Phonetics

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Phonetics

  1. 1. Phonetics Vowels: Vowels are speech sounds, which are produced freely without any obstruction to the free passage of air either in the vocal track or in the nasal passage. The 20 vowels are classified as pure vowels (12) and diphthongs (8) Sl.No Vowels Initial Position Middle Position Final Position 1 / i: / Each, eager, easy, east Lead, seed, feed, read, feel Sea, spree, lea, tea, key 2 / i / Is, ink , ill, English, inside Lid, middle, pick, mix, sit --------- 3 / e / Emearld, eminent, empty Preface, prelate, credit --------- 4 / æ / Act, access, add agile Man, ballet, carat, fact, fan --------- 5 / ʌ / Under, undue, unrest Fund, hurry, knuckle -------- 6 / a : / Arm,argue, artery,arson Father, bath, cart, guard Car, bar, war, star, par 7 / ɔ/ Occult, oblong, offer Hot, lock, fossil, fox ------- 8 / ɔ:/ All, order, orphan, ox Cause, caught, cork ---------- 9 / u / ------- Put, should, look, pull -------- 10 / u : / ------- Shoot, pool, wool Do, ewe, chew 11 / ə : / Earn, earth, early Turn, burn,learn ---------- 12 / ə / Ago, about, account Cassette, champion Bear, river, hair
  2. 2. Consonants: Consonants are a set of speech sounds that are produced with some kind of obstruction (total or partial) of the air stream coming to the mouth through the windpipe from the lungs. There are 24 consonants in the English language. Sl. No Consonant Initial position Middle position Final position 1 / p / Parrot, parcel, pencil Happy, paper, repel, apply Cap, trip, map, tap 2 / b / Beak, bride, baby, black Shabby, baby, rubber Grab, robe, tribe 3 / t / Two, torn, town, twin Writer, letter, waiter Heart, late, bought 4 / d / Do, dune, down, drink Rider, loading, ladder Hard, side, broad 5 / k / Cave, class, card, kettle Pocket, weaker, market Pick, break, dock 6 / g / Give, guard, glass, good Digging, target, angel Pig, plague, rogue 7 / tʃ / Chin, choke, chain, cheer Riches, batches, catching Search, watch, rich 8 / dʒ / Joke, jest, judge, gin Ridges, badges, pigeon Surge, age, lodge 9 / f / Fast, few, first, free, fat Suffer, affect, afraid, defy Leaf, half, stiff 10 / v / Vast, view, very, vote River, cover, divide, over Five, leave, wave 11 / θ / Thin, thank, thought Author, earthy, nothing Growth, tooth 12 / ð / Then, that, those, though Other, mother, worthy Loathe, clothe
  3. 3. 13 / s / Sink, said, seal, swim Fussy, risky, buses, twist Mouse, pass, force 14 / z / Zinc, zoo, zeal, zone Loser, raising, fussy, lazy Plays, knees 15 / ʃ / Show, shy, shock, shame Nation, washing, mission Ash, wash, leash 16 / ʒ / --------- Vision, razor, invasion Garage, beige 17 / h / Heart, heat, heard, hall Behind, rehearse, unholy ------- 18 / m / Man, make, mood, mat Permanent, complaint Him, game, warm 19 / n / Name, neck, note, noon Manage, permanent, mint Chin, fun, ran, can 20 / ŋ / --------- Singer, hanger, hunger Wrong, song, long 21 / l / Leaf, late, loose, loud Feeling, fellow, believe Feel, meal, all 22 / j / Yard, yes, yacht, you Beauty, view, value, few -------- 23 / w / Watch, win, word, wool Sweet, twice, quick, twin -------- 24 / r / Run, wrong, round, ring Marry, borrow, arrive --------
  4. 4. Diphthongs: A diphthongs is a glide from one vowel to another vowel the whole thing acting as one vowel without a break. Sl. No Diphthongs Initial position Middle position Final position 1 / ai / Idea, ice, eyelid, item Strike, right, ride, Cry, buy, die 2 / ei / Eight, aim, aid Mail, explain, rain Bay, day, pay 3 / ɔɪ / Oil, ointment, oilskin Boil, coin, foil, join Toy, boy, joy 4 / əʊ / Owe, over, owner Power, shoulder, note ----- 5 / aʊ / Out, our, owl Crowd, crown, down How, now 6 / ɪə / Ear, eardrum, earlobe Beard, fierce, ideas Clear, bare, share 7 / eə / Air, aircraft Stared, rarely, weary Hair, bare, share 8 / ʊə / ---- Insurance, curiosity Poor, cure, pure Consonants Symbols Plosives / p, b, t, d, k, t , d/ Frication / f, v, o, , s, z, , , h/ Nasal / m, n, / Lateral / l / Trill / r / Affricative / w, j /

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