Psych 200 Health Psychology

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  • Truth or Fiction? Some stress is good for us. True Truth or Fiction? Vacations can be stressful. True. Truth or Fiction? Searching for social approval or perfection is an excellent way of making yourself miserable. True. Go to 4ltrpress.cengage.com/psych for an interactive version of this Truth or Fiction feature.
  • Truth or Fiction? Type A people achieve more than Type B people, but they are less satisfied with themselves. True. Truth or Fiction? Humor helps us cope with stress. True. Go to 4ltrpress.cengage.com/psych for an interactive version of this Truth or Fiction feature.
  • Truth or Fiction? At any given moment, countless microscopic warriors within our bodies are carrying out search-and-destroy missions against foreign agents. True. Go to 4ltrpress.cengage.com/psych for an interactive version of this Truth or Fiction feature.
  • Truth or Fiction? If you have a family history of heart disease or cancer, there is little or nothing you can do to prevent damaging the illness yourself. False. Go to 4ltrpress.cengage.com/psych for an interactive version of this Truth or Fiction feature.
  • Truth or Fiction? Some stress is good for us. True. Some stress is healthful and necessary to keep us alert and occupied.
  • Uplifts – opposite of daily hassles
  • Truth or Fiction? Vacations can be stressful. True. Vacations can be stressful because they are life changes, and changes require adjustment.
  • Figure 10.1 Significant Sources of Stress. The American Psychological Association commissioned a nationwide survey to assess the sources of stress and the effects of stress in the lives of Americans. One question they asked is, “I am going to read you a list o things people say cause stress in their lives. For each one, please tell me if it is a very significant source, a somewhat significant source, not a very significant source, or not at all a significant source of stress in your life.” Results are shown in this figure. Source: American Psychological Association. (2007 October 24). Stress in America. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  • Figure 10.2 Physical Symptoms of Stress. In their Stress in America survey, the American Psychological Association asked, “Which of the following, if any, have you experienced in the last month as a result of stress?” Results are shown in this figure. Source: American Psychological Association. (2007 October 24). Stress in America. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  • Figure 10.3 Psychological Symptoms of Stress. In their Stress in America survey, the American Psychological Association asked, “Which of the following, if any, have you experience in the last month as a result of stress?” Results are shown in this figure. Source: American Psychological Association. (2007 October 24). Stress in America. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  • Figure 10.41 Impact of Stress on Sleep and Eating Habits. In their survey on Stress in America , the American Psychological Association found that respondents reported that stress caused them to disrupt their usual eating and sleep habits, as shown in this figure. Source: American Psychological Association. (2007 October 24). Stress in America. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  • Approach-approach conflict is the least stressful. Two goals, both desirable, both within reach. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is more stressful because you are motivated to avoid each of two negative goals. Avoiding one requires approaching the other. When avoidance-avoidance conflict is highly stressful and no resolution is in sight, some people withdraw from the conflict. Approach-avoidance conflict involves goals that produce mixed motives Multiple approach-avoidance conflict Several alternative courses of action have pluses and minuses
  • Truth or Fiction? Searching for social approval or perfection is an excellent way of making yourself miserable. True. Research findings confirm the connections between irrational beliefs (e.g., excessive dependence on social approval and perfectionism) and feelings of anxiety and depression (Ciarrochi, 2004; Rice & Dellwo, 2001; Wiebe & McCabe, 2002).
  • Truth or Fiction? Type A people achieve more than Type B people, but they are less satisfied with themselves. True. It is true that Type A people achieve more than Type B people but are less satisfied with themselves. Type B people relax more readily than Type A people and focus more on the quality of life.
  • Self-efficacy is the ability to make things happen
  • Truth or Fiction? Humor helps us cope with stress. True. Research suggest that humor can indeed moderate the effects of stress (Godfrey, 2004)
  • Internals – People who want to exercise control over their situations
  • Figure 10.5 Stress and the Endocrine System. Stress has a domino effect on the endocrine system, leading to the release of corticosteroids and a mixture of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Corticosteroids combat allergic reactions (such as difficulty in breathing) and cause inflammation. Adrenaline and noradrenaline arouse the body to cope by accelerating the heart rate and providing energy for the fight-or flight reaction.
  • Truth or Fiction? At any given moment, countless microscopic warriors within our bodies are carrying out search-and-destroy missions against foreign agents. True. Leukocytes (white blood cells) carry on microscopic warfare and engage in search-and-destroy missions in which they “recognize” and eradicate foreign agents and unhealthy cells.
  • Truth or Fiction? If you have a family history of heart disease or cancer, there is little or nothing you can do to prevent damaging the illness yourself. False. It is not true that if you have a family history of heart disease or cancer, there is little or nothing you can do to prevent developing the illness yourself. In many cases, especially with heart problems and cancer, genes only create predispositions toward the health problem.
  • Truth or Fiction? Because variety is the spice of life, the more changes the better. Although variety adds spice to life, too much variety might lead to physical illness. Truth or Fiction? Going on vacation is stressful. True. Although vacations can be good for your health, they are life changes, and changes require adjustment.
  • Psych 200 Health Psychology

    1. 1. Stress, Health,and Adjustment Chapter Ten
    2. 2. Learning Outcomes• Define stress and identify various sources of stress.• Identify the psychological moderators of stress.• Describe the impact of stress on the body.• Explain the relationship between psychology and health
    3. 3. Truth or Fiction? Some stress is good for us. Vacations can be stressful. Searching for social approval or perfection is an excellent way of making yourself miserable.
    4. 4. Truth or Fiction? Type A people achieve more than Type B people, but they are less satisfied with themselves. Humor helps us cope with stress.
    5. 5. Truth or Fiction? At any given moment, countless microscopic warriors within our bodies are carrying out search- and-destroy missions against foreign agents.
    6. 6. Truth or Fiction? If you have a family history of heart disease or cancer, there is little or nothing you can do to prevent developing the illness yourself.
    7. 7. Stress: What It Is,Where It Comes From
    8. 8. Stress• Demand made on an organism to adapt, cope, or adjust• Eustress – Healthful stress• Intense or prolonged stress – Affects our moods, impairs our ability to experience pleasure, and harms the body
    9. 9. Health Psychology• Studies relationships between psychological factors and the prevention and treatment of physical health problems.
    10. 10. Daily Hassles• Regularly occurring conditions and experiences that can threaten or harm our well-being – Household, health, time-pressure, inner concern, environmental, financial responsibility, work and security hassles
    11. 11. Life Changes• May be positive or negative• Occur regularly
    12. 12. Stress in America• Online survey commissioned by APA• Representative sample of American population
    13. 13. Significant Sources of Stress
    14. 14. Physical Symptoms of Stress
    15. 15. Psychological Symptoms of Stress
    16. 16. Impact of Stress on Sleep and Eating Habits
    17. 17. Conflict• Feeling of being pulled in two or more directions by opposing motives• Four types of conflict – Approach-approach – Avoidance-avoidance – Approach-avoidance – Multiple approach-avoidance
    18. 18. Irrational Beliefs Activating event → Beliefs → Consequences• Albert Ellis• Negative activating event becomes more aversive• Irrational beliefs compound the effect
    19. 19. Type A and B Behavior Patterns• Type A people are highly driven, competitive, impatient, hostile, and aggressive• Type B people relax more readily and focus more on the quality of life; are less ambitious and less impatient
    20. 20. Psychological Moderators of Stress
    21. 21. Self Efficacy Expectations• Allow one to persist in difficult tasks and endure discomfort• High self-efficacy expectations – less adrenaline and noradrenaline secreted when under stress – Moderates body’s stress
    22. 22. Psychological Hardiness• Hardy people are more resistant to stress• Hardy business executives were found to be – High in commitment – High in challenge – High in perceived control over their lives • Internal locus of control
    23. 23. Sense of Humor• Research demonstrating value of sense of humor• Laughter stimulates endorphin output• Positive cognitive shifts
    24. 24. Predictability and Control• Predictability allows us to prepare and cope – Greater benefit to internals than externals• Control, even the illusion of control, allows us to plan
    25. 25. Social Support• Social support acts as a buffer against effects of stress – Shown to help people resist infectious diseases – Helps people cope with stress of acculturation and/ or health problems
    26. 26. Stress and the Body
    27. 27. General Adaptation Syndrome• Group of bodily changes that occur in three stages – Alarm reaction – Resistance stage – Exhaustion stage
    28. 28. Alarm Reaction of the General Adaptation Syndrome• Triggered by perception of a stressor• Arouses the body• Corticosteroids help protect the body – Combat allergic reactions and produce inflammation• Adrenaline is released which provides fuel for the fight-or-flight reaction
    29. 29. Stress and the Endocrine System
    30. 30. Alternatives to the Universality of the Alarm Reaction• Women engage in tend and befriend responses to threats• Productive response by pulling back from the situation for reappraisal – Cognitive adaptation theory – Conservation of resources theory
    31. 31. Resistance Stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome• If alarm reaction mobilizes the body and the stressor is not removed• Endocrine and sympathetic activity continues higher than normal
    32. 32. Exhaustion Stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome• Stressor is not dealt with adequately• Muscles become fatigued• Parasympathetic division of ANS dominates• Continued stress may lead to diseases of adaptation – Allergies, hives, coronary heart disease, ultimately death
    33. 33. Gender Differences in Response to Stress• Women under stress more likely to demonstrate tend and befriend – Nurturing and seeking social support• Evolutionary explanation for this difference• Males more aggressive due to hormone differences
    34. 34. Immune System• Immune system combats disease – Production of white blood cells (leukocytes) which kills pathogens – Remembering antibodies used to battle antigens – Inflammation – increases leukocytes sent to the injured area
    35. 35. Stress and the Immune System• Stress stimulates production of steroids – Steroids interfere with the formation of antibodies and decrease inflammation• Dental students had lower immune system functioning during stressful periods of school year – Student with friends showed less suppression
    36. 36. Psychology and Chronic Health Problems
    37. 37. Biopsychosocial Approach to Health• Likelihood of contracting an illness can reflect the interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors – Biological – Genetics – predispositions – Psychological – Attitudes, emotions and behaviors
    38. 38. Coronary Heart Disease• Risk factors – Family history – Physiological conditions – Patterns of consumption – Type A behavior – Hostility and holding in feelings of anger
    39. 39. Coronary Heart Disease• Risk factors (continued) – Job strain – Chronic fatigue, stress, anxiety, depression and emotional strain – Sudden stressors – Physically inactive lifestyle
    40. 40. Cancer• Major risk factors – Inherited disposition – Behavior patterns • Smoking, Alcohol, Sunbathing – Prolonged psychological conditions • Depression, Stress
    41. 41. Beyond the BookSlides to help expand your lectures
    42. 42. Life Changes• Differ from daily hassles in that life changes – Are often positive and desirable – Occur at irregular intervals• Life changes, even positive ones, require adjustment
    43. 43. Hassles, Life Changes, and Health Problems• Hassles and life changes predict health problems – Heart disease, cancer, even athletic injuries• Limitations in the research – Nature of the links between stress and health problems – Positive versus negative life changes – Personal differences in handling stress – Cognitive appraisal of event
    44. 44. Psychoneuroimmunology• Addresses the relationships among psychological factors, nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and disease

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