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  1. 1. Motivation  The process by which activities are started, directed and continued so that physical, psychological needs or wants are met.  Motivation is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors.  It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat.  So it is a condition that energizes Behavior and gives it direction.
  2. 2. need Effect Motivation Instrumental behavior
  3. 3. Drive  The term "Drive“ may be defined as an "aroused condition in which an organism's behavior is directed toward avoiding discomfort or a state of physiological imbalance". Needs  A Need is a ‘deficiency’. Non satisfaction of a need would cause a clear negative outcome, such as dysfunction or death.  A Need can be objective and physical, such as food and water, or they can be subjective and psychological, such as the need for self-esteem.
  4. 4. Types of Motivation  Primary or Basic Motivation  Secondary Motivation
  5. 5. Types of Motivation Primary or Basic Motivation  This mainly pertains to motives that are unlearned and satisfy our basic needs. They are involved with our need for self-preservation. This includes needs such as hunger and thirst, warmth, sex, avoidance of pain and other primary motives which influence a person's behavior at a very basic level of needs.  They are biological in origin and common to all normal members of a species.
  6. 6.  These involve biological needs to maintain normal body functions e.g. Need for air, need for water, need for food. These needs give rise to motivation.  “Needs” are the bodily state of ‘depletion’.  Motives arising from primary needs also tend to involve emotional state of tension.  The primary motives also tend to be homeostatic.
  7. 7. Homeostasis  Homeostasis is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of properties such as temperature.  In simple terms, it is a process in which the body's internal environment is kept stable. It was defined by Claude Bernard and later by Walter Bradford Cannon in 1926.
  8. 8. Types of Motivation  Types of primary motives are  Hunger  Thirst  Temperature  Sex  Air  Sleep
  9. 9. Types of Motivation Hunger  The tendency to seek and eat food is the hunger drive.  Hunger involves three basic physiological sensors.  Satiety sensors (mouth, throat, stomach)  Glucose sensors (liver)  Lipid sensors  Insulin and glucagon level Interest of Psychologists  Psychologists are interested in the mechanisms underlying the hunger drive. What happens internally that makes us desire food
  10. 10. Types of Motivation  The hypothalamus has a great influence over eating behavior. In the hypothalamus, there are two nerve centers whose actions have opposite effects. If one of these (lateral hypothalamus), the feeding center, is stimulated, an animal will eat whether he is hungry or not. If the feeding center is removed, the animal will not eat. The other hypothalamic center is called the satiety center (ventromedial hypothalamus). The satiety center tells the organism when he has had enough to eat. Removal of the satiety center causes an animal to eat continuously and he will grow far beyond his normal size.  How much and when we eat also determined by cognitive and emotional factors as well.  Other things which stimulate hunger are  Sight , thought or smell of some delicious food, presentation of food, halal/haram concept  How we eat is determine by the social factors.
  11. 11. Types of Motivation Thirst  “Tendency to seek water”  Factors involved  Dryness of mouth or throat  Body’s water level reduces and blood thickens  Lateral hypothalamus detects the low water level.
  12. 12. Temperature  Temperature regulation is also basic motive. Body always seeks to maintain its optimum level i.e. 370 c.  Increase or decrease by some degrees make us restless.  Some responses start to maintain the temperature  Physiological responses such as sweating, shivering,  psychological responses like seeking shed or wearing cold clothes, cold drinks etc.
  13. 13. Types of Motivation Sleep  Sleep is a naturally recurring state of relatively suspended sensory and motor activity, characterized by total or partial unconsciousness and the inactivity of nearly all voluntary muscles.  In humans, other mammals, and a substantial majority of other animals regular sleep is essential for survival.  The purposes and mechanisms of sleep are only partially clear and are the subject of intense research.  Homeostatic sleep propensity (the need for sleep as a function of the amount of time elapsed since the last adequate sleep episode) must be balanced against the circadian element for satisfactory sleep Fatigue  We take rest to restores body’s energies.  to reduce level of Lactic acid
  14. 14. Air  Need for air is inborn and universally needed. Continuous supply of air is requiring keeping one healthy and alive. This need is fulfilled by oxygen.  Oxygen is the most important requirement in the human body. We inhale air to fill up our lungs with oxygen and distribute it to every part of the body arteries. Our respiratory system constantly inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide.  Shortage of oxygen can affect the individual’s activities, emotional life, and circulatory system by making him restless, mentally confused, physically imbalance and unconscious.
  15. 15. Types of Motivation Secondary Motivation  Those motives which are "learned" either through their association with primary motives (money) or in more complex social ways(aggression).  This type of "drives" differ from one person to another. In many ways they involve a person's own sense of values and priorities in life.  Many of the behaviors derived from secondary motivation are conscious ones. That is, a person consciously desires a particular goal or result, and behaves in a way that brings them closer to that particular goal.
  16. 16.  Besides the basic biological needs, the expression of psychological needs is also of great significance.  Non-satisfaction of these motives may lead to mental illness.  Main psychological needs /secondary motives are:        Achievement Aggression Curiosity Need for appraisal Need for affiliation Need for power Work as motive
  17. 17. Achievement  “Desire to accomplish a difficult task and to meet standards     of excellence in relevant domain” The need to achieve something, some desired object, a goal, or position/status. Learned through encouragement by teachers and parents and through success experiences along the way. The level of the need for achievement varies from person to person, Some are high and some low achievers. It can be measured by TAT (Thematic Apperception test).
  18. 18.  Competition is an important element of this need.  Achievement motivation is a significant variable in a competitive society.  People with high motivation:  Achieve good grades and rapid promotions  Take and overcome challenges in order to succeed rather than finding an easy ways of achieving success.  Rely on feedback.  Tend to excel when this motive is activated.  People with low motivation: Tends to avoid failure, finding easy way outs, do not desire to take difficult tasks.
  19. 19. Effect of achievement motivation on societies  Achievement motivation also effects societies as well.  Nation’s economic growth is related at least in part to the level of achievement motivation in its citizens.
  20. 20. Aggression  Is a complex set of learned motives and behaviors.  Behavior directed toward the goal of harming others.  According to Freud and McDougall human beings inherit a tendency to aggress.  Frustration-aggression hypothesis says that blockage of desired goal directed behavior results in aggression.  Observational learning also helps learning aggression.  Other environmental factors can be high temperature, disagreeable crowding, unpleasant irritating noise etc.
  21. 21. Curiosity  Think why a little child always wanting to break toys and     things? Why children always asks questions of things they saw on TV, read it or listen from any one It is all their curiosity and need to explore in order to find answers of these puzzles. It is a significantly inborn but learned also: found in both humans and animals. Parents encourage their children's curiosity by satisfying their inquisitiveness. School also plays an important role; the teaching methodology adopted may encourage or discourage curiosity.
  22. 22. Symbolic Reward/ Appraisal  Appraisal is a powerful motive for everyone; especially for children and animals  Praising words, petting after doing well etc all serve as symbolic reward for the learner.  The presence and the attitude of the more liked serves as a social reward for the learner e.g. child with his mother, dog with its caretaker etc.  Parent's approval and disapproval, liking and disliking towards the child all are included in symbolic rewards
  23. 23. Need for affiliation  Urge/ desire to maintain a relationship with other people; making friends, social contact with other people.  Less desire to be isolated or alone.  Studies showed that females spend a larger span of time among friends and peers as compared to males.  Although the need for affiliation is a universal phenomenon, cultural differences do exist in its expression; some cultures have more group cohesiveness than others.
  24. 24. Need for Power  Desire to influence, hold or ruling over others in order to be recognized as powerful individual.  These types of people prefer to work in big organizations, businesses and other influential professions.  There also exists gender differences among males and females; men are more apt to take challenges and respond quite aggressively irrespective of women who are socially restrained and traditional in her behavior.
  25. 25. Work  Most of the people spent large span of time in their life at work; for this reason, psychologists take it as another powerful motive  Work serves as a powerful motive because it satisfies other motives also such as biological motives of hunger, shelter etc, sense of achievement, affiliation and decision-making
  26. 26. Money  Money derives its motivational value through its association with primary motives.
  27. 27. Types of Motivation Other two types of motivation  Intrinsic motivation  extrinsic motivation
  28. 28. Intrinsic motivation  Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:  attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy,  believe they have the skills which will allow them to be effective agents in reaching their desired goals without relying on luck  are interested in mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades rote learning.
  29. 29. Extrinsic motivation  Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an     activity in order to attain an outcome, whether or not that activity is also intrinsically motivated. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehaviour. Competition is also an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives.