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Anatomy of the Female Pelvis www.freelivedoctor.com
The female bony pelvis is divided into: a. False pelvis: above the pelvic brim and has no obstetric importance. b. True pelvis: below the pelvic brim and related to the child -birth. www.freelivedoctor.com
THE TRUE PELVIS It is composed of  >inlet, > cavity, and  >outlet. www.freelivedoctor.com
The Pelvic Inlet (Brim) Boundaries * Sacral promontory, * alae of the sacrum, *sacroiliac joints, * iliopectineal lines, * iliopectineal eminencies, * upper border of the superior pubic rami, * pubic tubercles, * pubic crests and * upper border of symphysis pubis. www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters Antero -posterior diameters a. Anatomical antero-posterior diameter (true conjugate) = 11cm(from the tip of the sacral promontory to the upper border of the symphysis pubis.) b. Obstetric conjugate = 10.5 cm(from the tip of the sacral promontory to the most bulging point on the back of symphysis pubis which is about 1 cm below its upper border. It is the shortest antero-posterior diameter.) www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters Antero -posterior diameters c.Diagonal conjugate = 12.5 cm(i.e. 1.5 cm longer than the true conjugate. From the tip of sacral promontory to the lower border of symphysis pubis) d. External conjugate = 20 cm(from the depression below the last lumbar spine to the upper anterior margin of the symphysis pubis measured from outside by the pelvimeter . It has not a true obstetric importance.) www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters Transverse diameters a. Anatomical transverse diameter =13cm >  between the farthest two points on the iliopectineal lines.  >  It lies 4 cm anterior to the promontory and 7 cm behind the symphysis. >  It is the largest diameter in the pelvis. www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters Transverse diameters b.Obstetric transverse diameter:  It bisects the true conjugate and is slightly shorter than the anatomical transverse diameter. www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters Oblique diameters Right oblique diameter =12 cm  from the right sacroiliac joint to the left iliopectineal eminence. www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters Oblique diameters Left oblique diameter = 12 cm from the left sacroiliac joint to the right iliopectineal eminence. www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters Oblique diameters Sacro-cotyloid diameters = 9-9.5 cm:    from the promontory of the sacrum to the right and left iliopectineal eminence, so the right diameter ends at the right eminence and vice versa. www.freelivedoctor.com
The Pelvic Cavity It is a segment, the boundaries of which are:  * the roof is the plane of pelvic brim,  *  the floor is the plane of least pelvic dimension, *  anteriorly the shorter symphysis pubis, *  posteriorly the longer sacrum. www.freelivedoctor.com
The Pelvic Outlet Anatomical outlet It is lozenge-shaped bounded by; *  the lower border of symphysis pubis,    *  pubic arch, *  ischialtuberosities, *sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments and,       *  tip of the coccyx. www.freelivedoctor.com
The Pelvic Outlet Obstetric outlet It is a segment, the boundaries of which are: *  the roof is the plane of least pelvic dimension, *  the floor is the anatomical outlet, *  anteriorly the lower border of symphysis pubis, *  posteriorly the coccyx. *  laterally the ischial spines. www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters of pelvic outlet Antero - posterior diameters:  Anatomical antero-posterior diameter=11cm     from the tip of the coccyx to the lower border of symphysis pubis Obstetric antero-posterior diameter = 13 cm    from the tip of the sacrum to the lower border of symphysis pubis as the coccyx moves backwards during the second stage of labour www.freelivedoctor.com
Diameters of pelvic outlet Transverse diameters: Bituberous diameter = 11 cm(between the inner aspects of the ischialtuberosities.) Bispinous diameter = 10.5 cm     ( between the tips of ischial spines) www.freelivedoctor.com
Pelvic Planes These are imaginary planes lie as follow: Plane of pelvic inlet:passing with the boundaries of pelvic brim and making an angle of 55o with the horizon (angle of pelvic inclination). Plane of mid cavity (plane of greatest pelvic dimensions) www.freelivedoctor.com
Pelvic Planes Plane of mid cavity (plane of greatest pelvic dimensions) >pass between the middle of the posterior surface of the symphysis pubis and the junction between 2nd and 3rd sacral vertebrae. Laterally, it passes to the centre of the acetabulum and the upper part of the greater sciatic notch. > It is a round plane with diameter of 12.5 cm. >Internal rotation of the head occurs when the biparietal diameter occupies this wide pelvic plane while the occiput is on the pelvic floor i.e. at the plane of the least pelvic dimensions. www.freelivedoctor.com
Pelvic Planes Plane of obstetric outlet (plane of least pelvic dimensions)     passes from the lower border of the symphysis pubis anteriorly, to the ischial spines laterally, to the tip of the sacrum posteriorly. www.freelivedoctor.com
Pelvic Planes Plane of anatomical outlet     passes with the boundaries of anatomical outlet and consists of 2 triangular planes with one base which is the bituberous diameter. www.freelivedoctor.com
Pelvic Planes * Anterior sagittal plane: its apex at the lower border of the symphysis pubis. *  Posterior sagittal plane: its apex at the tip of the coccyx. *Anterior sagittal diameter: 6-7 cm: from the lower border of the symphysis pubis to the centre of the bituberous diameter. * Posterior sagittal diameter: 7.5-10 cm: from the tip of the sacrum to the centre of the bituberous diameter. www.freelivedoctor.com
Pelvic Axes Anatomical axis (curve of Carus) * It is an imaginary line joining the centre points of the planes of the inlet, cavity and outlet. *  It is C shaped with the concavity directed forwards. *  It has no obstetric importance. www.freelivedoctor.com
Pelvic Axes Obstetric axis *  It is an imaginary line represents the way passed by the head during labour. *  It is J shaped passes downwards and backwards along the axis of the inlet till the ischial spines where it passes downwards and forwards along the axis of the pelvic outlet. www.freelivedoctor.com
Caldwell- Moloy Classification of Pelvic Types Gynaecoid pelvis(50%) Anthropoid pelvis (25%) Android pelvis (20%) Platypelloid pelvis (5%) www.freelivedoctor.com
Gynaecoid pelvis > It is the normal female type. > Inlet is slightly transverse oval. > Sacrum is wide with average concavity and     inclination. >Side walls are straight with blunt ischial spines. > Sacro-sciatic notch is wide. >Subpubic angle is 90-100o. www.freelivedoctor.com
Anthropoid pelvis (25%): >It is ape-like type. >All anteroposterior diameters are long. >All transverse diameters are short. >Sacrum is long and narrow. >Sacro-sciatic notch is wide. >Subpubic angle is narrow. www.freelivedoctor.com
Android pelvis (20%) > It is a male type. > Inlet is triangular or heart-shaped with anterior  narrow apex. >Side walls are converging (funnel pelvis) with    projecting ischial spines. >Sacro-sciatic notch is narrow. >Subpubic angle is narrow <90o. www.freelivedoctor.com
Platypelloid pelvis (5%) >It is a flat female type. >All anteroposterior diameters are short. >All transverse diameters are long. > Sacro-sciatic notch is narrow. >Subpubic angle is wide. www.freelivedoctor.com
N.B. At the Level of Ischial Spines: > The plane of obstetric outlet (plane of the least pelvic dimensions) is at this level. > The levatorani muscles are situated at this level and its ischio-coccygeous part is attached to the ischial spines. >The obstetric axis of the pelvis changes its direction. > The head is considered engaged when the vault is felt vaginally at or below this level. www.freelivedoctor.com
N.B. At the Level of Ischial Spines: > Forceps is applied only when the head at this level (mid forceps) or below it (low and outlet forceps). >Pudendal nerve block is carried out at this level. > The external os of the cervix is located normally. > The vaginal vault is located nearly. >The ring pessary should be applied above this level for treatment of prolapse. www.freelivedoctor.com

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Anatomy of the female pelvis

  • 1. Anatomy of the Female Pelvis www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 2. The female bony pelvis is divided into: a. False pelvis: above the pelvic brim and has no obstetric importance. b. True pelvis: below the pelvic brim and related to the child -birth. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 3. THE TRUE PELVIS It is composed of >inlet, > cavity, and >outlet. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 4. The Pelvic Inlet (Brim) Boundaries * Sacral promontory, * alae of the sacrum, *sacroiliac joints, * iliopectineal lines, * iliopectineal eminencies, * upper border of the superior pubic rami, * pubic tubercles, * pubic crests and * upper border of symphysis pubis. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 5. Diameters Antero -posterior diameters a. Anatomical antero-posterior diameter (true conjugate) = 11cm(from the tip of the sacral promontory to the upper border of the symphysis pubis.) b. Obstetric conjugate = 10.5 cm(from the tip of the sacral promontory to the most bulging point on the back of symphysis pubis which is about 1 cm below its upper border. It is the shortest antero-posterior diameter.) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 6. Diameters Antero -posterior diameters c.Diagonal conjugate = 12.5 cm(i.e. 1.5 cm longer than the true conjugate. From the tip of sacral promontory to the lower border of symphysis pubis) d. External conjugate = 20 cm(from the depression below the last lumbar spine to the upper anterior margin of the symphysis pubis measured from outside by the pelvimeter . It has not a true obstetric importance.) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 7. Diameters Transverse diameters a. Anatomical transverse diameter =13cm > between the farthest two points on the iliopectineal lines. > It lies 4 cm anterior to the promontory and 7 cm behind the symphysis. > It is the largest diameter in the pelvis. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 8. Diameters Transverse diameters b.Obstetric transverse diameter: It bisects the true conjugate and is slightly shorter than the anatomical transverse diameter. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 9. Diameters Oblique diameters Right oblique diameter =12 cm from the right sacroiliac joint to the left iliopectineal eminence. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 10. Diameters Oblique diameters Left oblique diameter = 12 cm from the left sacroiliac joint to the right iliopectineal eminence. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 11. Diameters Oblique diameters Sacro-cotyloid diameters = 9-9.5 cm: from the promontory of the sacrum to the right and left iliopectineal eminence, so the right diameter ends at the right eminence and vice versa. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 12. The Pelvic Cavity It is a segment, the boundaries of which are: * the roof is the plane of pelvic brim, * the floor is the plane of least pelvic dimension, * anteriorly the shorter symphysis pubis, * posteriorly the longer sacrum. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 13. The Pelvic Outlet Anatomical outlet It is lozenge-shaped bounded by; * the lower border of symphysis pubis, * pubic arch, * ischialtuberosities, *sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments and, * tip of the coccyx. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 14. The Pelvic Outlet Obstetric outlet It is a segment, the boundaries of which are: * the roof is the plane of least pelvic dimension, * the floor is the anatomical outlet, * anteriorly the lower border of symphysis pubis, * posteriorly the coccyx. * laterally the ischial spines. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 15. Diameters of pelvic outlet Antero - posterior diameters: Anatomical antero-posterior diameter=11cm from the tip of the coccyx to the lower border of symphysis pubis Obstetric antero-posterior diameter = 13 cm from the tip of the sacrum to the lower border of symphysis pubis as the coccyx moves backwards during the second stage of labour www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 16. Diameters of pelvic outlet Transverse diameters: Bituberous diameter = 11 cm(between the inner aspects of the ischialtuberosities.) Bispinous diameter = 10.5 cm ( between the tips of ischial spines) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 17. Pelvic Planes These are imaginary planes lie as follow: Plane of pelvic inlet:passing with the boundaries of pelvic brim and making an angle of 55o with the horizon (angle of pelvic inclination). Plane of mid cavity (plane of greatest pelvic dimensions) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 18. Pelvic Planes Plane of mid cavity (plane of greatest pelvic dimensions) >pass between the middle of the posterior surface of the symphysis pubis and the junction between 2nd and 3rd sacral vertebrae. Laterally, it passes to the centre of the acetabulum and the upper part of the greater sciatic notch. > It is a round plane with diameter of 12.5 cm. >Internal rotation of the head occurs when the biparietal diameter occupies this wide pelvic plane while the occiput is on the pelvic floor i.e. at the plane of the least pelvic dimensions. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 19. Pelvic Planes Plane of obstetric outlet (plane of least pelvic dimensions) passes from the lower border of the symphysis pubis anteriorly, to the ischial spines laterally, to the tip of the sacrum posteriorly. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 20. Pelvic Planes Plane of anatomical outlet passes with the boundaries of anatomical outlet and consists of 2 triangular planes with one base which is the bituberous diameter. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 21. Pelvic Planes * Anterior sagittal plane: its apex at the lower border of the symphysis pubis. * Posterior sagittal plane: its apex at the tip of the coccyx. *Anterior sagittal diameter: 6-7 cm: from the lower border of the symphysis pubis to the centre of the bituberous diameter. * Posterior sagittal diameter: 7.5-10 cm: from the tip of the sacrum to the centre of the bituberous diameter. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 22. Pelvic Axes Anatomical axis (curve of Carus) * It is an imaginary line joining the centre points of the planes of the inlet, cavity and outlet. * It is C shaped with the concavity directed forwards. * It has no obstetric importance. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 23. Pelvic Axes Obstetric axis * It is an imaginary line represents the way passed by the head during labour. * It is J shaped passes downwards and backwards along the axis of the inlet till the ischial spines where it passes downwards and forwards along the axis of the pelvic outlet. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 24. Caldwell- Moloy Classification of Pelvic Types Gynaecoid pelvis(50%) Anthropoid pelvis (25%) Android pelvis (20%) Platypelloid pelvis (5%) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 25. Gynaecoid pelvis > It is the normal female type. > Inlet is slightly transverse oval. > Sacrum is wide with average concavity and inclination. >Side walls are straight with blunt ischial spines. > Sacro-sciatic notch is wide. >Subpubic angle is 90-100o. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 26. Anthropoid pelvis (25%): >It is ape-like type. >All anteroposterior diameters are long. >All transverse diameters are short. >Sacrum is long and narrow. >Sacro-sciatic notch is wide. >Subpubic angle is narrow. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 27. Android pelvis (20%) > It is a male type. > Inlet is triangular or heart-shaped with anterior narrow apex. >Side walls are converging (funnel pelvis) with projecting ischial spines. >Sacro-sciatic notch is narrow. >Subpubic angle is narrow <90o. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 28. Platypelloid pelvis (5%) >It is a flat female type. >All anteroposterior diameters are short. >All transverse diameters are long. > Sacro-sciatic notch is narrow. >Subpubic angle is wide. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 29. N.B. At the Level of Ischial Spines: > The plane of obstetric outlet (plane of the least pelvic dimensions) is at this level. > The levatorani muscles are situated at this level and its ischio-coccygeous part is attached to the ischial spines. >The obstetric axis of the pelvis changes its direction. > The head is considered engaged when the vault is felt vaginally at or below this level. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 30. N.B. At the Level of Ischial Spines: > Forceps is applied only when the head at this level (mid forceps) or below it (low and outlet forceps). >Pudendal nerve block is carried out at this level. > The external os of the cervix is located normally. > The vaginal vault is located nearly. >The ring pessary should be applied above this level for treatment of prolapse. www.freelivedoctor.com