World has seen a lot of technological evolutions in the field of Plant Instrumentation and Control Automation since 1970’s... Instead of single loops, larger and more complicated loops such as cascade, ratio, feed-forward, multi-variable were used for achieving better control. For optimum, safe, and reliable control, effective control loops were developed using regulatory control, sequence control and inter-locks with the aid of computers. Systematic and reliable startup/shutdown procedures were incorporated in the control logic to ensure the safety of the plant.
Yokogawa were the pioneers in introducing the first Distributed Control System to the world. Centum was the first Distributed Control System introduced by Yokogawa in the year 1975. Yokogawa continued its research in the DCS field and introduced many systems in line with the technological development.
CENTUM VP is the latest DCS introduced by Yokogawa. VP is Vigilant Plant. CS3000 systems uses Windows platform for the GUI functions.
The primary factors considered during the development of CS3000 are Easy connectivity of components The abnormality of one component does not affect the functionality of others Easy creation of regulatory and sequence control loops using computers Operators can easily monitor and handle multiple plant data’s from a Centralised Control Room
YOKOGAWA CENTUM CS 3000 R3
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING
Process Control Loops
Human Interface System
Field Control Station
Drawbacks Of CCS:
If the CPU fails the entire plant gets affected.
Redundancy concept is not available.
(Redundancy is having two controllers. One would be active
and the other would be standby. If the active controller
f a i l s , t h e s t a n d b y c o n t r o l l e r t a k e s o v e r ) .
Centralized Control System
FCS (Field Control Station):
Used to control the process. All the instruments and
interlocks created by software reside in the memory of
the FCS. All the field instruments like transmitters and
control valves are wired to the FCS.
OPS (Operator Station):
Used to monitor the process and to operate various
Used to communicate between the FCS and the OPS
Basic Components of DCS
Information regarding the
process is presented to the
user in various formats.
Control function is
distributed among multiple
CPUs (Field Control
Stations). Hence failure of
one FCS does not affect the
Redundancy is available at
Instruments and interlocks
are created by software.
modifications of the
interlocks are very flexible
Field wiring is considerably
Maintenance and trouble
shooting becomes very
Cost effective in the long
Advantages of DCS
CENTUM Series (DCS) Evolution
CENTUM has developed as a true open system.
World First DCS
FCS (Field Control Station)
• Reliable controller.
• Cost-effective and capable I/O subsystem.
HIS (Human Interface Station)
• The operator station based on Windows XP or Windows2000. (Both are
• HIS provides easy & flexible operation.
ENG (Engineering Station)
• Engineering Station is used to do the engineering builder for all the stations like
HIS, FCS, CGW, BCV etc. ENG is a PC loaded with Engineering software.
• The HIS can be loaded with engineering software so that it can be used as HIS
as well as ENG.
► CGW: Communication Gateway Unit used to communicate with
► BCV: Bus Converter is used to link two domains.
CENTUM CS 3000 - Major Components
V-Net (Communication Bus)
• Real-time control bus.
• V-NET is a used for communication between
HIS, FCS, BCV & CGW.
• Maximum 64 Stations can be connected on the V-net.
ETHERNET (Communication Bus)
• Ethernet is a standard network in CS3000 to
connect HIS, ENG and supervisory computers .
• Transmission speed: 10 MBPS
CENTUM CS 3000 - Networks
The Station for Real time Plant Monitoring/Operation
Human Interface System (HIS)
Easy Operation by a mouse, a keyboard etc.
Real time display of Plant Abnormalities.
Plant Operation by thousands of Graphics
Types of HIS
A IBM PC/AT compatible machine is generally used.
Apart from the general PC, the Yokogawa PC is also
supported. Specifications of the PC HIS Desktop are as
CPU : Pentium IV
Main Memory : 256 MB (Minimum)
Hard Disk : 20 GB or more
Video Display : 1024 x 768 or more, 256 colours
CRT Monitor : Multi Scan 17” monitor or larger
Serial Port : RS232C one port or more
Parallel Port : One port or more
Extension Slot : PCI slot for V/VL net card,
ISA slot for Ethernet card
Power Supply : 200-240VAC
Basic Software : Windows NT with
Service Pack ,Windows
2000 or Windows XP
The floor mounted console type HIS
comes with 21” monitor which has a
touch panel operation. It has an
operation keyboard and an engineering
They are of types
• Enclosed Display Style
• Open Display Style
Engineering Station is used to do the engineering builder
for all the stations like HIS, FCS, CGW, BCV etc.
ENG station is a PC loaded with engineering software
(Standard builder function). It is mainly used to perform
CS3000 system generation and maintenance
The HIS can be loaded with engineering software, so that it
can be used as HIS as well as ENG station.
Engineering Station (ENG)
Maximum number of tags that can be monitored from
HIS : One Million.
Maximum number of windows that can be created per
HIS : 4000.
Maximum number of Trend Recording Points per HIS : 3328.
Application Capacity of HIS
Max. 500m Max. 500mMax. 500m
Overall Max. 20 km
Co-axial CableV net
V net : Extension Details
Protocol : IEEE 802.4
Access Control : Token Passing
Trans. Speed : 10 Mbps
Trans. Distance : 500m to 20km
Media : Coaxial/Optical
Std. max. length : 185 m
Max. length : 20 Km
The FCS controls the plant.
This is the component
where all the control
functions are executed
and hence it is a very
important and critical
component in the overall
Field Control Station- Overview
FIO means Field network I/O.
FIO is Process I/O modules.
A kind of compact, cost-effective, reliable I/O devices,
targeted as the industrial standard I/O of next-generation.
FIO includes the latest network technologies and field
FFCS is the Compact FIO type Field Control Station
supported by CS3000.
Components of FFCS:
a) Field Control Unit (FCU)
b) Nodes for FIO
c) Local / Remote Communication Bus
Compact Type FIO - Field Networked Field
Control Station (FFCS)
The FCU consists of
Two Power Supply Units
Two processor modules
Eight slots for Input Output cards
Out of these eight I/O slots, if I/O expansion is required, two
slots are used for ESB module and the rest six slots are used
for IO modules.
It has two V net coupler units for connecting V net Cables.
Field Control Unit of FFCS
Power supply unit
CP401 CPU module
Eight FIO slots
EC401 ESB bus coupler
Note: Two I/O slots are to be used for NIU extension.
AIP504 Vnet coupler (10BASE2 Vnet cable is used)
Node Unit of FIO
The node units (NU) for FIO are signal processing units which convert and
transmit analog or digital process I/O signals received from the field
devices to the FCU for FIO.
►Node Unit has two bus units
ESB Bus Node : For local nodes
ER Bus Node : For remote nodes
ESB bus Node or Local Node
Speed : 128 Mbps
Distance in Total : Max. 10m
ER bus Node or Remote Node
Based on Ethernet
Speed : 10 Mbps
Distance in total :
10base2 -> max. 185m / 10base5 -> max. 500m
max. 2 km with repeater (Standard of Ethernet)
Up to 3 remote nodes can be installed on a FFCS.
FIO: Max. 8
Up to 6
Up to 8
Hardware Configuration- Local Node
Hardware Configuration–Remote Node
Expanded Remote node up to 3
Optical Repeater can be used
Domain is the group of stations connected on one V-net
cable. Maximum 64 stations can be connected per
domain. Bus Convertor (BCV) is used to link two domains.
Addresses are used to identify the stations on the control
Address is composed of a domain number and a station
The domain number is set in the range of 1 to 16. The
domain number is defined in project property setting
menu dialog box. The domain number cannot be
changed once it is set.
Station numbers are used to identify the equipments
connected in the same domain of the system. The station
numbers range from 1 to 64.
Network Address Configuration
Setting Station Addresses
Max no. of domains:16
Max no. of stations:64
Application Capacity Of FFCS
CPU R5432 (RISC)
Memory Size 32MB
Power supply 100/220V AC, 24V DC
No. of I/O slot 8
No. of I/O node total 4 including CPU node
ESB bus I/F EC401/SB401
Local node for ESB bus Up to 4
Remote node for ER bus Up to 3
ER bus I/F EB401/EB501
Communication data 4000 words
Global SW 256
Common SW 4000
No. of control drawing sheet 200
No. of function block (total with %ANN) 2500
Realtime trend 256
The Field Network I/O (FIO) modules are used in the FCS for FIO.
Advantages of FIO series IOM
It supports Variety of Field connections.
I/O modules are available with different isolation types.
Supports wide range of Installation environment.
Redundancy is available.
Provides Replacement capability for the existing Centum V, Centum XL and
Pressure Clamp Terminal
A field signal cable, with its end uncovered, can be
connected directly to an analog or digital I/O module
equipped with the pressure clamp terminal block.
An analog or digital I/O module equipped with the KS
cable interface adapter can be connected with the
terminal board using the KS cable and field signal cables
are connected to the terminal board with M4 screws.
KS Cable Interface Adapter
Input modules convert process signals to the digital data format
used in the FCS. Output modules convert the digital data
format used in the FCS to analog or contact signals.
Types of I/O Module
Analog Input Module
Analog Output Module
Analog I/O Module
Digital Input Module
Digital Output Module
Digital I/O Module
Relay I/O Module
Input Output Modules
Information regarding the process is gathered as well as monitored by the
following Standard Operation windows on the HIS.
Control Group Window
Process Alarm Window
Operator guide Message Window
Process Report Window
Historical Report Window
All the operations can be performed with the help
of the Operation Keyboard. The same
operations can also
be performed by touch functions available
on the System Message Area Icons.
Tuning Window (PID)
TUNING WINDOW displays all the
Tuning parameters of the instrument.
The Tuning Window is used to set up the
alarm setting as well as the loop tuning
Only the items indicated with a “= “ can
Displaying a “Tuning Window”
1.Double click on a Tag’s name on a
“Control Window” and a faceplate window
will appear. Select the “Tuning “
window icon from the toll box.
2. Select “NAME icon in the System Message
Area” then enter the “TAGNAME”.
Overview Window displays the overview of the
current process status.
Information regarding the process is distributed
among the various display blocks.
32 Display Block s per Overview Window.
Each block gives dynamic information regarding the
Double click on the display block to more details.
3 Types of Display Blocks
•Single Tag Block
•Window Display Block
TREND WINDOW records the PV, SV and
MV of various instruments.
Trend can be displayed in Trend Group
Format or in Trend Point Format.
Maximum 8 pens can be assigned in one
Trend Group Window
Process Alarm Window
PROCESS ALARM WINDOW displays the
latest 200 process alarms.
Alarms can be acknowledged either as a
Group or as Individual alarm.
This icon displays the current PV
Values of the instruments that are in
This icon displays the important tags
(High Priority Alarms) that are in
This icon is used to acknowledge the
Select this icon to call the Process
SYSTEM ALARM WINDOW displays the
latest 200 system alarms.
Alarms can be acknowledged either as a
Group or as Individual alarm.
System Alarm Window
Relational Block (RL)
Calculation Block (CALCU)
Controlling Conditions in C format
A Project is the basic unit of the engineering database
management. It is a unit which contains the database of the
FCS and the HIS created by the user. All builder files defined by
various builders are managed under the project.
There are three different types of projects in CS 3000:
2) Current Project
3)User Defined Project
The project which runs inside the FFCS is called the current
Projects in CS3000
A project is created under the System View. It is the
primary window for system generation to display the
builder files defined by the user and also to start the
builder for editing.
To open the system view we need to follow the shown
When the system does not find any project definition, it
automatically prompts for the creation of a default
project. Click on Yes to create a new Project.
Creation Of Project
All types of analog input(Transmitters) and outputs(Valves)
labels are declared here.
It shows an analog i/o type.
The download function transfers the FCS execution data
from the HIS to the FCS. The execution data is a database
containing the application logic to be copied on to the
processor card of the FCS.
There are three different types of download that can be
carried out on the FCS:
a) Offline download
b) Online download
Offline downloading is performed when one of the following
changes is performed in the project:
• When adding • When the FCS properties
an FCS have been changed