Natural disasters are changes which are so greatthey may cause damage to the shape of the landor to the lives of people and other living things.Great changes happen deep inside the Earth andon its surface. The changes on the outer part ofthe Earth happen because of different kinds ofweather.
EARTHQUAKEAn earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes itis so strong that the ground splits apart.When parts of the earth, called plates, move against eachother giant shock waves move upwards towards the surfacecausing the earthquake.
FloodA flood is caused by an overflow of water whichcovers the land that is usually dry.Floods are caused by heavy rain or by snowmelting and the rivers burst their banks andoverflow.Costal floods are caused by high tides, a rise insea level, storm waves or tsunami (earthquakesunder the sea).
Tsunami A tsunami is a series of waves, made in an oceanor other body of water by an earthquake,landslide, volcanic eruption, or meteorite impact.Tsunamis can cause huge destruction when theyhit coastlines.
Cyclones "Cyclone" is an intense whirl in theatmosphere with very strong windscirculating around it in anti-clockwisedirection in the Northern Hemisphere andin clockwise direction in the SouthernHemisphere.
WildfireThe term “wildfire” is used for uncontrolled fire thatdestroys forests and many other types of vegetation,as well as animal species. In some regions of the worldwildfires are caused by lightning however, nowadays manyfires are caused by people, either accidentally,as a consequence of carelessness, or arson. These firesoften get out of control and spread very easily overvast areas. Depending on the type of vegetation or materialbeing burnt, they are also called: forest fires, bush fires,grass fires, or peat fires
Effects.The Sichuan Earthquake caused land slides, roads were torn apart and most buildingscollapsed. Submerged under the mud slides were hundreds of vehicles, with mostlyworkers trapped inside. Most of them died, as the mudslides made the Chinese armyunable to get to them. Schools were destroyed, with kids still inside with the poor quality ofbuildings being to blame for the child death toll.About 800000 people were death due to earthquakeMudslide near the epicentre of theearthquake.
Case Study: Gujarat2001 Earthquake A Powerful Earthquake of magnitude 6.9 on Richter-Scale rocked the WesternIndian State of Gujarat on the 26th of January, 2001 It caused extensive damage to life & property. The epicenter of the quake waslocated at 23.6 north Latitude and 69.8 east Longitude, about 20 km Northeastof Bhuj Town of the Kutch district in Western Gujarat. 25 districts of the statewas affected in this quake. Around 18 towns, 182 talukas and 7904 villages inthe affected districts have seen large-scale devastation. The affected areas even spread up to 300 km from the epicentre. In the KutchDistrict, four major urban areas – Bhuj, Anjar, Bachau and Rapar suffered neartotal destruction. The rural areas in the region are also very badly affected with over 450villages almost totally destroyed. In addition, wide spread damages also occurred in Rajkot, Jamnagar,Surendranagar, Patan and Ahmedabad districts. Other Urban areas such as Ganhidham, Morvi, Rajkot and Jamnagar havealso suffered damage to major structures, infrastructure and industrialfacilities. Ahmedabad the capital was also severely affected.
CASE STUDY:3 The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an underseamegathrust earthquake that occurred on December26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast ofSumatra, Indonesia. The earthquake was caused by subduction and adevastating tsunami along the coasts of mostlandmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing nearly230,000 people in eleven countries, and the avrageheight of tsunami was recorded 5-10meters max. Itwas one of the deadliest natural disasters in recordedhistory. India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand werethe hardest hit. 373 villages of Kanyakumari were effected. About 7000 people lost their lives in South region ofIndia
CASE STUDY 4TSUNAMI IN JAPAN Friday afternoon, on 11 March A tsunami was sent crashing into the country’snorth-eastern coast. A tsunami measured at anywhere at 7.3 meters hitat various places along the coast, while a 10-metertsunami was seen at the port in Sendai. Two nuclear plants on the Pacific coast inFukushima were automatically shut down. Radiation releases caused large evacuations,concern over food and water supplies, andtreatment of nuclear workers.
The situation has been further compounded by numerousaftershocks. 20,000 people confirmed dead 10,000 more people expected to dead 20,000 people injured 530,000 people displaced, staying in 2,500 evacuation centres,such as schools and public halls 24,000 people still completely isolated and cannot be reached 1.2 million homes without power 1.4 million homes without water 4,700 destroyed houses 50,000 damaged houses 582 roads cut off 32 bridges destroyed
Case study 5On 26 July 2005 Mumbai Metropolitan Region was struck with a heavy rains.The IndianMeteorological Department (IMD) station in Santacruz had recorded94.4 cm of rain. Local train movement came to a halt by 2:30 p.m. due to the waterlogging on the tracks, due to which, vehicles traffic intensity on roadsincreased. Water logging and submergence of certain low lying pocketsof the region such as Dharavi, Bandra-Kurla Complex, Chunabhatti,Chembur, Ghatkopar, Milan Subway and Sion either slowed downtraffic, or in some areas, brought it to a grinding halt. BEST buses services were stopped in the evening. The Powai Lake had started overflowing at 4 p.m. and discharged 5.95million cubic meters of water into the Mithi River. Thousands of school children were stranded due to flooding and couldnot reach home for up to 24 hours. The following two days weredeclared as school and college holidays by the state government.
Thousands of animal carcasses floated in the flood waters, raising concernsabout the possibility of disease. 52 local trains damaged 37,000 autorickshaws spoiled 4,000 taxis damaged 900 BEST buses damaged 10,000 trucks and tempos were damaged.
About 60% ofthe capital cityDhaka has goneunder dirtyfloodwaterspolluted withsewage,exposing 5million people toserious healthhazards.
At least 100 more people are being reported killed in Bangladeshfloods, taking the death toll from three weeks of devastation toalmost 400 in the country, and over 1,100 in South Asia.Bangladeshi officials say new deaths were reported from across thecountry as a result of drowning, disease, snakebites and housecollapses.Early reports
Effects Total affected districts:39 Reported death:628 Houses destroyed:858,202 Houses damaged:3159235 School destroyed:1225 School damaged:23439
More than 2,000,000 acres of agricultural land have beensubmerged and countless crops ruined.
Case study 7A CYCLONE IN CALCUTTA.The oldest and the worst cyclonewas record in the month October1737 that had hit Calcutta andtook a toll of 30,000 lives in theregion. It was accompanied by a12 meter high cyclone.
Case study 8• Bangladesh Cyclone in the month of November 1970 whichcrossed Bangladesh coast in the night was one of the worst inrecent times, with storm surges of 4 to 5 meters height at thetime of high tides, and with 25 cm of rain in the some area. Itwas found that about 20,000 people lost their lives.
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