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  1. 1. Lipids
  2. 2. Lipids <ul><li>Biomolecules soluble in organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Lipids <ul><li>Glycerol-based </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingolipids </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids/leukotrienes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Storage Lipids <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See chart on website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated and Unsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship to melting point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Triacylglycerides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol + 3 fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waxes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Glycerol based fats <ul><li>Glycerol on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Esterifies to 3 fatty acids </li></ul>
  6. 6. Triacylglyerides <ul><li>Glycerol in blue </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids in red </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation produces 3 water molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Very nonpolar…excludes water </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lipids in Membranes: <ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolipds: Sugar group attached </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins: either integral or peripheral </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingolipids </li></ul>
  8. 8. Phosphoacylglycerols <ul><li>Glycerol esterified to 2 fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Third position is phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Other end of phosphate can combine with other molecules to form various derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>amphipathic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Phosphoacylglycerols
  10. 10. Derivatives of Phosphoacylglycerols (PAG) X- structure Name PAG name H hydrogen Phosphatidic acid serine Phosphatidyl serine choline Phosphatidyl choline (lecithin) ethanolamine Phosphatidyl ethanolamie inositol Phosphatidyl inositol
  11. 11. Phosphatidyl choline with fatty acids as oleate and palmitate
  12. 12. Sphingolipids <ul><li>Sphingosine instead of glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Derivatized at ester C1 </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids added at amine </li></ul><ul><li>Different types are found in plasma membrane and myelin sheaths </li></ul><ul><li>Gangliosides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell to cell interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antigenic </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sphingosine
  14. 14. Sphingolipids X name H ceramide monosaccharide cerebroside carbohydrate ganglioside sphingomyelin
  15. 15. Sphingophospholipid with choline and the fatty acid as linolenic
  16. 16. Cholesterol
  17. 17. Role of Cholesterol <ul><li>Keeps the lipids in membrane from aggregrating: Keeps the membrane intact as a bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to Bile Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as detergentsto dissolve dietary fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats can be broken better by enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precursor to steroid hormones that regulate gene expression </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to Vitamin D </li></ul>
  18. 18. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol <ul><li>Related to lipoproteins (protein + lipid complexes) </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary excess fat is packaged into VLDL </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cells (adipose cells) take these up convert to fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Some VLDL is converted to LDL </li></ul><ul><li>LDL is very rich in Cholesterol </li></ul>
  19. 19. LDL <ul><li>Too much LDL can circulate in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Build up in arteries; lead to heart attack </li></ul>
  20. 20. HDL <ul><li>Another lipoprotein that converts cholesterol into a lipoprotein that returns to the liver ; Removes cholesterol out of the bloodstream; </li></ul><ul><li>believed to prevent heart attacks </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ratio of LDL to HDL <ul><li>LDL cholesterol of less than 100 mg/dL is the optimal level. Less than 130 mg/dL is near optimal for most people. </li></ul><ul><li>A high LDL level (more than 160 mg/dL or 130 mg/dL or above if you have two or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease) reflects an increased risk of heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Low HDL cholesterol levels [less than 40 mg/dL] is thought to increase the risk for heart disease. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Steroid hormones
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Eicosanoids <ul><li>Prostaglandins: different types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some stimulate contraction of smooth muscle during menstruation and labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others produce fever and inflammation and pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thromboxanes: act in the formation of blood clot </li></ul><ul><li>Leukotrienes: induces contraction of the muscle lining the lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overproduction leads to asthma </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Eicosanoids/Leukotrienes
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