strees, coping and well being in perspective of psychology


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

strees, coping and well being in perspective of psychology

  1. 1. Presentation Topic: Health Psychology: Stress, Coping, and Well-Being
  2. 2. Health Psychology • Health psychology – Branch of psychology that investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – Study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain
  3. 3. Stress and Coping • Stress The response to events that threaten or challenge a person. Events like: paper or exam deadline, a family problem or a terrorist attack etc • Psychophysiological disorders Medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
  4. 4. “Stressors” word is derived from “stress” defines as “the cause of stress.” There are three categories of stressors.  Cataclysmic events  Personal stressors  Background stressors Categorizing Stressors
  5. 5. Categorizing Stressors Cataclysmic events – Strong stressors that occur suddenly, affecting many people at once i.e. plane crashes, terrorist attacks, earthquake etc  Produce potent, lingering stress  Involving natural disasters may produce less stress in long run.
  6. 6. • Personal stressors – major life events that have immediate consequences that generally fade with time. i.e. death of a family member, loss of ones job, a major personal failure etc. • Even something positive such as marriage. • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most common in catastrophes of personal stressors. Categorizing Stressors
  7. 7. Categorizing Stressors • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – Phenomenon on which victims of major catastrophes or strong personal stressors feel long- lasting effects that may include re-experiencing the event in vivid flashbacks or dreams • 9/11 terrorist attacks
  8. 8. Categorizing Stressors • Background stressors “Daily hassles” – Everyday annoyances, that cause minor irritations and may have long-term ill effects if they continue or are compounded by other stressful events. i.e. being stuck in traffic, long line at bank etc. Another type of background stressors is a long term which is “chronic problem”. i.e. dissatisfaction from school, being in a unhappy relationship, etc. – “Uplifts” • Minor positive events that make one feel good More “uplifts”, less psychological problems later.
  9. 9. High Cost of Stress Sometimes stress causes high cost emergency reactions like heart attack, fluctuation in blood pressure, or feeling electric shocks in skin etc. • Psycho physiological disorders – Psychosomatic disorders • Medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties. Like high blood pressure ,head aches , common cold etc. Some how these problems are fake.
  10. 10. The General Adaptation Syndrome • Alarm and mobilization stage Become aware of the presence of a stressor • Resistance stage Preparation to fight the stressor • Exhaustion stage Negative consequences of the stress appear
  11. 11. Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress There are three types of consequences of stress: • Direct physiological effects • Harmful behaviors • Indirect health related behaviors.
  12. 12. Coping With Stress • Coping – Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Two strategies of stress with coping: • Emotion-focused coping – Managing emotions in the face of stress • Problem-focused coping – Attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of stress Some how both are used but Emotion-focused coping used frequently. Other ways to deal with coping with stress which are least effective are: • Avoidance • Defense mechanism.
  13. 13. Learned Helplessness • State in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled– a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they actually can exert some influence
  14. 14. Coping Styles: The Hardy Personality • Hardiness – Personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness, consisting of three components • Commitment • Challenge • Control
  15. 15. Social Support • Mutual network of caring, interested others • Health and loneliness in college students – Can be psychologically painful – Negative effect on the immune system
  16. 16. The A’s and B’s of Coronary Heart Disease • Type A behavior pattern – Competitive – Shows urgency about time – Aggressive – Driven quality at work – Hostile, verbally and nonverbally – Highly linked with coronary heart disease in men • Type B behavior pattern – Cooperative – Noncompetitive – Nonaggressive – Not usually hostile
  17. 17. Cancer • Evidence suggests the emotional responses of cancer patients to their disease may have a critical effect on its course
  18. 18. Smoking • Heredity factors • Rite of passage • Habit forming • Quitting –Replacement therapies –Psychotherapy –Societal views
  19. 19. Promoting health We are not very good in taking medical advice. • 85% patients do not fully comply with physician’s recommendation • 14-21% don’t fill their drug prescriptions. • 10% adolescent pregnancies result from compliance with birth control medicines. • 60% cannot even identify their own medicines. • 30-50% ignore instructions or make error in taking medicines. In order to minimize the health or psychological issues, we have to pay attention!
  20. 20. Failure to communicate. • Sometimes doctors and patient completely fail to communicate with each other. • They may improve it by identify some tips. Increasing compliance with advice. • Positively framed message • Negatively framed message Promoting health
  21. 21. Well-Being and Happiness • Subjective well-being – Person’s evaluations of their life, in terms of both their thoughts and emotions • Characteristics – High self-esteem – Sense of control – Optimism – Sociable • Does money buy happiness?
  22. 22. Questions ?