EARTHQUAKE IS THE SUDDEN SHAKINGOF EARTH’S CRUST.THE TECTONICPLATES FLOATING OVER THE MANTLEOFTEN COLLIDE WITH EACH OTHERTHUS INCREASING THE PRESSURE. THISPRESSURE IS RELEASED RESULTIG IN AFAULT. THE SEISMIC ZONES OF INDIA ISSHOWN BELOW
THE WORD CYCLONE IS DERIVED FROMTHE GREEK WORD CYCLOS MEANINGCOILS OF A SNAKE. CYCLONES IS AHUGE REVOLVING STORMS CAUSED BYWINDS BLOWING AROUND A CENTRALAREA OF LOW ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.IT IS A SWIRLING ATMOSPHERICDISTURBANCE ACCOMPANIED BYPOWERFUL WINDS BLOWING IN ACLOCKWISE DIRECTION IN THENORTHERN HEMISPHERE AND ANTICLOCKWISE DIRECTION IN THESOUTHERN HEMISPHERE .
TSUNAMIS ARE ENORMOUS WAVESWHICH ARE USUALLY FORMEDWHEN THE SEA BED IS DISTURBEDBY AN UNDER EARTHQUAKE ORBY A LANDSLIDE. TSUNAMISTRASH EVERYTHING IN THEIRPATH. THEY ARE VERYDANGEROUS.
A FLOOD OCCURS WHEN WATERRISES BEYOND ITS NORMALCOURSE. THE MAIN CAUSE OFFLOOD IS HEAVY RAIN. FLOOD ISVERY COMMON IN LOW LYINGAREAS AND RIVER BEDS .
A LANDSLIDE IS A GEOLOGICALPHENOMENON WHICH INCLUDESA WIDE RANGE OF GROUNDMOVEMENTSUCH AS ROCK FALLS,DEEP FAILURE OF SLOPES ANDSHALLOW DEBRIS FLOWS,WHICHCAN OCCUR ON SHORE , OFFSHORE AND COASTALENVIRONMENTS .
• The 1997 Jabalpur earthquake occurred on May 22, 1997 in Jabalpur District in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The epicenter of the earthquake was located at 23.18°N 80.02°E near Koshamghat village. According to geologist Dr V. Subramanyan, the quake was caused due to the presence of Narmada Fault.
On 11 and 17 August 1998 at village Malpa in Uttarkhand state about 380 people were killed whenmassive landslides washed away the entire village. Thedead included 60 Hindu pilgrims on their way to Kailash Mansarovar lake in Tibet.The noted Indiandancer Protima Bedi was one of the pilgrims who diedin the landslide.
The 1999 Orissa cyclone , also known as Cyclone 05B, and Paradipcyclone, was the deadliest Indian Ocean tropical cyclone .The stormmade landfall just weeks after a Category 4 storm hit the same generalarea.A tropical depression formed over the Malay Peninsula on October 25. Itmoved to the northwest and became a tropical storm on October 26. Itcontinued to strengthen into a cyclone on the 27th. On October 28, itbecame a severe cyclone with a peak of 160 mph (260 km/h) winds. Ithit India the next day as a 155 mph (250 km/h) cyclone. It caused thedeaths of 15,000 people, and heavy to extreme damage in its path ofdestruction.
2000 Mumbai landslide is the landslide in Ghatkopar suburbs of Mumbai in July 2000 thatkilled 67 people and injured many. The landslide wasthe result of land erosion following heavy rains.
The 2001 Gujarat earthquake occurred on January 26,2001,at 08:46 AM. The epicentre was Bhuj (23.6° N 69.8°E) Gujarat, India. With a magnitude of between 7.6 and 8.1on the Richter scale, the quake killed around 20,000 people ,injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000homes.This was an intraplate earthquake, one that occurredat a distance from any plate boundary where plate tectonics create most earthquakes, so the area was not well prepared.
Severe Cyclonic Storm Onil was the first tropical cyclone to be named in the northern Indian Ocean. Forming out of an area of convection several hundred kilometres southwest of India on October 1,Cyclone Onil quickly attained its peak intensity on October 2 withwinds of 100 km/h and a barometric pressure of 990 mbar . However,dry air quickly entered the system, causing it to rapidly weaken to adepression just off the coast of Gujarat, India. Over the followingseveral days, the system took a slow, erratic track towards the south-southeast. After turning northeastward, the system made landfall near Porbandar on October 10 and dissipated shortly thereafter.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 on December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coastof Sumatra, Indonesia...The earthquake was caused by subduction and triggered aseries of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing over 230,000 people in fourteen countries, and inundatingcoastal communities with waves up to 30 meters (100 feet) high.It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Indonesia was the hardest hit, followedby Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand.With a magnitude of between 9.1 and 9.3, it isthe third largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph. This earthquake had thelongest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and 10 minutes. It caused theentire planet to vibrate as much as 1 cm (0.4 inches) and triggered other earthquakesas far away as Alaska.Its hypocenter was between Simeulue and mainland Indonesia.
The 2005 Kashmir Earthquake was a major earthquake centered in Pakistan-administered Kashmir known as Azad Kashmir, near thecity of Muzaffarabad, affectingGilgit-Baltistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time (03:52:37 UTC) on 8 October 2005. Itregistered amoment magnitude of 7.6 making it similar in size to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1935 Quetta earthquake, the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, and the 2009 Sumatra earthquakes. Thedeath toll was 75,000. The tremors were felt in Tajikistan, western China.
The 2005 Gujarat Flood was a bout of major flooding affectingmany parts of Gujarat and was caused by heavy monsoon rains in June2005. Many of the southern districts of Gujarat were on flood alert.About 15,000 people were evacuated from the coastal regions. On June30, the state was put on high alert and the army was asked to stand-byfor rescue and relief operations. Most of the airports and trains in thestate were not operational.As of July 2 the death toll was about 123people state wide and more than 250,000 evacuated.The relief packageis estimated to be over Rs. 8000 crore.
On 6 April 2006, an earthquake was reported at11:29:16 p.m. ISTin Gujarat, Indias Kutch and Saurashtra region.Intensity of the earthquake was measured at 5.5 onthe Richter Scale.The location of the earthquake wasmeasured at 23.281°N, 70.422°E at the depth of10KM.
The 2008 Bihar flood, which started in the month ofAugust 2007, It is believed to be the worst flood in Bihar inlast 30 years. By August 3, the estimated death toll was 41people, and 48 schoolgirls were marooned in a school in the Darbhanga district.By August 8, an estimated 10 millionpeople in Bihar had been affected by flooding.Till August 11,flood deaths were still occurring.
The 2009 Andaman Islands earthquake was anearthquake that occurred on August 11, 2009, at 01:25 amlocal time in the Andaman Islands of India.The earthquakemagnitude was recorded as 7.5 Mw, and was the strongestearthquake in the region since the 2004 earthquake. The epicenter was 260 km north of Port Blair, and tremors werefelt in south-east India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, andThailand. No casualties or injuries were reported, althoughthere were complaints about minor damages to buildings.
Cyclone Aila was the second tropical cyclone to form within theNorthern Indian Ocean during 2009. The disturbance that was tobecome Cyclone Aila formed on 21 May 2009 about 950 kilometres (590mi) to the south of Kolkata, inIndia. Over the next couple of days thedisturbance slowly developed before a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alertwas issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center early on 23 May 2009and being designated as a depression by RSMC New Delhi. As of 27May 2009, 330 people have been killed by Aila and at least 8,208 moreare missing, while about 1 million are homeless.
Cyclonic Storm Phyan developed as a tropical disturbance to the southwest of Colombo in Sri Lanka on November 4, 2009. Over the next couple of days thedisturbance gradually developed before weakening as it made landfall on SouthernIndia on November 7. After the disturbance emerged into the Arabian Sea it rapidlybecame more marked with the India Meteorological Department (IMD) reportingearly on November 9 that the disturbance had intensified into a Depression anddesignated it as Depression ARB 03 whilst the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. Later that day the JTWCdesignated the system as Cyclone 04A. During the next day as the Depression turnedtowards the northeast the IMD reported that it had intensified into a Cyclonic Stormand named it as Phyan.
The 2010 Leh floods occurred on August 6, 2010in Leh in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Atleast 193 people died, and thousands were injured asheavy rains overnight caused flash floods andmudslides.Thousands more were rendered homelessaccording to government officials.200 people werestill missing following the floods.
Cyclonic Storm Laila is the first cyclonic storm to affectsoutheastern India in May since the 1990 Andhra Pradesh cyclone. The first tropical cyclone ofthe 2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, Laila developedon May 17 in the Bay of Bengal from a persistent area of convection. Strengthening as it tracked northwestward, itbecame a severe cyclonic storm on May 19. The next day,Laila made landfall in Andhra Pradesh, and it laterdissipated over land. It caused flooding and damage along itspath. Laila is an Urdu name, meaning Night. it is the worststorm to hit Andhra Pradesh over the last 14 years.
THE PROCESS INVOLVING ACTIVITIES THAT HELP US TOFACE DISASTERS EFFECTIVELY IS KNOWN ASDISASTERS IS KNOWN AS DISASTER MANAGEMENT.WESHOULD BE TRAINED TO FACE DISASTERS IN OURSCHOOLS,COMMUNITIES ETC TO REDUCE THDESTRUCTION CAUSED BY DISASTERS. THE FIRSTRESPONDERS IN THE DISASTER PRONE AREA AREMORE FOREWARNED THAN US TO FACE DISASTERS.
NATURAL DISASTERS ARE NATURAL.THEY CANNOT BE STOPPED BUT THEVULNERABILITY CAN BE REDUCED. ASINDIA IS A DISASTER PRONEAREA,EVERY INDIVIDUAL SHOULDKNOW HOW TO PROTECTTHEMSELVES FROM DISASTERS.