Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Introduction to  Social Psychology <ul><ul><li>1st year undergraduate psychology lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 <...
Overview <ul><li>Part 1 : About Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2 : Cognition, Influence, & Relationships </li></ul>
Part 1: About Social Psychology <ul><li>Activity: Topic Matching </li></ul><ul><li>Definition(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Scope <...
Topic Matching Activity <ul><li>Activity : In pairs, discuss and agree on a topic match for each of the sets of displayed ...
Allocate one of these topics to each of the following sets of slides... <ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </l...
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
What is Social Psychology? <ul><li>Influence of  social processes  on the way people: </li></ul><ul><li>Think (thoughts; c...
Three Themes <ul><li>Social Thinking - how we think about others e.g., Attributions  </li></ul><ul><li>Social Influence - ...
Domains / Units of Analysis
Scope
Why is Social Psychology Important?
Focus 1: Relationships
Focus 2: Social Influence
Focus 3: Leadership
Focus 4: Intergroup Relations
Video: The Power of the Situation <ul><li>Annenberg (1989).  The Power of the Situation (Program 19) . [27 min video] Anne...
Part 2: Cognition, Influence, Relationships <ul><li>Social Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Social Thinking <ul><li>Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes    Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance </li>...
Social Thinking Questions <ul><li>How do we explain people’s behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we form our beliefs and a...
Attributions <ul><li>We are all ‘intuitive scientists’ or 'naive psychologists'. </li></ul><ul><li>Process of inferring th...
Attributional Biases <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error  (or Correspondence Bias) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overestimate in...
 
Attributions Observed Behaviour Internal (Dispositional) Explanation External (Situational) Explanation
Attitudes <ul><li>Valenced (+/-) beliefs & feelings towards people, objects, & events, e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George ...
Attitudes & Behaviour Behaviour Attitudes Situation
When do Attitudes Predict Behaviour? <ul><li>Attitudes are implicit (unconscious). </li></ul><ul><li>Situational demands a...
Behaviour also influences Attitude Behaviour Attitudes Situation
<ul><li>e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Foot-in-the-door </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>“ What we do,  we gradua...
Foot-in-the-door Technique IV:  1 st  request: “Sign a petition supporting safe driving?” vs. no request ~ 2 weeks later… ...
Foot-in-the-door Technique Foot-in-the-door technique as used by Scientology Time Magazine, 1991
<ul><li>(Action   Belief)       Distress </li></ul><ul><li>Distress       (Action or Belief) </li></ul><ul><li>(Acti...
<ul><li>I don't believe in sex before marriage (attitude), but I just had sex before marriage (behaviour).  </li></ul><ul>...
Cognitive Dissonance Model Two inconsistent cognitions  (e.g., an attitude and  a counter- attitudinal behaviour) State of...
Social Influence <ul><li>Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Obediance </li></ul><ul><li>Group influence </li></ul>
Social Influence Questions <ul><li>How we influence each other? </li></ul><ul><li>How are we affected by pressures to conf...
Social Influence <ul><li>The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and...
Conformity <ul><li>Willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting one’s behavior or thi...
Conformity <ul><li>Solomon Asch studies. </li></ul>
Asch’s Conformity Studies (1950’s) <ul><li>Subjects were asked to judge line lengths while working in a group </li></ul><u...
Conditions That    Conformity <ul><li>Feelings of incompetence, insecurity, low self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Group size...
Reasons for Conformity <ul><li>Normative Social Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s desire to gain approval or avoi...
Obedience <ul><li>People comply to social pressures. But how would they respond to outright command? </li></ul><ul><li>Mil...
Milgram’s Study
Milgram’s Studies <ul><li>63% complied with administration of shocks </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of obediance influenced by: ...
Milgram’s Study Depending on subtle changes in conditions,  compliance varied b/w 0 & 93%
Zimbardo’s Prison Study (1970’s) <ul><li>Subjects played either prisoners or guards. </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoners were arre...
Resistance <ul><li>~  a third of individuals resisted social coercion (Milgram). </li></ul><ul><li>One dissenter can have...
Group Influence <ul><li>Social facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><li>Deindividuation </li></ul><...
Social Relationships <ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Antisocial </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Conflic...
Social Relationships Questions <ul><li>What causes us to harm, help, or to fall in love? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we tran...
Social Relations <ul><li>Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one another from: </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice, aggr...
Prejudice <ul><li>“ Prejudgement”: Unjustifiable (usually -ve)  attitude  toward a group and its members – often towards a...
Prejudice Components <ul><li>Beliefs (stereotypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) </li></ul><ul><li>Pr...
Prejudice Roots <ul><li>Social inequalities – haves vs. have-nots </li></ul><ul><li>Social divisions – in- vs. out-groups ...
<ul><li>We are “cognitive misers”, so we use  categorisation  to simplify and organise our perceptual worlds. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt or destroy. </li></ul><ul><li>Emerges from the interaction of: </li>...
Aggression
<ul><li>Perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting parties, each rationally purs...
Game Theory
Game Theory
Game Theory
<ul><li>Proximity (mere exposure effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>C...
<ul><li>Passionate Aroused state of absorption (arousal + cognition) </li></ul><ul><li>Companionate Deep affection & carin...
<ul><li>Unselfish, intentional behavior that is intended to benefit welfare of others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviours wh...
<ul><li>Equity / Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give to relationships in proportion to what we receive (Social Exchange...
<ul><li>Diminished sense of personal responsibility to act because others are seen as equally responsible. </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Superordinate goals </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tens...
Lecture Web Pages <ul><li>http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/Psy102/Social+Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wiki...
References <ul><li>Myers, D. G. (2001). Social Psychology (Ch. 18). In D. G. Myers (2001).  Psychology  (6th ed.) (pp. 643...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Introduction to Social Psychology

113,061 views

Published on

1st year undergraduate psychology lecture which gives an overview of the field of social psychology.

Published in: Technology

Introduction to Social Psychology

  1. 1. Introduction to Social Psychology <ul><ul><li>1st year undergraduate psychology lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Neill </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Part 1 : About Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2 : Cognition, Influence, & Relationships </li></ul>
  3. 3. Part 1: About Social Psychology <ul><li>Activity: Topic Matching </li></ul><ul><li>Definition(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Foci </li></ul><ul><li>Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Video (27 mins) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topic Matching Activity <ul><li>Activity : In pairs, discuss and agree on a topic match for each of the sets of displayed images. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion : Go through the image sets and ask for suggestions – lecturer accepts and highlights some key terms for each image. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Allocate one of these topics to each of the following sets of slides... <ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Group Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Social Exclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosocial Behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1
  7. 7. 2
  8. 8. 3
  9. 9. 4
  10. 10. 5
  11. 11. 6
  12. 12. 7
  13. 13. 8
  14. 14. 9
  15. 15. 10
  16. 16. What is Social Psychology? <ul><li>Influence of social processes on the way people: </li></ul><ul><li>Think (thoughts; cognition) </li></ul><ul><li>Feel (feelings; emotions) </li></ul><ul><li>Behave (behaviour; actions) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Three Themes <ul><li>Social Thinking - how we think about others e.g., Attributions </li></ul><ul><li>Social Influence - how we are influenced by others, e.g., Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Social Relations - how we interact with others, e.g., Relationships </li></ul>
  18. 18. Domains / Units of Analysis
  19. 19. Scope
  20. 20. Why is Social Psychology Important?
  21. 21. Focus 1: Relationships
  22. 22. Focus 2: Social Influence
  23. 23. Focus 3: Leadership
  24. 24. Focus 4: Intergroup Relations
  25. 25. Video: The Power of the Situation <ul><li>Annenberg (1989). The Power of the Situation (Program 19) . [27 min video] Annenberg: Santa Barbara, CA. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Part 2: Cognition, Influence, Relationships <ul><li>Social Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes  Behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group polarisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict & Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosocial Behaviour </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Social Thinking <ul><li>Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes  Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance </li></ul>
  28. 28. Social Thinking Questions <ul><li>How do we explain people’s behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we form our beliefs and attitudes? </li></ul><ul><li>How does what we think affect what we do? </li></ul><ul><li>How can attitudes be influenced and behaviour changed? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Attributions <ul><li>We are all ‘intuitive scientists’ or 'naive psychologists'. </li></ul><ul><li>Process of inferring the causes of mental states, behaviours, and events which occur to ourselves & others (Heider, 1958) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External attributions Behavior is due to the situation, ‘The boss yelled at me ... because this is April 15th and his taxes are not done.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal attributions Behavior reflects the person, ‘The boss yells at everyone ... because he is a hostile person.’ </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Attributional Biases <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error (or Correspondence Bias) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overestimate internal factors (i.e., blame people) more than external factors (i.e., circumstances) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actor-Observer Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More aware of external influences on our own behaviour </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Attributions Observed Behaviour Internal (Dispositional) Explanation External (Situational) Explanation
  32. 33. Attitudes <ul><li>Valenced (+/-) beliefs & feelings towards people, objects, & events, e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guns? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreational drug use? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do attitudes  behaviour ? </li></ul>
  33. 34. Attitudes & Behaviour Behaviour Attitudes Situation
  34. 35. When do Attitudes Predict Behaviour? <ul><li>Attitudes are implicit (unconscious). </li></ul><ul><li>Situational demands are low. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are strong & based on personal experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are specific & relevant to behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious/aware of attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental reinforcement matches attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Important others share the same attitude. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Behaviour also influences Attitude Behaviour Attitudes Situation
  36. 37. <ul><li>e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Foot-in-the-door </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>“ What we do, we gradually become.” </li></ul>Behaviour also influences attitude
  37. 38. Foot-in-the-door Technique IV: 1 st request: “Sign a petition supporting safe driving?” vs. no request ~ 2 weeks later… DV: “Can we place this large, ugly ‘Drive Safely’ sign in your front yard?” Those who had signed the petition were 3 x more likely to agree to the 2nd request. - Freedman & Fraser (1966)
  38. 39. Foot-in-the-door Technique Foot-in-the-door technique as used by Scientology Time Magazine, 1991
  39. 40. <ul><li>(Action  Belief)   Distress </li></ul><ul><li>Distress   (Action or Belief) </li></ul><ul><li>(Action = Belief)   Distress </li></ul>Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger)
  40. 41. <ul><li>I don't believe in sex before marriage (attitude), but I just had sex before marriage (behaviour). </li></ul><ul><li>I believe that speeding increases the risk of car accidents (attitude) yet speed on a daily basis (behaviour). </li></ul>Cognitive Dissonance
  41. 42. Cognitive Dissonance Model Two inconsistent cognitions (e.g., an attitude and a counter- attitudinal behaviour) State of dissonance Motivation to reduce dissonance Attitude change UNLESS No dissonance No attitude change Change or justify counter- attitudinal behaviour
  42. 43. Social Influence <ul><li>Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Obediance </li></ul><ul><li>Group influence </li></ul>
  43. 44. Social Influence Questions <ul><li>How we influence each other? </li></ul><ul><li>How are we affected by pressures to conform and obey? </li></ul><ul><li>How are we affected by group interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>How do groups affect our behavior? </li></ul>
  44. 45. Social Influence <ul><li>The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are moulded by social influence . </li></ul>
  45. 46. Conformity <ul><li>Willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Conformity <ul><li>Solomon Asch studies. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Asch’s Conformity Studies (1950’s) <ul><li>Subjects were asked to judge line lengths while working in a group </li></ul><ul><li>7 subjects; the 6th was real, rest were confederates. </li></ul><ul><li>Confederates consistently gave obviously wrong answers </li></ul><ul><li>The subject often conformed and gave the same wrong answer </li></ul><ul><li>On average, 37% of participants conformed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some never caved. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Conditions That  Conformity <ul><li>Feelings of incompetence, insecurity, low self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Group size 3+. </li></ul><ul><li>Group is unanimous (lack of dissension). </li></ul><ul><li>Group status desirable & attractiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Group observes one’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>No prior commitment to response. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture strongly encourages respect for social standard. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Reasons for Conformity <ul><li>Normative Social Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respecting normative behavior, because price may be severe if not followed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informational Social Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group may provide valuable information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the task is difficult or you are unsure, it makes sense to listen to others. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Obedience <ul><li>People comply to social pressures. But how would they respond to outright command? </li></ul><ul><li>Milgram designed a study that investigated the effects of authority on obedience. </li></ul>Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
  51. 52. Milgram’s Study
  52. 53. Milgram’s Studies <ul><li>63% complied with administration of shocks </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of obediance influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical proximity of authority figure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of authority figure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depersonalisation of victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of defiant role models </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. Milgram’s Study Depending on subtle changes in conditions, compliance varied b/w 0 & 93%
  54. 55. Zimbardo’s Prison Study (1970’s) <ul><li>Subjects played either prisoners or guards. </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoners were arrested, fingerprinted, dressed, and referred to by number. </li></ul><ul><li>Guards were dressed and given control over prisoners. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects became their roles in action, thought and feeling. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Resistance <ul><li>~  a third of individuals resisted social coercion (Milgram). </li></ul><ul><li>One dissenter can have a disproportionate effect on reducing the compliance of others. (e.g., Asch) </li></ul>
  56. 57. Group Influence <ul><li>Social facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><li>Deindividuation </li></ul><ul><li>Group polarisation </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul>
  57. 58. Social Relationships <ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Antisocial </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Prosocial Behaviour </li></ul>
  58. 59. Social Relationships Questions <ul><li>What causes us to harm, help, or to fall in love? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we transform aggression into compassion? </li></ul>
  59. 60. Social Relations <ul><li>Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one another from: </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice, aggression, and conflict to </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction, altruism, and peacemaking. </li></ul>
  60. 61. Prejudice <ul><li>“ Prejudgement”: Unjustifiable (usually -ve) attitude toward a group and its members – often towards a different cultural, ethnic or gender group. </li></ul><ul><li>Works at the conscious and [more so] the unconscious level. </li></ul><ul><li>More like a knee-jerk response than a conscious decision. </li></ul>
  61. 62. Prejudice Components <ul><li>Beliefs (stereotypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposition to act (to discriminate) </li></ul>
  62. 63. Prejudice Roots <ul><li>Social inequalities – haves vs. have-nots </li></ul><ul><li>Social divisions – in- vs. out-groups (in-group bias) </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional scapegoating – blaming, emotional outlet (+FAE) </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>We are “cognitive misers”, so we use categorisation to simplify and organise our perceptual worlds. </li></ul><ul><li> Stereotypes Generalised (often exaggerated) beliefs about a group of people. </li></ul><ul><li> Potential for prejudice </li></ul><ul><li> Potential for aggression/conflict </li></ul>Categorisation
  64. 65. <ul><li>Physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt or destroy. </li></ul><ul><li>Emerges from the interaction of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aversive events e.g., misery, temp, frustrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scripts </li></ul></ul></ul>Aggression
  65. 66. Aggression
  66. 67. <ul><li>Perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting parties, each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior  “ Social Trap ”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-Lose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose-Win, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose-lose. </li></ul></ul>Game Theory
  67. 68. Game Theory
  68. 69. Game Theory
  69. 70. Game Theory
  70. 71. <ul><li>Proximity (mere exposure effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-benefits </li></ul>Attraction
  71. 72. <ul><li>Passionate Aroused state of absorption (arousal + cognition) </li></ul><ul><li>Companionate Deep affection & caring </li></ul>Love
  72. 73. <ul><li>Unselfish, intentional behavior that is intended to benefit welfare of others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviours which have no obvious gain for the provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviours which have obvious costs for the provider (e.g. time, resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there really altruism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altruism is often for self-benefit e.g., power, status, reward, psychological gain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What matters in judging the act is the actor's intended outcomes. </li></ul>Altruism
  73. 74. <ul><li>Equity / Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give to relationships in proportion to what we receive (Social Exchange Theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social responsibility norm </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal altruism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection favors animals that are altruistic if the benefit to each is greater than the cost of altruism </li></ul></ul>Altruism
  74. 75. <ul><li>Diminished sense of personal responsibility to act because others are seen as equally responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>Bystanders are less likely to help in presence of more people (e.g. part of a large crowd) </li></ul><ul><li>75% help when alone vs. 53% in presence of others </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Diffusion of responsibility&quot; </li></ul>Bystander Effect
  75. 76. <ul><li>Superordinate goals </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT) </li></ul>Peacemaking
  76. 77. Lecture Web Pages <ul><li>http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/Psy102/Social+Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Introduction_to_social_psychology/Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Myers (2007) Ch 18 Social Psychology </li></ul>
  77. 78. References <ul><li>Myers, D. G. (2001). Social Psychology (Ch. 18). In D. G. Myers (2001). Psychology (6th ed.) (pp. 643-688). New York: Worth. </li></ul><ul><li>Myers, D. G. (2007). Social Psychology (Ch. 18). In D. G. Myers (2007). Psychology (8th ed.) (pp. 723-771). New York: Worth. </li></ul>

×