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  • 1. Presentation Topic: Health Psychology: Stress, Coping, and Well-Being
  • 2. Health Psychology • Health psychology – Branch of psychology that investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – Study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain
  • 3. Stress and Coping • Stress The response to events that threaten or challenge a person. Events like: paper or exam deadline, a family problem or a terrorist attack etc • Psychophysiological disorders Medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
  • 4. “Stressors” word is derived from “stress” defines as “the cause of stress.” There are three categories of stressors.  Cataclysmic events  Personal stressors  Background stressors Categorizing Stressors
  • 5. Categorizing Stressors Cataclysmic events – Strong stressors that occur suddenly, affecting many people at once i.e. plane crashes, terrorist attacks, earthquake etc  Produce potent, lingering stress  Involving natural disasters may produce less stress in long run.
  • 6. • Personal stressors – major life events that have immediate consequences that generally fade with time. i.e. death of a family member, loss of ones job, a major personal failure etc. • Even something positive such as marriage. • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most common in catastrophes of personal stressors. Categorizing Stressors
  • 7. Categorizing Stressors • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – Phenomenon on which victims of major catastrophes or strong personal stressors feel long- lasting effects that may include re-experiencing the event in vivid flashbacks or dreams • 9/11 terrorist attacks
  • 8. Categorizing Stressors • Background stressors “Daily hassles” – Everyday annoyances, that cause minor irritations and may have long-term ill effects if they continue or are compounded by other stressful events. i.e. being stuck in traffic, long line at bank etc. Another type of background stressors is a long term which is “chronic problem”. i.e. dissatisfaction from school, being in a unhappy relationship, etc. – “Uplifts” • Minor positive events that make one feel good More “uplifts”, less psychological problems later.
  • 9. High Cost of Stress Sometimes stress causes high cost emergency reactions like heart attack, fluctuation in blood pressure, or feeling electric shocks in skin etc. • Psycho physiological disorders – Psychosomatic disorders • Medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties. Like high blood pressure ,head aches , common cold etc. Some how these problems are fake.
  • 10. The General Adaptation Syndrome • Alarm and mobilization stage Become aware of the presence of a stressor • Resistance stage Preparation to fight the stressor • Exhaustion stage Negative consequences of the stress appear
  • 11. Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress There are three types of consequences of stress: • Direct physiological effects • Harmful behaviors • Indirect health related behaviors.
  • 12. Coping With Stress • Coping – Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Two strategies of stress with coping: • Emotion-focused coping – Managing emotions in the face of stress • Problem-focused coping – Attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of stress Some how both are used but Emotion-focused coping used frequently. Other ways to deal with coping with stress which are least effective are: • Avoidance • Defense mechanism.
  • 13. Learned Helplessness • State in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled– a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they actually can exert some influence
  • 14. Coping Styles: The Hardy Personality • Hardiness – Personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness, consisting of three components • Commitment • Challenge • Control
  • 15. Social Support • Mutual network of caring, interested others • Health and loneliness in college students – Can be psychologically painful – Negative effect on the immune system
  • 16. The A’s and B’s of Coronary Heart Disease • Type A behavior pattern – Competitive – Shows urgency about time – Aggressive – Driven quality at work – Hostile, verbally and nonverbally – Highly linked with coronary heart disease in men • Type B behavior pattern – Cooperative – Noncompetitive – Nonaggressive – Not usually hostile
  • 17. Cancer • Evidence suggests the emotional responses of cancer patients to their disease may have a critical effect on its course
  • 18. Smoking • Heredity factors • Rite of passage • Habit forming • Quitting –Replacement therapies –Psychotherapy –Societal views
  • 19. Promoting health We are not very good in taking medical advice. • 85% patients do not fully comply with physician’s recommendation • 14-21% don’t fill their drug prescriptions. • 10% adolescent pregnancies result from compliance with birth control medicines. • 60% cannot even identify their own medicines. • 30-50% ignore instructions or make error in taking medicines. In order to minimize the health or psychological issues, we have to pay attention!
  • 20. Failure to communicate. • Sometimes doctors and patient completely fail to communicate with each other. • They may improve it by identify some tips. Increasing compliance with advice. • Positively framed message • Negatively framed message Promoting health
  • 21. Well-Being and Happiness • Subjective well-being – Person’s evaluations of their life, in terms of both their thoughts and emotions • Characteristics – High self-esteem – Sense of control – Optimism – Sociable • Does money buy happiness?
  • 22. Questions ?