Disasters and its management


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Disasters and its management

  2. 2. Dictionary meaning of "disaster" may be taken as: "a sudden accident or natural event that causes great damage or loss of life“. The biggest problem with the disasters is the suddenness and swiftness with which they arrive. Earthquakes, industrial accidents, oil-spills, forest-fires, terrorist activities etc. are some of the more commonly encountered disasters
  3. 3. SOME TYPES OF DISASTERS ARE AS FOLLOWS: Natural disasters: These are primary natural disasters  Earthquake  Volcanoes  Floods  Tornados  Tsunami Man Made : These are mostly caused due to certain human activities.  Nuclear Leaks  Chemical Leaks  Oil spills
  4. 4. EARTHQUAKE Earthquakes, also called temblors, can be so tremendously destructive, it’s hard to imagine they occur by the thousands every day around the world, usually in the form of small tremors. Some 80 percent of all the planet's earthquakes occur along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, called the "Ring of Fire" because of the preponderance of volcanic activity there as well. Most earthquakes occur at fault zones, where tectonic plates—giant rock slabs that make up the Earth's upper layer—collide or slide against each other. Loss of life can be avoided through emergency planning, education, and the construction of buildings that sway rather than break under the stress of an earthquake.
  5. 5. WHAT TO DO WHEN EARTHQUAKE WARNING IS GIVEN Check for hazards in the house . Check for safe places inside as well as outside the house. Ensure all family members know how to respond after an earthquake Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches. Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover and hold Develop an emergency communications plan in case of separation during the earthquake If possible try to repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations.
  6. 6. DURING EARTHQUAKE: If indoors: Take cover under a piece of heavy furniture or against an inside wall and stay inside If outdoors: Move into the open, away from buildings, street lights, and utility wires and remain there until shaking stops If in a moving vehicle: Stop
  7. 7. AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE:  Be prepared for after shocks.  Help injured or trapped persons and give first aid where appropriate.  Stay out of damaged buildings and return home only when authorities say it is safe.  Shut off the main switch of the electricity.
  8. 8. FOREST FIRE They pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime to fauna and flora seriously disturbing the bio-diversity and the ecology and environment of a region. During summer, when there is no rain for months, the forests become littered with dry senescent leaves and twinges, which could burst into flames ignited by the slightest spark. Forest fire causes imbalances in nature and endangers biodiversity by reducing faunal and floral wealth.
  9. 9. HOW FOREST FIRE IS CAUSED: Many forest fires start from natural causes such as lightning which set trees on fire. However, rain extinguishes such fires without causing much damage. High atmospheric temperatures and dryness (low humidity) offer favorable circumstance for a fire to start. Man made causes- Fire is caused when a source of fire like naked flame, cigarette or bidi, electric spark or any source of ignition comes into contact with inflammable material. Other natural causes are the friction of bamboos swaying due to high wind velocity and rolling stones that result in sparks setting off fires in highly inflammable leaf litter on the forest floor.
  10. 10. EFFECT OF FOREST FIRE: loss of valuable timber resources loss of biodiversity and extinction of plants and animals global warming soil erosion affecting productivity of soils and production ozone layer depletion health problems leading to diseases loss of livelihood for tribal and the rural poor people who are directly dependent upon collection of non-timber forest products from forest areas for their livelihood.
  11. 11. FLOODS o Flood is overflow of the huge amount of water onto the normally dry land. Flood occurs when the overflowing water submerges land and causes deluge. It is a cruel and violent expression of water. o Floods are often deadly, damaging and devastating. They kill lots of people, damage houses and crops, and cause extensive destruction. o Heavy rainfalls are one of the major
  12. 12. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BEFORE A FLOOD  Learn warning signs and community alert systems  Stockpile emergency building materials  Install check valves in sewer traps to prevent flood waters from backing up in sewer drains  Plan and practice an evacuation route
  13. 13. DURING A FLOOD: If indoors: Turn on battery operated radio to get latest emergency information Get pre-assembled emergency supplies If told to leave, do so immediately. If outdoors: Climb to high ground and stay there Avoid walking through any floodwaters. If in a car, turn around and go another way; if your car stalls, abandon it immediately and climb to higher ground.
  14. 14. AFTER A FLOOD: Don't return home until authorities express express it is safe to do so Use extreme caution when entering buildings Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage and examine walls, floors, doors, and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing Do not use appliances or lights until properly checked by an electrician Open windows and doors to help dry the building Enter home with caution, checking for electrical shorts and live wires
  15. 15. Volcanic eruptions happen with early warnings unlike earthquakes that are sudden. There are early warning signs before a volcano erupts so there is at least time for residents around the volcano to prepare before the actual eruption occurs. People should know that before a volcano erupts there are warning signs such as rumbling sounds, continuous emissions of steam, increasing temperature around the
  16. 16. Precautionary measures before volano Get a pair of goggles and a throw-away breathing mask for each member of the household Have disaster supplies on hand (flashlight, extra batteries, portable battery-operated radio, first aid kit, emergency food and water, nonelectric can opener, cash and credit cards, and sturdy shoes) Prioritize the safety of kids before other things. If you have relatives or friends who are far from the volcano, take your children there until such time that your place is safe.
  17. 17. PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES DURING VOLCANO Avoid all low-lying places because lava flows and mudflows are more likely to pass here. Seek cover in case of ash falls rock falls. Use masks and cover your mouth and nose to avoid breathing in ashes. If you are inside a house; close all doors and windows to avoid ashes from getting inside. Stay in the evacuation center until further instructions. Do not attempt to
  18. 18. AFTER VOLCANO:  Clean everything around and check all damages incurred.  Use masks while cleaning ash and other debris.  Wait for further announcements related to the volcano activities.  Make sure that your house is still safe for all of you.
  19. 19. TSUNAMI A tsunami is a wave train, or series of waves, generated in a body of water by an impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, explosions, and even the impact of cosmic bodies, such as meteorites, can generate tsunamis. The following are natural signs of tsunami: Feel the earth shake. A large undersea earthquake may be felt prior to tsunami by an ongoing shaking of the ground in coastal regions. However, you may not feel an earthquake if the source is far away. See the ocean drop. As tsunami approach the shoreline, the sea level may, but not always, recede/drop dramatically before returning as a fast-moving wall of water. Hear an unusual roaring sound. A roaring sound may precede the arrival of tsunami.
  20. 20. BEFORE TSUNAMI:  Be familiar with warning signs (earthquakes, ground rumbling, or rapid rise and fall of coastal waters)  Have disaster supplies on hand (flashlight, extra batteries, portable battery-operated radio, first aid kit, emergency food and water, nonelectric can opener, cash and credit cards, and sturdy shoes)  Ensure all family members know how to respond.
  21. 21. DURING TSUNAMI: Climb to higher ground as soon as warning of a tsunami is released Stay away from the beach - if you can see the wave, you are too close to escape it. Do not assume that one wave means the danger is over - the next wave may be larger than the first. Stay out of the area and do not return until authorities say it is safe to do so
  22. 22. AFTER TSUNAMI: Help injured or trapped persons and give first aid where appropriate. Stay out of damaged buildings. Shovel mud while it is still moist to give walls and floors an opportunity to dry. Enter home with caution, checking for electrical shorts and live wires
  23. 23. NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS As with any complex industrial system, nuclear power plants aren't foolproof. Though they have a good safety record overall, various kinds of accidents have occurred, from the mundane to the catastrophic. Employees have mishaps and equipment breaks down. When accidents occur, they usually result in a minor release of radioactive steam or water.
  24. 24. BASIC MEASURES TO BE TAKEN DURING NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS:  Close all windows and doors.  Close all appliances conveying fresh air, such as air conditioning units and ventilation grilles  It is safest to be in a room without windows or a basement Pack an emergency kit containing: a flashlight, battery-powered portable radio or TV, first-aid kit, food and water (canned or in airtight containers) and any prescription medicines you may need.  Dry your laundry indoors
  25. 25. EFFECT OF NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS: Even low-level exposure can cause serious medical problems and increase the incidences of various cancers and genetic abnormalities. High levels of exposure is deadly. The radiation cause complications with the thyroid gland which leads to mental and phsical retardations. Nuclear materials can contaminate large areas of land, contaminate waterways and enter the food chain and harm all types of living creatures
  26. 26. CHEMICAL LEAKS Some chemical factories handle simple chemicals while some handle hazardous chemicals. Some of the reason which causes leakage of chemicals may be due to the blast of equipments like boilers……… Or may be while transportation, storing, production, etc. 
  27. 27. SOME OF PROBLEMS CAUSED DUE TO CHEMICAL LEAKS:  Blast and explosion  Irritation to eyes, throats etc.  Pollution and/or poisoning of air, water-bodies etc.  Impact on vegetation and animals (including fishes in water-bodies)  Difficulty in breathing etc.  Fumes  Heat and/or fire etc.
  28. 28. PREPAREDNESS FOR PEOPLE AROUND LARGE CHEMICAL PLANTS AND STORAGE FACILITIES:  : 1. Be aware as to what are the kind of chemicals being used/produced/stored/handled at the facility 2. Be aware of the various processes/machines etc. involved which could create a blast/explosion etc. 3. Installing a mechanism for alerting, when something goes wrong. 4. Installing a mechanism for the community to be able to alert the factory staff, in case they notice something going wrong example the phone number of the important chemical departments.
  29. 29. WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT? Disaster management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.’
  31. 31. However, the more advanced a nation is, typically, their level of preparedness is higher. This higher level of preparedness allows them to have a better control over the loss.  There are certain types of disasters, where, the loss during the actual event is not necessarily as high, but, the losses become very high due to inability to manage the situation in a timely manner. More often than not, it
  32. 32. Another thing which causes a lot of loss during certain kind of disasters is the inability to properly manage and secure the utilities, like: electricity, gas, water etc. On one side, each of these utilities are very important, and, on the other side, due to leakages/ruptures, some of these might come in contact with each other, when they should not - causing further damage. Thus, the main motivation behind disaster management is to minimize the losses at the time of a disaster as well as ensure most efficient utilization of resources - which are already scarce.
  33. 33. The main characteristics of a major disaster are that irrespective of the origin, after a little while the scene is the same:  total chaos all around  lack of utilities – which we have always taken for granted  no relief and rescue teams for several days  lack of medical facilities Thus, the sufferings are not just due to the disaster, but, post-disaster, many more people die and suffer because of:  lack of food, shelter  lack of medical attention  hygiene issues causing health hazards
  34. 34. The approach for conducting a mock-drill varies as per the complexity of scenario depending upon the potential hazards, response system of the institution and the target community. Therefore, to ensure proper implementation of a drill programme, roles and responsibilities of the concerned personnel, departments, corporate bodies, stakeholders, and mechanisms for conducting the drill should be delineated clearly. In all the trainings and other sensitization programmes relating to DRM Programme, mock drill has been conducted by the Fire Service Officials. The fire service officials make arrangements and conduct the mock drills in the remote villages inorder to create awareness to the general public about the rescue operations during the times of disaster occurrence. MOCK DRILL