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Health psychology


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Health psychology

  1. 1. Health Psychology
  2. 2. Health Psychology <ul><li>investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stress <ul><li>a person’s response to events that are threatening or challenging </li></ul><ul><li>pleasant or unpleasant events </li></ul><ul><li>varies from one person to another, depending on the person’s interpretation of events </li></ul><ul><li>stress is greatest when important goals are threatened, the threat is immediate, or the anticipation of a threatening event extends over a long period </li></ul>
  4. 4. Categorizing Stressors <ul><li>cataclysmic events (strong, sudden, many people at once) </li></ul><ul><li>personal stressors (major life events, immediate consequences, fade with time) </li></ul><ul><li>background stressors (daily hassles, minor irritations, have long-term ill effects if continuous) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Uplifts <ul><li>minor positive events that make us feel good - even if only temporarily </li></ul><ul><li>the greater the number of uplifts experienced, the fewer the psychological symptoms people report </li></ul>
  6. 6. The High Cost of Stress <ul><li>increase in hormone secretion by adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>increase in heart rate and blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>deterioration of body tissues (blood vessels and heart) </li></ul><ul><li>immune system becomes weak </li></ul><ul><li>psychophysiological disorders (formerly psychosomatic disorders; high blood pressure, headaches, backaches, skin rashes, indigestion, fatigue, constipation) </li></ul><ul><li>less able to recover from illness </li></ul><ul><li>reduce ability to cope with future stress </li></ul><ul><li>change attitude and perception </li></ul><ul><li>irritability, inability to concentrate </li></ul>
  7. 8. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) <ul><li>a theory developed by Hans Selye (sell – yay) that suggests that a person’s response to a stressor consists of three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alarm and mobilization (awareness of stressor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resistance (coping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exhaustion (inadequate resistance, negative effects of stress) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) <ul><li>the study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on the outcomes of stress </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Direct physiological effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elevated blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease in immune system functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased hormonal activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychophysiological conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmful behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased smoking, alcohol, drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased nutrition, sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect health-related behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased compliance with medical advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in delays in seeking medical advice </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Coping with Stress <ul><li>Coping (the efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress) </li></ul><ul><li>2 main categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emotion-focused coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem-focused coping </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>avoidant coping – wishful thinking to reduce stress or use more direct escape ways </li></ul><ul><li>defense mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>emotional insulation – person stops experiencing any emotions at all </li></ul><ul><li>proactive coping – anticipating and preparing for stress before it is encountered </li></ul>
  12. 15. Learned Helplessness <ul><li>a state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled- a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they actually can exert some influence </li></ul><ul><li>elderly persons in nursing home or hospital </li></ul>
  13. 16. Hardy Personality <ul><li>Commitment – activities are important and meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge – change, rather than stability, is the standard condition of life </li></ul><ul><li>Control – perception that people can influence the events in their lives </li></ul>
  14. 17. Effective Coping Strategies <ul><li>Turn threat into challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a threatening situation less threatening. </li></ul><ul><li>Change your goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Take physical action. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for stress before it happens. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Psychological Aspects of Illness and Well-Being
  16. 19. Coronary Heart Disease <ul><li>Type A behavior pattern (cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven) </li></ul><ul><li>Type B behavior pattern (cluster of behaviors characterized by a patient, cooperative, non-competitive, and nonaggressive manner) </li></ul>
  17. 20. Cancer <ul><li>Emotional responses of cancer patients to their disease may have critical effect on its course. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Smoking <ul><li>Why people smoke? </li></ul><ul><li>Quitting smoking </li></ul>
  19. 22. Characteristics of Happy People <ul><li>Happy people have high self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Happy people have a firm sense of control. </li></ul><ul><li>Happy people are optimistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Happy people like to be around other people. </li></ul>