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Class phonetics and phonology - phoneme

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By Shapla Parveen

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Class phonetics and phonology - phoneme

  1. 1. Phonetics and phonology - Phoneme
  2. 2.  Phonetics and Phonology – related fields Basic differences Phonetics – Deals with the physical properties of speech sounds – way it is produced, transmitted and perceived. Phonology – Deals with the organisation of speech sounds into sound systems/patterns and their meaning – within and across languages.
  3. 3.  Articulatory phonetics – action of speech organs and speech production. How speech is physically created Vocal tract movements to create different speech sounds
  4. 4.  Phonology – Who did you see Graham with? Who did you see Graham and? The English speaker knows that there is more to the two sentences than the differences between with and and
  5. 5.  Difference between - He told the man who he knew. - Ambiguous He told the man how he knew. I usually go to the movies with my friends. I usually went to the movies with my friends. I used to went to the movies with my friends. I used to go to the movies with my friends. By instinct a native speaker knows. – unconscious knowledge. Even not having knowledge of syntax to semantics.
  6. 6.  Linguists believe – - A native speakers’ unconscious knowledge must also contain phonological knowledge. - can tell how many syllables there are in a word without having any idea of what a syllable is, consciously. - it shows they have the ability to recognize syllables.
  7. 7.  -similar way, a native speaker can also point out the sequence of segments e.g. [blᴧ g], - it is a utterance of a word, an English word. And the sequence of segments in [tʰlᴧ is not an g] English word. They may never have heard of these sequences before.
  8. 8.  Thus assumeing - that they have access to an unconscious knowledge which constitutes ‘the phonology of English’. Phonology refers to the study of - mental abilities and largely unconscious state of the native speaker’s knowledge of the sound system of a certain (his/her) language.
  9. 9. - the abstract system organizing the speech sounds of a language.
  10. 10.  Phoneme – Smallest meaningful unit/segment in the sound system of a language that is capable of conveying a distinction in meaning in words or morphemes. /pin/ and /bin/ Smallest phonetic unit, which distinguishes meaning, A mental category How many phonemes - in SBE/RP pronunciation?
  11. 11.  Phonological System/Rules of English – - Constraints (restrictions/limitations) - form or structure of language Syntactic rules – Phonological rules - The Phonemic Principal –
  12. 12. 1. Aspirated and unaspirated voicelessstops in English – /p/, /t/, /k/ a.pool [ᴧpʰuɫ] c. appear [əᴧpʰɪə] b.spurt [ᴧspɜ:t] d. despite [dəᴧspaɪt] e.top [ᴧtʰɒp] ʰ h. attack [əᴧt æk] f.stop [ᴧstɒp] g. destroy [dəᴧst ɔɪ] ɹ i. kill [ᴧkʰɪl] k. accrue [əᴧkʰɹu:] j. scold [ᴧskoʊɫd] l. discover [dɪᴧsk və] ᴧ
  13. 13.  Rule – - voiceless stops are aspirated when they are at the beginning of a stressed syllable, - but unaspirated when preceded by a voiceless alveolar fricative. Fortis – phonemes produced with force - strong Lenis – phonemes produced with less force - weak
  14. 14.  Korean words a. [pʰul] – grass, b. [pul] – fire c. [tʰal] – mask, d. [tal] – moon e. [kʰɛda] – dig, f. [kɛda] - fold Different realisations of the phonemes .
  15. 15.  Bangla examples – [pul] – a bridge [pʰul] – flower
  16. 16.  Distribution – the range of places within a word which a given sound may occur in, is called its distribution.
  17. 17.  In English – Where one kind of stop occurs, the other kind never occurs in the same environment. They are in complementary distribution. - Two or more sounds are realisations of the same phoneme. - they are phonetically similar (to the English speaker) - no semantic contrasts -
  18. 18.  In Korean, Bangla – Where one kind of stop occurs, the other kind can also occurs in the same environment. Aspirated and unaspirataed stops overlap. They are in Parallel distribution – - Two or more sounds are realisations of different phonemes. - they are phonetically distinctive (to the Korean, Bangla speakers) - the two sounds are semantically contrastive -
  19. 19.  Minimal pairs – when a pair of words are identical in all respect, except for one sound segment, they are referred to as minimal pairs. - The two sounds are in parallel distribution - Semantically contrastive. Allophones – variations/realisations of a given phoneme.
  20. 20.  Problems for second language learners –

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