Dictionary meaning of "disaster" may be taken as: "a
sudden accident or natural event that causes great
damage or loss of life“.
The biggest problem with the
disasters is the
suddenness and swiftness with
which they arrive.
Earthquakes, industrial accidents, oil-spills, forest-fires,
terrorist activities etc. are some of the more commonly
SOME TYPES OF DISASTERS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
Natural disasters: These are primary natural
Man Made : These are mostly caused due to
Earthquakes, also called temblors, can be so
tremendously destructive, it’s hard to imagine they occur
by the thousands every day around the world, usually in
the form of small tremors. Some 80 percent of all the
planet's earthquakes occur along the rim of the Pacific
Ocean, called the "Ring of Fire" because of the
preponderance of volcanic activity there as well. Most
earthquakes occur at fault zones, where tectonic plates—
giant rock slabs that make up the Earth's upper layer—
collide or slide against each other. Loss of life can be
avoided through emergency planning, education, and the
construction of buildings that sway rather than break
under the stress of an earthquake.
WHAT TO DO WHEN EARTHQUAKE WARNING IS GIVEN
Check for hazards in the house .
Check for safe places inside as well as outside the house.
Ensure all family members know how to respond after an
earthquake Store breakable items such as bottled
foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches.
Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover
Develop an emergency communications plan in case of
separation during the earthquake
If possible try to repair any deep cracks in ceilings or
If indoors: Take cover under a
piece of heavy furniture or
against an inside wall and stay
If outdoors: Move into the
open, away from
buildings, street lights, and
utility wires and remain there
until shaking stops
AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE:
prepared for after shocks.
Help injured or trapped persons
and give first aid where
Stay out of damaged buildings
and return home only when
authorities say it is safe.
Shut off the main switch of the
They pose a threat not only to the forest wealth
but also to the entire regime to fauna and flora
seriously disturbing the bio-diversity and the
ecology and environment of a region. During
summer, when there is no rain for months, the
forests become littered with dry senescent
leaves and twinges, which could burst into
flames ignited by the slightest spark.
Forest fire causes imbalances in nature and
endangers biodiversity by reducing faunal and
HOW FOREST FIRE IS CAUSED:
Many forest fires start from natural causes such as lightning which
set trees on fire. However, rain extinguishes such fires without
causing much damage. High atmospheric temperatures and
dryness (low humidity) offer favorable circumstance for a fire to
Man made causes- Fire is caused when a source of fire like naked
flame, cigarette or bidi, electric spark or any source of ignition
comes into contact with inflammable material.
Other natural causes are the friction of bamboos swaying due to high
wind velocity and rolling stones that result in sparks setting off
fires in highly inflammable leaf litter on the forest floor.
EFFECT OF FOREST FIRE:
loss of valuable timber resources
loss of biodiversity and extinction of plants and
soil erosion affecting productivity of soils and
ozone layer depletion
health problems leading to diseases
loss of livelihood for tribal and the rural poor
people who are directly dependent upon collection
of non-timber forest products from forest areas for
Flood is overflow of the huge amount
of water onto the normally dry land.
Flood occurs when the overflowing
water submerges land and causes
deluge. It is a cruel and violent
expression of water.
Floods are often deadly, damaging
and devastating. They kill lots of
people, damage houses and
crops, and cause extensive
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BEFORE A FLOOD
Learn warning signs and community alert
Stockpile emergency building materials
Install check valves in sewer traps to prevent
flood waters from backing up in sewer drains
Plan and practice an evacuation route
DURING A FLOOD:
Turn on battery operated radio to get latest emergency
Get pre-assembled emergency supplies
If told to leave, do so immediately.
Climb to high ground and stay there
Avoid walking through any floodwaters.
If in a car, turn around and go another way; if your car
stalls, abandon it immediately and climb to higher ground.
AFTER A FLOOD:
Don't return home until authorities express express it is safe to
Use extreme caution when entering buildings
Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage and examine
walls, floors, doors, and windows to make sure that the building is
not in danger of collapsing
Do not use appliances or lights until properly checked by an
Open windows and doors to help dry the building
Enter home with caution, checking for electrical shorts and live
eruptions happen with early
warnings unlike earthquakes that are
sudden. There are early warning signs
before a volcano erupts so there is at
least time for residents around the
volcano to prepare before the actual
People should know that before a
volcano erupts there are warning signs
such as rumbling sounds, continuous
Precautionary measures before volcano
Get a pair of goggles and a throw-away breathing mask for each
member of the household
Have disaster supplies on hand (flashlight, extra
batteries, portable battery-operated radio, first aid
kit, emergency food and water, nonelectric can opener, cash and
credit cards, and sturdy shoes)
Prioritize the safety of kids before other things. If you have
relatives or friends who are far from the volcano, take your
children there until such time that your place is safe.
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES DURING
Avoid all low-lying places because
lava flows and mudflows are more likely
to pass here.
Seek cover in case of ash falls rock
Use masks and cover your mouth and
nose to avoid breathing in ashes.
If you are inside a house; close all
doors and windows to avoid ashes from
Stay in the evacuation center until
further instructions. Do not attempt to
Clean everything around and check all damages incurred.
Use masks while cleaning ash and other debris.
Wait for further announcements related to the volcano activities.
Make sure that your house is still safe for all of you.
A tsunami is a wave train, or series of waves, generated in
a body of water by an impulsive disturbance that vertically
displaces the water column. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
eruptions, explosions, and even the impact of cosmic
bodies, such as meteorites, can generate tsunamis.
The following are natural signs of tsunami:
Feel the earth shake. A large undersea earthquake may be
felt prior to tsunami by an ongoing shaking of the ground in
coastal regions. However, you may not feel an earthquake if
the source is far away.
See the ocean drop. As tsunami approach the shoreline, the
sea level may, but not always, recede/drop dramatically
before returning as a fast-moving wall of water.
Hear an unusual roaring sound. A roaring sound may
precede the arrival of tsunami.
Be familiar with warning signs (earthquakes, ground
rumbling, or rapid rise and fall of coastal waters)
Have disaster supplies on hand (flashlight, extra
batteries, portable battery-operated radio, first aid
kit, emergency food and water, nonelectric can
opener, cash and credit cards, and sturdy shoes)
Ensure all family members know how to respond.
Climb to higher ground as soon as warning of a
tsunami is released
Stay away from the beach - if you can see the
wave, you are too close to escape it.
Do not assume that one wave means the
danger is over - the next wave may be larger
than the first.
Stay out of the area and do not return until
authorities say it is safe to do so
Help injured or trapped persons and give first aid
Stay out of damaged buildings.
Shovel mud while it is still moist to give walls and
floors an opportunity to dry.
Enter home with caution, checking for electrical
shorts and live wires
As with any complex industrial
system, nuclear power plants aren't
foolproof. Though they have a good safety
record overall, various kinds of accidents
have occurred, from the mundane to the
catastrophic. Employees have mishaps and
equipment breaks down. When accidents
occur, they usually result in a minor release
of radioactive steam or water.
BASIC MEASURES TO BE TAKEN DURING
Close all windows and doors.
Close all appliances conveying fresh
air, such as air conditioning units and
It is safest to be in a room without windows
or a basement
Pack an emergency kit containing: a
flashlight, battery-powered portable radio or
TV, first-aid kit, food and water (canned or in
airtight containers) and any prescription
medicines you may need.
Dry your laundry indoors
EFFECT OF NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS:
Even low-level exposure can cause serious medical
problems and increase the incidences of various
cancers and genetic abnormalities. High levels of
exposure is deadly.
The radiation cause complications with the thyroid
gland which leads to mental and physical
Nuclear materials can contaminate large areas of
land, contaminate waterways and enter the food
chain and harm all types of living creatures
Some chemical factories handle simple
chemicals while some handle hazardous
Some of the reason which causes leakage of
chemicals may be due to the blast of
equipments like boilers………
Or may be while
transportation, storing, production, etc.
SOME OF PROBLEMS CAUSED DUE TO
Blast and explosion
Irritation to eyes, throats etc.
Pollution and/or poisoning of air, water-bodies
Impact on vegetation and animals (including
fishes in water-bodies)
Difficulty in breathing etc.
Heat and/or fire etc.
PREPAREDNESS FOR PEOPLE AROUND LARGE
CHEMICAL PLANTS AND STORAGE FACILITIES:
Be aware as to what are the kind of chemicals being
used/produced/stored/handled at the facility
Be aware of the various processes/machines etc. involved
which could create a blast/explosion etc.
Installing a mechanism for alerting, when something goes
Installing a mechanism for the community to be able to alert
the factory staff, in case they notice something going wrong
example the phone number of the important chemical
WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT?
Disaster management can be defined as
the organization and management of
resources and responsibilities for dealing
preparedness, response and recovery in
order to lessen the impact of disasters.’
However, the more advanced a nation
is, typically, their level of preparedness is
higher. This higher level of preparedness
allows them to have a better control over
There are certain types of
disasters, where, the loss during the
actual event is not necessarily as
high, but, the losses become very high
due to inability to manage the situation in
a timely manner. More often than not, it
Another thing which causes a lot of
loss during certain kind of disasters is
the inability to properly manage and
secure the utilities, like:
electricity, gas, water etc. On one
side, each of these utilities are very
important, and, on the other side, due
to leakages/ruptures, some of these
might come in contact with each
other, when they should not - causing
The main characteristics of a major disaster are that irrespective of the
origin, after a little while the scene is the same:
total chaos all around
lack of utilities – which we have always taken for granted
no relief and rescue teams for several days
lack of medical facilities
Thus, the sufferings are not just due to the disaster, but, post-disaster, many
more people die and suffer because of:
lack of food, shelter
lack of medical attention
hygiene issues causing health hazards
The approach for conducting a mock-drill varies as per the complexity
of scenario depending upon the potential hazards, response system
of the institution and the target community. Therefore, to ensure
proper implementation of a drill programme, roles and responsibilities
bodies, stakeholders, and mechanisms for conducting the drill should
be delineated clearly.
In all the trainings and other sensitization programmes relating to
DRM Programme, mock drill has been conducted by the Fire Service
Officials. The fire service officials make arrangements and conduct the
mock drills in the remote villages inorder to create awareness to the
general public about the rescue operations during the times of