The foetal membranes

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The foetal membranes

  1. 1. The Foetal Membranes<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  2. 2. The chorion: is the outer membrane. It is in contact with the uterine wall. It is attached to the margins of the placenta.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  3. 3. Histologically, it is composed of 4 layers:<br /> * cellular layer<br /> * dense reticulum<br /> * pseudo-basement membrane<br /> * outer trophoblast.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  4. 4. The amnion: is a transparent greyish membrane which lines the chorion. It covers the foetal surface of the placenta and the umbilical cord. The amniotic sac contains the foetus swimming in the liquor amnii.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  5. 5. Histologically, it is composed of 5 layers:<br /> * cellular layer<br /> * basement membrane<br /> * compact layer<br /> * fibroblast layer<br /> * outer spongy layer adherent to the cellular layer of the chorion.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  6. 6. THE AMNIOTIC FLUID (THE LIQUOR AMNII)<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  7. 7. Nature<br />It is a clear pale, slightly alkaline (pH 7.2) fluid.<br />It is about 400 ml at mid pregnancy, reaches about 1000 ml at 36-38 weeks then decreases later on to be scanty in post-term pregnancy.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  8. 8. Composition<br /> Water (98-99%), carbohydrates (glucose and fructose), proteins (albumin and globulins), lipids, hormones (oestrogen and progesterone), enzymes (alkaline phosphatase),minerals (sodium, potassium and chloride),suspended materials as vernixcaseosa, lanugo hair, desquamated epithelial cells and meconium.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  9. 9. Circulation of amniotic Fluid<br />The amniotic fluid is not in a static state but is in a continuous turn over, 500 ml of it are replaced each hour.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  10. 10. * Foetal:<br />o Active secretion from the amniotic epithelium.<br /> o Transudation from the foetal circulation.<br /> o Foetal urine.<br />* Maternal:<br /> o Transudation from maternal circulation.<br />The foetal origin contributes more in the production of the amniotic fluid.<br />Uptake of amniotic fluid is by absorption through the amnion to the maternal circulation and by foetal swallowing.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />
  11. 11. Functions<br /> * During pregnancy:<br />1.Protects the foetus against injury.<br /> 2.A medium for free foetal movement. <br /> 3.Maintains the foetal temperature.<br /> 4.Source for nutrition of the foetus. <br /> 5. A medium for foetal excretion.<br /> * During Labour:<br /> 1.The fore-bag of water helps the dilatation of the cervix during labour.<br /> 2.It acts as an antiseptic for the birth canal after rupture of the membranes.<br />www.freelivedoctor.com<br />

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