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Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
Lipids
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  • 1. Lipids www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 2. Lipids
    • Biomolecules soluble in organic solvents
    • Roles
      • Nutritional
      • Structural
      • regulatory
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 3. Types of Lipids
    • Glycerol-based
    • Sphingolipids
    • Steroids
    • Eicosanoids/leukotrienes
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 4. Storage Lipids
    • http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipids.html#triglycerides
    • Fatty acids
      • See chart on website
      • Saturated and Unsaturated
        • Relationship to melting point
    • Triacylglycerides
      • Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
    • Waxes
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 5. Glycerol based fats
    • Glycerol on the left
    • Esterifies to 3 fatty acids
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 6. Triacylglyerides
    • Glycerol in blue
    • Fatty acids in red
    • Condensation produces 3 water molecules
    • Very nonpolar…excludes water
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 7. Lipids in Membranes:
    • Phospholipids
    • Cholesterol
    • Glycolipds: Sugar group attached
    • Proteins: either integral or peripheral
    • Sphingolipids
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 8. Phosphoacylglycerols
    • Glycerol esterified to 2 fatty acids.
    • Third position is phosphate
    • Other end of phosphate can combine with other molecules to form various derivatives
    • amphipathic
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 9. Phosphoacylglycerols www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 10. Derivatives of Phosphoacylglycerols (PAG) www.freelivedoctor.com X- structure Name PAG name H hydrogen Phosphatidic acid serine Phosphatidyl serine choline Phosphatidyl choline (lecithin) ethanolamine Phosphatidyl ethanolamie inositol Phosphatidyl inositol
  • 11. Phosphatidyl choline with fatty acids as oleate and palmitate www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 12. Sphingolipids
    • Sphingosine instead of glycerol
    • Derivatized at ester C1
    • Fatty acids added at amine
    • Different types are found in plasma membrane and myelin sheaths
    • Gangliosides
      • cell to cell interactions
      • antigenic
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 13. Sphingosine www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 14. Sphingolipids www.freelivedoctor.com X name H ceramide monosaccharide cerebroside carbohydrate ganglioside sphingomyelin
  • 15. Sphingophospholipid with choline and the fatty acid as linolenic www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 16. Cholesterol www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 17. Role of Cholesterol
    • Keeps the lipids in membrane from aggregrating: Keeps the membrane intact as a bilayer
    • Precursor to Bile Acids
      • Act as detergentsto dissolve dietary fats
      • Fats can be broken better by enzymes
    • Precursor to steroid hormones that regulate gene expression
    • Precursor to Vitamin D
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 18. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol
    • Related to lipoproteins (protein + lipid complexes)
    • Dietary excess fat is packaged into VLDL
    • Fat cells (adipose cells) take these up convert to fatty acids
    • Some VLDL is converted to LDL
    • LDL is very rich in Cholesterol
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 19. LDL
    • Too much LDL can circulate in the blood
    • Build up in arteries; lead to heart attack
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 20. HDL
    • Another lipoprotein that converts cholesterol into a lipoprotein that returns to the liver ; Removes cholesterol out of the bloodstream;
    • believed to prevent heart attacks
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 21. Ratio of LDL to HDL
    • LDL cholesterol of less than 100 mg/dL is the optimal level. Less than 130 mg/dL is near optimal for most people.
    • A high LDL level (more than 160 mg/dL or 130 mg/dL or above if you have two or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease) reflects an increased risk of heart disease
    • Low HDL cholesterol levels [less than 40 mg/dL] is thought to increase the risk for heart disease.
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 22. Steroid hormones www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 23. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 24. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 25. Eicosanoids
    • Prostaglandins: different types
      • Some stimulate contraction of smooth muscle during menstruation and labor
      • Others produce fever and inflammation and pain
    • Thromboxanes: act in the formation of blood clot
    • Leukotrienes: induces contraction of the muscle lining the lungs
      • overproduction leads to asthma
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 26. Eicosanoids/Leukotrienes www.freelivedoctor.com

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