Geography project on disaster and its management


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Geography project on disaster and its management

  1. 1. What is a disaster? Ans. Any natural hazard which causes loss of life and property is called a disaster.  How can a hazard cannot become a disaster? Ans. If we can take some precautionary measures, the loss of life and property reduces. Thus the hazard cannot become a disaster.  Why is nature one of the biggest source of destruction? Ans. It is due to natural hazards like earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, droughts, cyclone s. 
  2. 2.      Sudden movements under the earth’s crust is called an earth quake. An earthquake is caused by sudden movements which cause vibrations called seismic waves. The study of earthquakes are called are called seismology. The scientists who study it are called seismologists. The place of origin of an earthquake is called focus. The place which is directly above the focus on the surface of the earth is called epicentre. The occurrence of an earthquake is detected by an instrument called seismograph. The intensity of an earthquake is measured with the help of an instrument known as the Richter Scale.
  3. 3.  Violent earthquakes are often very destructive. They cause serious damage to life and property. More than 20,000 people died, over 15 lakh were injured, and about 8 lakh houses were destroyed in a powerful earthquake in Gujarat on 26 January 2001.  The Himalayan region in the northern part of India is earthquake prone.
  4. 4.        Leave your home or school building and move to an open area. Learn the basic first aid functions. Do not stay near windows, bookcases, mirrors, hanging pots and fans during or immediately after an earthquake. If trapped in a building remain close to an interior wall and protect your head with your arms. Avoid using a lift. If outdoors, keep away from trees, signboards, buildings, poles and electric wires. Do not sit inside a car or a bus. If you are inside a theatre hall, stadium or auditorium, do not panic. Stay inside.
  5. 5.  The circulatory winds which rotates inward in the lower parts of an atmosphere is called a cyclone.  A cyclone develops when a low pressure area is surrounded by high pressure.  The tropical cyclones which originate in the Bay of Bengal can reach inland. The areas which are prone to cyclones in India are West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and coastal areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  6. 6. The winds blows towards the centre at a very high speed and are destructive in nature. These winds are accompanied by heavy rains and are often disastrous.  The coastal areas in Andhra Pradesh were hit by a cyclone storm in May 1990. the speed of the winds was about 250 km per hour. The cyclone affected about 6,000 villages in the coastal areas. It killed about 1,000 persons and about 25,000 cattle. About 12 lakh houses were fully or partially destroyed. The total loss was estimated to be worth several hundred crore rupees. This included the destruction of crops. 
  7. 7.         Listen regularly to weather bulletins on television and radio. Keep an emergency kit ready at home. Secure your home or move to a safer place before the cyclone hits your area. Store enough non-perishable food articles in waterproof bags. Do not venture into the sea. Keep phone numbers of hospitals, police, help agencies, relatives and friends handy. After the cyclone, check gas leaks and dry the electrical appliances. Avoid floodwater and be careful about snake bites.
  8. 8.  Overflowing of large amount of water beyond its normal course is called a flood.  The most common type of flood occurs, when a river overflows its banks and water spreads on the surrounding land. It can be also caused due to : Blocking of river channel due to landslides.  Strong tides and storms in the sea.  Cyclones and tsunamis.  Faulty design of embankments, canals or dams.  Deforestation
  9. 9.  India has experienced more floods than any other part of the world. The main season for the occurrence of floods is the rainy season between June and September. Floods are more frequent in northern India than in southern India. About one-eighth of the total area of our country is estimated to be floodprone. Most of it is in the plains of northern India.  Floods can cause damage to life, property and crops.
  10. 10.             Know the routes and locations of safe shelters. Listen to the radio or watch television for warning and advice. Keep the first-aid kit ready, especially for diarrhoea and snake bites. Keep strong ropes for tying things. Keep a radio, torch, matchbox, candles and spare batteries. Keep adequate stock of freshwater, food articles and kerosene. Keep waterproof bags for packing food articles and clothes. Keep bamboo sticks to ward off snakes. Do not enter the flooded area of unknown depth. Switch off power and electrical appliances. Drink only boiled water and eat only fresh cooked food. Take help from disaster management teams and other agencies.
  11. 11.  Extreme shortage of water in a region is called drought.  The drought-prone areas of India are Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Orissa, Rayalaseema and Telengana in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, central Maharashtra, interior Karnataka, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
  12. 12. It affects human beings, animals, and agricultural production. The drought-prone areas are those that experience low and variable rainfall.  More than 70 per cent of the total cultivable land in India is drought-prone. These areas receive low and highly unreliable rainfall and have inadequate irrigate facilities.  Drought still occur at frequent intervals. However, its capacity to kill large number of people and animals has now been reduced due to better drought management, and development of irrigation and transport facilities. 
  13. 13. Learn to harvest and conserve water at home.  Develop rainwater harvesting systems.  Promote drip irrigation.  Increase forest cover through plantations.  Encourage crop insurance schemes.  Plant drought resistant crops.  The best way to fight the menace of drought on the agricultural front is to provide proper irrigational facilities. 
  14. 14. The displacement of large mass of water is called tsunami.  This can be caused by an undersea earthquake or a volcanic eruption. When an undersea earthquake occurs it causes large areas of the seafloor to rise or subside. This leads to the occurrence of huge waves.  Tsunami travels at a high speed of about 500 to 1,000 km per hour. However, its speed reduces when it enters shallow coastal waters and its height increases. When the tsunami reaches the coast, it appears as a wall of water. 
  15. 15.  With its tremendous energy, the fast moving wave can crush houses and other structures in the coastal areas. Large objects such as ships can be pushed several kilometres inland.  Tsunami causes great loss of life and property. Most of the deaths caused by a tsunami are due to drowning. Although tsunamis are not frequent, they can occur at any time of the year.
  16. 16.        If you experience an earthquake that lasts for about 20 seconds or longer when you happen to be in a coastal area, move to higher ground immediately after the shaking stops. In some cases, the sea water may recede upto 800m from the coast. Do not enter this temporary dry area, as the sea water may come back soon. Know the height of your street above sea level and distance from the coast. The areas of great risk are less than 10m above sea level and within 2km from the coast. Prepare a plan of the evacuation route from your house, school or workshop and find an area about 30m above sea level. You should be able to reach a safe location in 15 minutes. The tsunami warning systems should be installed in high-risk zones. If you are visiting a place in high risk zone, check with the hotel or tour operators about tsunami evacuation information, and how you would be warned about it. Discuss tsunami with your family as this will help reduce the fear and anxiety associated with it.
  17. 17. Done By A.Basheer