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The Umbilical Cord www.freelivedoctor.com
Anatomy Origin: It develops from the connecting stalk. Length: At term, it measures about 50 cm. Diameter: 2 cm. www.freelivedoctor.com
Structure: It consists of mesodermal connective tissue called Wharton's jelly, covered by amnion. It contains:     * one umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the foetus,     * two umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the foetus to the placenta,     remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. www.freelivedoctor.com
Insertion: The cord is inserted in the foetal surface of the placenta near the center "eccentric insertion" (70%) or at the center "central insertion" (30%). www.freelivedoctor.com
Abnormalities of the Umbilical Cord www.freelivedoctor.com
Abnormal cord insertion     * Marginal insertion: in the placenta (battledore insertion).     * Velamentous insertion: in the membranes and vessels connect the cord to the edge of the placenta. If these vessels pass at the region of the internal os, the condition is called " vasapraevia". Vasapraevia can occur also when the vessels connecting a succenturiate lobe with the main placenta pass at the region of the internal os. www.freelivedoctor.com
Abnormal cord length www.freelivedoctor.com
Short cord which may lead to:    * intrapartumhaemorrhage due to premature separation of the placenta,       * delayed descent of the foetus during labour,    * inversion of the uterus. www.freelivedoctor.com
Long cord which may lead to:     * cord presentation and cord prolapse,     * coiling of the cord around the neck,     * true knots of the cord. www.freelivedoctor.com
Knots of the cord     * True knot: when the foetus passes through a loop of the cord. If pulled tight, foetal asphyxia may result.   * False knot: localised collection of Wharton’s jelly containing a loop of umbilical vessels. www.freelivedoctor.com
Torsion of the cord It may occur particularly in the portion near the foetus where the Wharton's jelly is less abundant. www.freelivedoctor.com
Haematoma Due to rupture of one of the umbilical vessels. www.freelivedoctor.com
Single umbilical artery It may be associated with other foetal congenital anomalies. www.freelivedoctor.com

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The umbilical cord

  • 1. The Umbilical Cord www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 2. Anatomy Origin: It develops from the connecting stalk. Length: At term, it measures about 50 cm. Diameter: 2 cm. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 3. Structure: It consists of mesodermal connective tissue called Wharton's jelly, covered by amnion. It contains: * one umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the foetus, * two umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the foetus to the placenta, remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 4. Insertion: The cord is inserted in the foetal surface of the placenta near the center "eccentric insertion" (70%) or at the center "central insertion" (30%). www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 5. Abnormalities of the Umbilical Cord www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 6. Abnormal cord insertion * Marginal insertion: in the placenta (battledore insertion). * Velamentous insertion: in the membranes and vessels connect the cord to the edge of the placenta. If these vessels pass at the region of the internal os, the condition is called " vasapraevia". Vasapraevia can occur also when the vessels connecting a succenturiate lobe with the main placenta pass at the region of the internal os. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 7. Abnormal cord length www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 8. Short cord which may lead to: * intrapartumhaemorrhage due to premature separation of the placenta, * delayed descent of the foetus during labour, * inversion of the uterus. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 9. Long cord which may lead to: * cord presentation and cord prolapse, * coiling of the cord around the neck, * true knots of the cord. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 10. Knots of the cord * True knot: when the foetus passes through a loop of the cord. If pulled tight, foetal asphyxia may result. * False knot: localised collection of Wharton’s jelly containing a loop of umbilical vessels. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 11. Torsion of the cord It may occur particularly in the portion near the foetus where the Wharton's jelly is less abundant. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 12. Haematoma Due to rupture of one of the umbilical vessels. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 13. Single umbilical artery It may be associated with other foetal congenital anomalies. www.freelivedoctor.com