Chapter 3


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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Stress and Its Management
  2. 2. Stress Definitions <ul><li>Stress —a complex series of reactions, both psychological and physical, in response to demanding or threatening situations </li></ul><ul><li>Stressors —events that produce physical and psychological demands on a person </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stress Definitions (continued) <ul><li>Distress —events or situations that produce negative or unwanted outcomes and are difficult to control </li></ul><ul><li>Eustress —events or situations that create demands on a person that result in positive outcomes (e.g., becoming a new parent, accepting a desired job) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eustress can still have negative effects on the body and mind because it requires physical and psychological adjustments. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Response to Stress <ul><li>Each person appraises a situation according to previous experiences and personality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some situations can have positive, neutral, or negative outcomes for different people. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Physiological Stressors <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to extreme temperatures </li></ul>
  6. 6. Psychological Stressors <ul><li>Extreme emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Troublesome thoughts and relationships </li></ul>
  7. 7. Physical Responses to Stress <ul><li>Release of stress hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Release of endorphins </li></ul><ul><li>Physical adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart and breathing rates, blood pressure, sweating, blood clotting ability, and size of pupils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased GI tract movements and saliva production </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. General Adaptation Syndrome <ul><li>Three-stage response to stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm — adrenal glands release stress hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance — body maintains protective reactions and recovers normal status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion — occurs when stress persists; the body’s defense mechanisms weaken, leaving individuals more susceptible to infections </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Psychological Responses <ul><li>Typically, stressed out people feel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressed and anxious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritable and angry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “stressed out” person may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat too much food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and sleeping </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Psychoneuroimmunology <ul><li>A field of medical research that studies the relationships between the nervous and immune systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress changes the normal balance and functioning of the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain chronic health conditions are linked to stress and may worsen or recur during periods of increased stress (e.g., ulcers, headaches). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Personality, Disease, and Stress <ul><li>People who only see negative aspects of stressor may be more vulnerable to stress than those who make more positive appraisals of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>People who are less vulnerable to stress have personalities that act as buffers. </li></ul><ul><li>- These individuals generally have </li></ul><ul><li>more positive outlooks on life. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Personality, Disease, and Stress (continued) <ul><li>People who harbor feelings of anger, hostility, resentment, suspicion, and mistrust have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than people who do not have these feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>“Type A” persons are not necessarily at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic stress increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Personality, Disease, and Stress (continued) <ul><li>Stress responses can reduce effectiveness of immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Most scientific studies, however, do not show association between personality and cancer onset. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer patients with optimistic outlooks and fighting spirits tend to survive longer than cancer patients without these characteristics. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Coping Strategies <ul><li>Coping strategies are behavioral responses and thought processes that people use to deal actively with sources of stress. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-focused (e.g., planning, confronting, problem solving, time management, journal writing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion-focused (e.g., use of defense mechanisms, humor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social support (e.g., seeking assistance from friends, relative, support groups, spiritual help, pets) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Relaxation Techniques <ul><li>Deep breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive muscle relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Self-talk </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tai chi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Across the Life Span <ul><li>Common childhood stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce of parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death or separation of close family member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to new neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious illness of close family member </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common adolescent stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and social changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common stressors of the elderly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of spouse or friends </li></ul></ul>