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  • 1. Phonetics Vowels: Vowels are speech sounds, which are produced freely without any obstruction to the free passage of air either in the vocal track or in the nasal passage. The 20 vowels are classified as pure vowels (12) and diphthongs (8) Sl.No Vowels Initial Position Middle Position Final Position 1 Each, eager, easy, east Lead, seed, feed, read, Sea, spree, lea, tea, / i: / feel key 2 Is, ink , ill, English, Lid, middle, pick, --------- /i/ inside mix, sit 3 Emearld, eminent, Preface, prelate, --------- /e/ empty credit 4 Act, access, add agile Man, ballet, carat, --------- /æ / fact, fan 5 Under, undue, unrest Fund, hurry, knuckle -------- /ʌ / 6 Arm,argue, Father, bath, cart, Car, bar, war, star, /a:/ artery,arson guard par 7 Occult, oblong, offer Hot, lock, fossil, fox ------- / ɔ/ 8 All, order, orphan, ox Cause, caught, cork ---------- / ɔ:/ 9 ------- Put, should, look, pull -------- /u/ 10 ------- Shoot, pool, wool Do, ewe, chew /u:/ 11 Earn, earth, early Turn, burn,learn ---------- /ə:/ 12 Ago, about, account Cassette, champion Bear, river, hair / ə/
  • 2. Consonants: Consonants are a set of speech sounds that are produced with some kind of obstruction (total or partial) of the air stream coming to the mouth through the windpipe from the lungs. There are 24 consonants in the English language. Sl. Consonant Initial position Middle position Final position No Parrot, parcel, Happy, paper, repel, Cap, trip, map, 1 /p/ pencil apply tap Beak, bride, baby, Shabby, baby, Grab, robe, 2 /b/ black rubber tribe Two, torn, town, Heart, late, 3 /t/ Writer, letter, waiter twin bought Do, dune, down, Rider, loading, Hard, side, 4 /d/ drink ladder broad Cave, class, card, Pocket, weaker, Pick, break, 5 /k/ kettle market dock Give, guard, Digging, target, Pig, plague, 6 /g/ glass, good angel rogue Chin, choke, Riches, batches, Search, watch, 7 / tʃ / chain, cheer catching rich Joke, jest, judge, Ridges, badges, Surge, age, 8 / dʒ / gin pigeon lodge Fast, few, first, Suffer, affect, afraid, 9 / f / Leaf, half, stiff free, fat defy Vast, view, very, River, cover, divide, 10 /v / Five, leave, wave vote over Thin, thank, Author, earthy, 11 / θ/ Growth, tooth thought nothing Then, that, those, Other, mother, 12 / ð / Loathe, clothe though worthy
  • 3. Sink, said, seal, Fussy, risky, buses, Mouse, pass, 13 / s / swim twist force Zinc, zoo, zeal, Loser, raising, fussy, 14 / z / Plays, knees zone lazy Show, shy, shock, Nation, washing, 15 / ʃ / Ash, wash, leash shame mission Vision, razor, 16 / ʒ / --------- Garage, beige invasion Heart, heat, Behind, rehearse, 17 / h / ------- heard, hall unholy Man, make, Permanent, Him, game, 18 / m / mood, mat complaint warm Name, neck, note, Manage, permanent, Chin, fun, ran, 19 / n / noon mint can Singer, hanger, Wrong, song, 20 / ŋ / --------- hunger long Leaf, late, loose, Feeling, fellow, 21 / l / Feel, meal, all loud believe Yard, yes, yacht, Beauty, view, value, 22 / j / -------- you few Watch, win, Sweet, twice, quick, 23 / w / -------- word, wool twin Run, wrong, Marry, borrow, 24 / r / -------- round, ring arrive
  • 4. Consonants Symbols Plosives / p, b, t, d, k, t , d/ Frication / f, v, o, , s, z, , , h/ Nasal / m, n, / Lateral /l/ Trill /r/ Affricative / w, j / Diphthongs: A diphthongs is a glide from one vowel to another vowel the whole thing acting as one vowel without a break. Middle Sl. No Diphthongs Initial position Final position position Idea, ice, Strike, right, 1 / ai / Cry, buy, die eyelid, item ride, Mail, explain, 2 / ei / Eight, aim, aid Bay, day, pay rain Oil, ointment, Boil, coin, foil, 3 / ɔɪ / Toy, boy, joy oilskin join Owe, over, Power, 4 / əʊ / ----- owner shoulder, note Crowd, crown, 5 / aʊ / Out, our, owl How, now down Ear, eardrum, Beard, fierce, Clear, bare, 6 / ɪə / earlobe ideas share Stared, rarely, Hair, bare, 7 / eə / Air, aircraft weary share Insurance, Poor, cure, 8 / ʊə / ---- curiosity pure