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Supercyclone of Odisha

This presentation gives a detailed information about the Supercyclone of Odisha which had occured in the year 1999. It gives detailed information about the cyclone and its impact on the Odisha state and what are the steps taken out after this disaster

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DISASTER MANAGEMENT
(PGS -506)
Presented by:-
Sidhartha Shankar Baral
Regd. No. 04-3282-2017
M.Tech (FMPE) 1st Year
CAET, AAU, GODHRA
A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of
a society, causing widespread human, material and
environmental losses, which exceed the ability of the
affected society to cope with using its own resources.
What is a disaster?
What is disaster management?
It is defined as the organization and management of
resources and responsibilities for dealing with all
humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular
preparedness, response and recovery in order to
lessen the impact of disasters.
CYCLONE :-
The cyclone is a Greek word meaning “coil of a
snake”. It was first used by Henry Paddington. The
cyclone is basically associated with low pressures
and wind speed. Based on its origin from the ocean,
it is Hurricane in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific,
Typhoon in Western Pacific, Willy Willy in Western
Australia, Baguio in the Philippines, Taifu in Japan,
Ghurni Jad in Bangladesh and Chakravat over the
Indian region.
CAUSE OF CYCLONE
The updraft and downdraft movement creates an angle tend
to cause a rotatory motion arising from downward motion
of cold air and upward motion of hot air. As the direction of
attack is opposite in the northern and southern hemispheres,
the direction of rotation will be opposite. Anti-clockwise
rotation in the northern hemisphere and clockwise rotation
in the southern hemisphere. In the centre of this rotating air
mass is an intensely low-pressure area known as the “Eye”
of the storm.
…Contd.
The low-pressure present at the eye of the storm tends
to get filled by the rotating air mass. This causes the
lateral motion of the cyclone. Hence the “Eye” of the
storm continuously moves forward. Therefore, the
cyclone consists of both rotatory and lateral motion.
STRUCTURE OF CYCLONE
REASONS BEHIND CYCLONES IN INDIA
The Indian east coastal region has 7 to 11 visits of
cyclones every year. There are three reasons for it.
 Firstly, the entire peninsular India lies in the
tropical region with the North-Eastern trade winds
flowing over them.
 Secondly, this is a well-known fact that the tropical
cyclones develop over warm tropical waters.
 Thirdly, the tropical cyclones are more attracted
towards the wet points (any site that has access to
water, usually through being beside a river).

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Supercyclone of Odisha

  • 1. DISASTER MANAGEMENT (PGS -506) Presented by:- Sidhartha Shankar Baral Regd. No. 04-3282-2017 M.Tech (FMPE) 1st Year CAET, AAU, GODHRA
  • 2. A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material and environmental losses, which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope with using its own resources. What is a disaster? What is disaster management? It is defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.
  • 3. CYCLONE :- The cyclone is a Greek word meaning “coil of a snake”. It was first used by Henry Paddington. The cyclone is basically associated with low pressures and wind speed. Based on its origin from the ocean, it is Hurricane in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, Typhoon in Western Pacific, Willy Willy in Western Australia, Baguio in the Philippines, Taifu in Japan, Ghurni Jad in Bangladesh and Chakravat over the Indian region.
  • 4. CAUSE OF CYCLONE The updraft and downdraft movement creates an angle tend to cause a rotatory motion arising from downward motion of cold air and upward motion of hot air. As the direction of attack is opposite in the northern and southern hemispheres, the direction of rotation will be opposite. Anti-clockwise rotation in the northern hemisphere and clockwise rotation in the southern hemisphere. In the centre of this rotating air mass is an intensely low-pressure area known as the “Eye” of the storm. …Contd.
  • 5. The low-pressure present at the eye of the storm tends to get filled by the rotating air mass. This causes the lateral motion of the cyclone. Hence the “Eye” of the storm continuously moves forward. Therefore, the cyclone consists of both rotatory and lateral motion. STRUCTURE OF CYCLONE
  • 6. REASONS BEHIND CYCLONES IN INDIA The Indian east coastal region has 7 to 11 visits of cyclones every year. There are three reasons for it.  Firstly, the entire peninsular India lies in the tropical region with the North-Eastern trade winds flowing over them.  Secondly, this is a well-known fact that the tropical cyclones develop over warm tropical waters.  Thirdly, the tropical cyclones are more attracted towards the wet points (any site that has access to water, usually through being beside a river).
  • 8. ABOUT ODISHA Odisha is a state on the eastern seaboard of India, located between 17o49’N and 22o36’N latitudes and between 81o36’ E and 87o18’E longitudes. It spreads over an area of 1,55,707 km2 and is broadly divided into four geographical regions, i.e. Northern Plateau, Central River Basins, Eastern Hills and Coastal Plains. Its population was 4.2 crores as per the 2011 census. The coastal plains are comprised of deltas of rivers like Mahanadi and its tributaries which makes the land fertile due to the presence of good alluvial soil and irrigation sources.
  • 9. ODISHA AND CYCLONES Odisha is prone to three types of natural hazards such as cyclones, earthquakes and floods. Out of all these, major problem of the state are the cyclonic storms with storm surges inundating vast areas of land along the coastal areas. The coastline is about 450 km along towards the Bay of Bengal which is about 18 per cent of the Indian coastline but nearly about 35 per cent of cyclonic storms with hurricane winds have crossed this stretch. Odisha has experienced cyclones in the year 1971, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1999, 2013 and 2014
  • 11. SUPER CYCLONE, 1999 On October 28-29, 1999, Odisha was hit by a cyclone which was termed as “super cyclone”. The super cyclone first originated like as a depression over north Andaman island at about 12000’ north to 130 30’ north latitude and 95000’ east longitude and centred about 350 km to the north east of Port Blair. Then it moved to the north west and took a shape of cyclone and centred at about 800 km to the south east of Paradip. …Contd.
  • 12. After that, it intensified further and became a super cyclone and moved in a North-West direction and centred at about 25 km to the South East of Paradip at 19° 54'- 20° 05’ North and 86° 35’ east longitude. The land fall at Paradip was on 29th - 30th October and remained stationary there for about more than 24 hours during which the wind velocity reached a maximum of 270 km/h to 300 km/h. The super cyclone was accompanied with heavy rain and storm for more than 36 hours.
  • 13. Super Cyclone, 1999 pathway Movement and Landfall of Super Cyclone, 1999 Severely affected districts of Super Cyclone, 1999
  • 14. Movement and Landfall of Super Cyclone, 1999 (Source:IMD)
  • 15. PRE-DISASTER MANAGEMENT The state of Odisha was poorest among all the states, where more than half of the population were under BPL. Orissa also had the least household income and per capita income in the country. About 80% of the population used to live in temporary houses, which increased its vulnerability to higher damages in case of floods and cyclones. …Contd.
  • 16. The disaster preparedness level in Odisha was quite low. Being the poor state, the overall disaster management, a state level subject in India, gets low priority in the wake of more pressing needs of development. Odisha had a woefully inadequate infrastructure for saving lives during cyclones. Odisha (whose coastline is around 40% of Andhra Pradesh’s) had 23 specially constructed cyclone shelters in October 1999 compare to 1041 in Andhra Pradesh. These cyclone shelters were constructed by Red Cross Society of India in collaboration with International partners.
  • 17. IMPACTS OF SUPER CYCLONE The 12 districts of coastal Odisha experienced the devastation of super cyclone as the whole public services, communication and transportation were completely paralyzed affecting the normal life of people.  Total 97 blocks and 28 urban local bodies were affected, about 275000 homes were destroyed, 1.67 million people were homeless and with it human loss was 9885.  The animal fatality was about 2.5 million and mortality was about 406,000 livestock due to direct impact of cyclone. …Contd.
  • 18. 1.35 million hectors of paddy crop, 0.28 million hectors of non-paddy crops and 0.18 hectors of horticultural crop were damaged. 2139 km of public works dept. roads were damaged, including a 90m wide breach on the National Highway No. 5 connecting Calcutta- Bhubaneswar- Chennai. Severe floods due to heavy rainfall had caused 2005 numbers of breaches in the flood embankments and 8647 breaches in Chennai embankments. About 5636 lift irrigation points in the affected area had been severely affected. …Contd.
  • 19.  In all about 90 million trees have been uprooted and about 95,750 hectors of forest area were affected.  During this time the municipality was totally out of function and they didn’t do any work for cleaning the roads and habitation areas.  The tubes well were contaminated and over loaded with waters, the municipalities had stopped supplying water due to the failure of electricity.  Due to cut in electricity many of the factories and firms remained closed for nearly a month. And the people were in a great problem as they didn’t have any work.
  • 20. Due to lack of communication and transportation there was no supply of commodities, consumer goods and vegetables, etc. As a result, the prices of the essential goods and the vegetables were raised to double of its original price. The people also faced problems in getting cooking gases, petrol and diesel. During this period petrol was sold for Rs.100/lt. The hike in price left the poor people to suffer a great extent. The failure of law and order was also noticed in the affected areas and also in the cities. There was increase of robbery, looting and snatching on the roads.
  • 21. Effects of Super Cyclone in 12 severely affected districts of Odisha
  • 22. Destructions caused by the Super Cyclone of 1999 and shelter houses and relief codes are being provided during this time
  • 23. POST-DISASTER MANAGEMENT Initially relief was provided by the state government which pressed into six choppers for air dropping of food packets to the marooned people. “Operation Sahayata” carried relief material to all the affected areas. Compensation of Rs. 75,000 per each dead person. A total of Rs. 21.03 crores from state disaster mitigation fund and Rs. 38.41 crores from prime minister relief fund was spent in different districts. The United Nations in India instituted the UN House in Bhubaneswar to provide assistance for restoring normalcy in the aftermath of the super cyclone.
  • 24.  Two neighbouring states AP & WB provided immediate help to the states of Odisha.  A group of non-governmental organizations and volunteers created Orissa Disaster Mitigation Mission (ODMM) and around 20 INGOs, 20 national level NGOs, 49 PSUs and 12 states had participated in the relief and rehabilitation process.  Sneha Abhiyan - “a campaign of love” was a response to ensure rehabilitation of the most vulnerable among the survivors of the Orissa super cyclone.
  • 25.  Mamata Gruhas were built in villages where there was a large concentration of people who had been orphaned and made destitute. The objectives were: (i) to ensure that the basic needs (food, shelter, clothing) for the survival of the target groups were met, (ii) to meet their psycho-social and security needs and to build their confidence to survive, and (iii) to facilitate a process where the target groups could be rehabilitated into the community. The 44 Mamata Gruhas which were established in December 1999 supported by Action Aid provided shelter to 801 orphans and children at risk, 638 widows, and 201 old people.
  • 26. A Very Severe Cyclonic Storm (VSCS) Phailin originated from a cyclonic circulation from the South China Sea. It attained a peak of category 5 hurricane and made landfall near Gopalpur, Odisha. The term “PHALIN” is derived from a Thai word meaning “Sapphire”. This cyclone was the second strongest tropical cyclone after 1999 super cyclone. It hit Odisha on 12th October, 2013 with an average wind speed of 250 km/h. It was reported that only 44 people were dead and about 1,154,725 people were evacuated in the wake of storm and following flood. PHALIN, 2013
  • 27. Movement of Phailin cyclonic storm Satellite image of Phailin cyclonic storm
  • 28. CONCLUSION Odisha has a long history of cyclones. Since, Independence, the state has faced two severe cyclones in 1999 and 2013, incidentally all in the month of October. The response to the cyclone in India and from outside India was tremendous and unprecedented once the scale of disaster became known through the media, particularly the print media. The 1999 super cyclone was a wake-up call for the state and the country which improved the preparedness of the state to face sudden- impact natural disasters like floods, cyclones etc.
  • 29. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 laid down the institutional, legal, financial and co-ordination mechanism at the centre, state, district and local levels. Somehow the appearance of Phailin corroborates with the disaster management awakening of India as the death toll was limited to just 44 people in 2013 in spite of facing a cyclone similar to that of super cyclone where deaths clocked about 10,000. . Margareta Wahlstrom, Special Representative of UN Secretary General (SRSG) for Disaster Risk Reduction said, “Odisha’s handling of the very severe cyclone will be a landmark success story in disaster management.”