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This PPT is based upon my training in Yokogawa Chennai.
# Yokogawa Hand Book on CS 3000
# http://www.slideshare.net/bvent2005/dcs-presentation

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  • World has seen a lot of technological evolutions in the field of Plant Instrumentation and Control Automation since 1970’s...
    Instead of single loops, larger and more complicated loops such as cascade, ratio, feed-forward, multi-variable were used for achieving better control.
    For optimum, safe, and reliable control, effective control loops were developed using regulatory control, sequence control and inter-locks with the aid of computers. Systematic and reliable startup/shutdown procedures were incorporated in the control logic to ensure the safety of the plant.

    Yokogawa were the pioneers in introducing the first Distributed Control System to the world. Centum was the first Distributed Control System introduced by Yokogawa in the year 1975. Yokogawa continued its research in the DCS field and introduced many systems in line with the technological development.

    CENTUM VP is the latest DCS introduced by Yokogawa. VP is Vigilant Plant. CS3000 systems uses Windows platform for the GUI functions.

    The primary factors considered during the development of CS3000 are
    Easy connectivity of components
    The abnormality of one component does not affect the functionality of others
    Easy creation of regulatory and sequence control loops using computers
    Operators can easily monitor and handle multiple plant data’s from a Centralised Control Room


    2. 2.  Basics  Classification  Process Control Loops  Evolution  Hardware Configuration  Human Interface System  Communication Bus  Field Control Station  Projects Overview
    3. 3. Basic Control Loop
    4. 4. Process control systems are classified into Analog Control Systems Digital Control Systems Process Control Systems
    5. 5. Analog Control System
    6. 6. Digital Control System
    7. 7. Digital Control Systems are further classified into Centralized Control Systems Distributed Control Systems Digital Control System
    8. 8. Centralized Control System
    9. 9. Drawbacks Of CCS: If the CPU fails the entire plant gets affected. Redundancy concept is not available. (Redundancy is having two controllers. One would be active and the other would be standby. If the active controller f a i l s , t h e s t a n d b y c o n t r o l l e r t a k e s o v e r ) . Centralized Control System
    10. 10. Distributed Control System
    11. 11. FCS (Field Control Station): Used to control the process. All the instruments and interlocks created by software reside in the memory of the FCS. All the field instruments like transmitters and control valves are wired to the FCS. OPS (Operator Station): Used to monitor the process and to operate various instruments. Communication Bus: Used to communicate between the FCS and the OPS Basic Components of DCS
    12. 12.  Information regarding the process is presented to the user in various formats.  Control function is distributed among multiple CPUs (Field Control Stations). Hence failure of one FCS does not affect the entire plant.  Redundancy is available at various levels.  Instruments and interlocks are created by software.  Generation and modifications of the interlocks are very flexible and simple.  Field wiring is considerably less.  Maintenance and trouble shooting becomes very easy.  Cost effective in the long run. Advantages of DCS
    13. 13. CENTUM Series (DCS) Evolution 1st CENTUM 2nd CENTUM CENTUM V CENTUM-XL CENTUM CS CENTUM CS3000 1975 1981 1984 1988 1993 1998 CENTUM has developed as a true open system. World First DCS 2008CENTUM VP
    14. 14. CS3000-System Configuration
    15. 15.  FCS (Field Control Station) • Reliable controller. • Cost-effective and capable I/O subsystem.  HIS (Human Interface Station) • The operator station based on Windows XP or Windows2000. (Both are selectable.) • HIS provides easy & flexible operation.  ENG (Engineering Station) • Engineering Station is used to do the engineering builder for all the stations like HIS, FCS, CGW, BCV etc. ENG is a PC loaded with Engineering software. • The HIS can be loaded with engineering software so that it can be used as HIS as well as ENG. ► CGW: Communication Gateway Unit used to communicate with supervisory computers. ► BCV: Bus Converter is used to link two domains. CENTUM CS 3000 - Major Components
    16. 16. V-Net (Communication Bus) • Real-time control bus. • V-NET is a used for communication between HIS, FCS, BCV & CGW. • Maximum 64 Stations can be connected on the V-net. ETHERNET (Communication Bus) • Ethernet is a standard network in CS3000 to connect HIS, ENG and supervisory computers . • Transmission speed: 10 MBPS CENTUM CS 3000 - Networks
    17. 17. Types Of Users
    18. 18.  The Station for Real time Plant Monitoring/Operation Human Interface System (HIS) Easy Operation by a mouse, a keyboard etc. Real time display of Plant Abnormalities. Plant Operation by thousands of Graphics
    19. 19. Types of HIS  DESKTOP HIS:  A IBM PC/AT compatible machine is generally used. Apart from the general PC, the Yokogawa PC is also supported. Specifications of the PC HIS Desktop are as follows:  CPU : Pentium IV Processor (Minimum)  Main Memory : 256 MB (Minimum)  Hard Disk : 20 GB or more  Video Display : 1024 x 768 or more, 256 colours  CRT Monitor : Multi Scan 17” monitor or larger  Serial Port : RS232C one port or more  Parallel Port : One port or more  Extension Slot : PCI slot for V/VL net card, ISA slot for Ethernet card  Power Supply : 200-240VAC  Basic Software : Windows NT with Service Pack ,Windows 2000 or Windows XP
    20. 20.  CONSOLE HIS  The floor mounted console type HIS comes with 21” monitor which has a touch panel operation. It has an operation keyboard and an engineering keyboard.  They are of types • Enclosed Display Style • Open Display Style
    21. 21.  Engineering Station is used to do the engineering builder for all the stations like HIS, FCS, CGW, BCV etc.  ENG station is a PC loaded with engineering software (Standard builder function). It is mainly used to perform CS3000 system generation and maintenance management.  The HIS can be loaded with engineering software, so that it can be used as HIS as well as ENG station. Engineering Station (ENG)
    22. 22.  Maximum number of tags that can be monitored from HIS : One Million.  Maximum number of windows that can be created per HIS : 4000.  Maximum number of Trend Recording Points per HIS : 3328. Application Capacity of HIS
    23. 23. Control Network Evolution
    24. 24. Optical Fibre R R R RT T Optical Fibre R R R R T T Max. 500m Max. 500mMax. 500m Max. 15 km Max. 15 km Overall Max. 20 km Co-axial CableV net HIS HISHIS V net : Extension Details Protocol : IEEE 802.4 Access Control : Token Passing Trans. Speed : 10 Mbps Trans. Distance : 500m to 20km Media : Coaxial/Optical Fiber Std. max. length : 185 m Max. length : 20 Km
    25. 25.  The FCS controls the plant. This is the component where all the control functions are executed and hence it is a very important and critical component in the overall system. Field Control Station- Overview
    26. 26. Field Control Station Models
    27. 27.  FIO means Field network I/O.  FIO is Process I/O modules.  A kind of compact, cost-effective, reliable I/O devices, targeted as the industrial standard I/O of next-generation.  FIO includes the latest network technologies and field experience. FIO
    28. 28.  FFCS is the Compact FIO type Field Control Station supported by CS3000.  Components of FFCS: a) Field Control Unit (FCU) b) Nodes for FIO c) Local / Remote Communication Bus Compact Type FIO - Field Networked Field Control Station (FFCS)
    29. 29. FFCS – AFF50D
    30. 30.  The FCU consists of  Two Power Supply Units  Two processor modules  Eight slots for Input Output cards  Out of these eight I/O slots, if I/O expansion is required, two slots are used for ESB module and the rest six slots are used for IO modules.  It has two V net coupler units for connecting V net Cables. Field Control Unit of FFCS
    31. 31. Power supply unit CP401 CPU module Eight FIO slots EC401 ESB bus coupler (Note) Note: Two I/O slots are to be used for NIU extension. AIP504 Vnet coupler (10BASE2 Vnet cable is used) Detachable bottom unit
    32. 32. Node Unit of FIO Node Unit The node units (NU) for FIO are signal processing units which convert and transmit analog or digital process I/O signals received from the field devices to the FCU for FIO. ►Node Unit has two bus units  ESB Bus Node : For local nodes  ER Bus Node : For remote nodes
    33. 33.  ESB bus Node or Local Node  Speed : 128 Mbps  Distance in Total : Max. 10m  ER bus Node or Remote Node Based on Ethernet Speed : 10 Mbps Distance in total : 10base2 -> max. 185m / 10base5 -> max. 500m max. 2 km with repeater (Standard of Ethernet) Up to 3 remote nodes can be installed on a FFCS.
    34. 34. FIO: Max. 8 Local node Max. 3 ESB bus Up to 6 Modules Up to 8 Modules CP401 CP401 PW48X PW48X V net FFCS CP401 CP401 PW48X PW48X EC401 EC401 SB401 PW48X PW48X SB401 SB401 PW48X PW48X SB401 SB401 PW48X PW48X SB401 FFCS Minimum Configuration Maximum Configuration Hardware Configuration- Local Node
    35. 35. Hardware Configuration–Remote Node V net FFCS Remote node Expanded Remote node up to 3 ER bus EB401 EB401EB401 EB401 EB401 EB401 EB401 CP401 CP401 PW48X PW48X EB501 PW48X PW48X EB501 Remote node EB501 PW48X PW48X EB501 EB501 PW48X PW48X EB501 Remote node Optical Repeater can be used
    36. 36.  Domain is the group of stations connected on one V-net cable. Maximum 64 stations can be connected per domain. Bus Convertor (BCV) is used to link two domains. Domain Concept
    37. 37.  Addresses are used to identify the stations on the control bus.  Address is composed of a domain number and a station number.  The domain number is set in the range of 1 to 16. The domain number is defined in project property setting menu dialog box. The domain number cannot be changed once it is set.  Station numbers are used to identify the equipments connected in the same domain of the system. The station numbers range from 1 to 64. Network Address Configuration
    38. 38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 OFF ON 24 21 22 23 20 25 26 Parity Check Domain No. Station No. Setting Station Addresses  Max no. of domains:16  Max no. of stations:64 DIP Switch
    39. 39. Application Capacity Of FFCS CPU R5432 (RISC) Memory Size 32MB Power supply 100/220V AC, 24V DC No. of I/O slot 8 No. of I/O node total 4 including CPU node ESB bus I/F EC401/SB401 Local node for ESB bus Up to 4 Remote node for ER bus Up to 3 ER bus I/F EB401/EB501 AP capacity AI/AO 480 DI/DO 1920 Communication data 4000 words Global SW 256 Common SW 4000 %ANN 1000 %PR 1000 %OP 500 %RQ 200 No. of control drawing sheet 200 No. of function block (total with %ANN) 2500 Realtime trend 256
    40. 40.  The Field Network I/O (FIO) modules are used in the FCS for FIO.  Advantages of FIO series IOM  It supports Variety of Field connections.  I/O modules are available with different isolation types.  Supports wide range of Installation environment.  Redundancy is available.  Provides Replacement capability for the existing Centum V, Centum XL and Micro-XL systems. FIO Module
    41. 41. Types of Field Connections
    42. 42. Pressure Clamp Terminal  A field signal cable, with its end uncovered, can be connected directly to an analog or digital I/O module equipped with the pressure clamp terminal block.
    43. 43.  An analog or digital I/O module equipped with the KS cable interface adapter can be connected with the terminal board using the KS cable and field signal cables are connected to the terminal board with M4 screws. KS Cable Interface Adapter
    44. 44.  Input modules convert process signals to the digital data format used in the FCS. Output modules convert the digital data format used in the FCS to analog or contact signals.  Types of I/O Module  Analog Input Module  Analog Output Module  Analog I/O Module  Digital Input Module  Digital Output Module  Digital I/O Module  Relay I/O Module  Multiplexers Module  Communication Module Input Output Modules
    45. 45. Analog Input Modules
    46. 46. Analog Output Modules
    47. 47. Analog Input Output Modules
    48. 48. Digital Input Modules
    49. 49. Digital Output Modules
    50. 50. Operation Windows Information regarding the process is gathered as well as monitored by the following Standard Operation windows on the HIS.  Tuning Window  Control Group Window  Trend Window  Process Alarm Window  Operator guide Message Window  Graphic Window  Overview Window  Process Report Window  Historical Report Window
    51. 51. System Message Window
    52. 52. Operation Keyboard All the operations can be performed with the help of the Operation Keyboard. The same operations can also be performed by touch functions available on the System Message Area Icons.
    53. 53. Instrument Faceplate Window
    54. 54. Tuning Window (PID) TUNING WINDOW displays all the Tuning parameters of the instrument. The Tuning Window is used to set up the alarm setting as well as the loop tuning parameters. Only the items indicated with a “= “ can be changed. Displaying a “Tuning Window” 1.Double click on a Tag’s name on a “Control Window” and a faceplate window will appear. Select the “Tuning “ window icon from the toll box. 2. Select “NAME icon in the System Message Area” then enter the “TAGNAME”.
    55. 55. Tuning Window (TIMER)
    56. 56. Control Drawing Display
    57. 57. Navigator Window
    58. 58. Control Group Window – 8 Instruments Select this icon to display the Control Group Window
    59. 59. Control Group Window – 16 Instruments
    60. 60. Overview Window Overview Window displays the overview of the current process status. Information regarding the process is distributed among the various display blocks. 32 Display Block s per Overview Window. Each block gives dynamic information regarding the process. Double click on the display block to more details. 3 Types of Display Blocks •Single Tag Block •Window Display Block •Comment Block
    61. 61. Graphic Window
    62. 62. Trend Window TREND WINDOW records the PV, SV and MV of various instruments. Trend can be displayed in Trend Group Format or in Trend Point Format. Maximum 8 pens can be assigned in one Trend Group Window
    63. 63. Process Alarm Window PROCESS ALARM WINDOW displays the latest 200 process alarms. Alarms can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual alarm. This icon displays the current PV Values of the instruments that are in alarm This icon displays the important tags (High Priority Alarms) that are in alarm. This icon is used to acknowledge the process alarms. Select this icon to call the Process Alarm Window
    64. 64. SYSTEM ALARM WINDOW displays the latest 200 system alarms. Alarms can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual alarm. System Alarm Window
    65. 65. Process Report Window
    66. 66. System Status Window
    67. 67. Control Drawing Function Blocks
    68. 68. Sequence Tables (ST-16) Condition Area Action Area Rule Area
    69. 69. Logic Charts (LC-64)
    70. 70. Relational Block (RL) Transmitter Tag Name Relational Values
    71. 71. Calculation Block (CALCU) Controlling Conditions in C format
    72. 72.  A Project is the basic unit of the engineering database management. It is a unit which contains the database of the FCS and the HIS created by the user. All builder files defined by various builders are managed under the project.  There are three different types of projects in CS 3000: 1)Default Project 2) Current Project 3)User Defined Project The project which runs inside the FFCS is called the current project. Projects in CS3000
    73. 73.  A project is created under the System View. It is the primary window for system generation to display the builder files defined by the user and also to start the builder for editing.  To open the system view we need to follow the shown steps. System View
    74. 74.  When the system does not find any project definition, it automatically prompts for the creation of a default project. Click on Yes to create a new Project. Creation Of Project
    75. 75. Station & Domain Number Of FCS
    76. 76. Creation Of HIS
    77. 77. Creation Of Node As already discussed two types of nodes
    78. 78. Creation Of IOMs
    79. 79.  All types of analog input(Transmitters) and outputs(Valves) labels are declared here.  It shows an analog i/o type. IOM Builder
    80. 80.  The download function transfers the FCS execution data from the HIS to the FCS. The execution data is a database containing the application logic to be copied on to the processor card of the FCS.  There are three different types of download that can be carried out on the FCS: a) Offline download b) Online download Downloads
    81. 81.  Offline downloading is performed when one of the following changes is performed in the project: • When adding • When the FCS properties an FCS have been changed Offline Download
    82. 82. Online Download
    83. 83.  CS3000 R3 system contains 200 control drawings per FCS. To access control drawing, select FUNCTION_BLOCK folder under FCS folder. Control Drawing Builder
    84. 84. Components Of Control Drawing Builder Function Block Lib. Wiring Labelling
    85. 85. Signals Monitoring
    86. 86. Closed Loop
    87. 87. Cascade Loop
    88. 88. Cascade Loop Faceplate
    89. 89. Multiple Cascade Loop
    90. 90. Split Range Controller
    91. 91. Multiple Split Range Controller
    92. 92. Signal Selector
    93. 93. Switch Block
    94. 94. Ratio Control Loop
    95. 95. Area In & Area Out
    96. 96. Velocity Limiter
    97. 97. Temperature Pressure Compensated Flow 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 ∝ 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 Fi : Measured flow rate F0 : Corrected flow rate P : Measured pressure [kPa] Pb : Reference pressure [kPa] T : Measured temperature (°C) Tb : Reference temperature (°C)
    98. 98. Arithmetic Function Blocks 𝐷1 = 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦𝑧 𝑥𝑦𝑧 − 𝑥𝑦
    99. 99. Motor Control Block
    100. 100. Sequential Table
    101. 101. Calculation
    102. 102. Logic Chart
    103. 103. THANK YOU