially dangerouslocations.
PRECAUTION AGAINST CYCLONEi) Keep your radio on and listen to latest weather warningand advisories from the nearest All India Radio Station. Pass theinformation to others.ii) Avoid being misled by rumors, pass on only the officialinformation you had got from the Radio to others.iii) If your house is out of danger from high tides andflooding from the river, and it is well built, it is then probably thebest place to weather the storm. However please act promptly ifasked to evacuate.iv) Be alert for high water in areas where streams of riversmay flood due to heavy rains.v) Get extra food, especially things which can be eatenwithout cooking or with very little preparation. Store extradrinking water in suitable covered vessels.vi) Check on everything that might blow away or be tornloose. Kerosene tins, cans, agricultural implements, garden tools,road signs and other objects become weapon of destruction instrong winds. Remove them and store them in a covered room.
PRECAUTION AGAINST FLOODS- > Dont enter into Flood Water ;It could bedangerous.->Stay away from sewage line, gutter,draining etc.-> Be careful snakes; Snakes bites arecommon during Floods.-> Stay away from electric pole and fallenpower-lines to avoid electrocution.-> Dont use wet electrical appliances - getthem checked before use.-> Eat freshly cooked and dry food. Alwayskeep your food covered.-> stagnation of water can breadvector/water-borne diseases in case ofsickness, sick medical assistance.-> use bleaching powder and lime to disinfectsurrounding.
PRECAUTION AGAINST DROUGHTS Rather than irrigating your lawn during thespring, the grasses should be allowed togrow naturally. Neither the field should bescalped nor should it be irrigated beforegrasses wither because of dry weatherconditions. Here, one needs to mowfrequently. Little dryness of soil & drooping of grassesduring moist weather harden the root tosuch an extent that they can tolerate dryconditions. Use a sharp blade to mow the grass insuch a manner that they form deep rootshaving a dense cover. The more deep is aroot system, the greater will it extractmoisture from soil.
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST TSUNAMI If you are indoors, stay there. Quickly moveto a safe location in the room such as undera strong desk, a strong table, or along aninterior wall. The goal is to protect yourselffrom falling objects and be located near thestructural strong points of the room. Avoidtaking cover near windows, large mirrors,hanging objects, heavy furniture, heavyappliances or fireplaces. If you are cooking, turn off the stove andtake cover. If you are outdoors, move to an open areawhere falling objects are unlikely to strikeyou. Move away from buildings, powerlinesand trees. If you are driving, slow down smoothly andstop on the side of the road. Avoid stoppingon or under bridges and overpasses, orunder power lines, trees and large signs.Stay in your car
DISASTER RESPONSEDisaster response is someof total of action taken bypeople or institution in theface of disaster. theseaction commence with thewarning of an oncomingthreatening event or withthe event itself if it occurwithout warning.
DISASTER RESPONSEAims of Emergency: To ensure the survival of the maximumpossible number of victims. To re establish self sufficiency and essentialservices as quickly as possible for allpopulation groups. To repair and replace damaged infra structureand regenerate viable economic activities.
INDIA’S RESPONSE TO DISASTERCentral GOVT response to the disaster depends upon: The gravity of natural calamity, The scale of relief operation necessary The requirement of central assistance and financialsupportTypes of central response:1. Policy response2. Administrative response
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT The Civil Defence Act,1968 The Civil Defence Rules,1968 The Civil Defence Regulation,1968 The disaster Management Act,2005 The Disaster management National Executive committeerules,2006 The Disaster management Rules,2006 The National Institute of Disaster ManagementRegulations-2006 The Notification of national Disaster response ForceRules-2008
INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES United nation office for the co-ordination of humanitarianaffairs (OCHA) World health organization (WHO) World food programme (WFP) Food and agriculture organization (FAO) Organization of American state (OAS) International council of voluntary agencies (ICVA) Inter national federation of red cross and red crescentsocieties (IFRC)