lipids by Dr. Rob


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In biochemistry, lipids are molecular organic compounds, composed largely of carbon and hydrogen, that are essential for cell growth. Lipids are non-soluble in water and combine with carbohydrates and proteins to form the majority of all plant and animal cells. They are more commonly synonymous with the word "fats" when speaking in terms of personal health. Although all fats are lipids, not all lipids are fats.

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lipids by Dr. Rob

  1. 1. Lipids By “DrRobisAwesome”
  2. 2. Activity Objective • Activity Objective. Students will make visual observations of fat and then extract and examine the invisible fat from chocolate, potato chips, and sunflower seeds.
  3. 3. Activity Objective
  4. 4. Plant lecithins of vegetable oils • Plant lecithins are a by-product in the refining of vegetable oils. During the usual batch degumming process the crude oil is heated to about 70 °C, mixed with 2% water and subjected to thorough stirring for about half an hour to an hour. This addition of water to the oil hydrates the polar lipids in the oil, making them insoluble. The resulting lecithin sludge is then separated by centrifugation.
  5. 5. The crude plant lecithin • This sludge is made up of water, phospholipids and glycolipids, some triglycerides, carbohydrates, traces of sterols, free fatty acids and carotenoids. The crude plant lecithin is obtained by careful drying.
  6. 6. Can also use acetone Lipid-solvent extraction
  7. 7. Sunflower seeds
  8. 8. Also steriods- and signaling • The steroids, all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and signaling molecules (the estrogen family, • the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone, the • progestogens and the vitamin D
  9. 9. naturally occurring molecules • Lipids constitute a broad group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, • sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), • monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, • phospholipids, and others.
  10. 10. • The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.
  11. 11. C, H and O • They are compounds of C, H and O. Occasionally also N and P.
  12. 12. Popular lipids
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION • FATTY ACIDS • In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28. Fatty
  14. 14. • Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. When they are not attached to other molecules, they are known as “free” fatty acids. Fatty acids are important sources of fuel because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose.
  15. 15. • In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids. The brain cannot use fatty acids as a source of fuel; it relies on glucose or ketone bodies.
  16. 16. TRIGLYCERIDES • TRIGLYCERIDES • A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.
  18. 18. esterification of triglycerides with ethanol
  20. 20. vegetable oil • Triglycerides are the main constituents of vegetable oil (typically more unsaturated (with double links inside the structure of the fatty acids) and animal fats (typically more saturated (without double links).
  21. 21. Steric acid and oleic acid
  22. 22. storing unused calories • In humans, triglycerides are a mechanism for storing unused calories, and their high concentration in blood correlates with the consumption of starchy and other high carbohydrate foods. Triglycerides are a major component of human skin oils.
  23. 23. human skin oils
  24. 24. PHOSPHOLIPIDS • PHOSPHOLIPIDS • Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers. The structure of the phospholipid molecule generally consists of hydrophobic tails and a hydrophilic head. It is usually found with cholesterol molecules which are found in-between the spaces of the phospholipid.
  25. 25. PHOSPHOLIPIDS • PHOSPHOLIPIDS cholesterol molecules • It is usually found with cholesterol molecules which are found in-between the spaces of the phospholipid.
  26. 26. PHOSPHOLIPIDS and cholesterol molecules
  27. 27. STEROL LIPIDS • STEROL LIPIDS • Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids, along with the phospholipids and sphingomyelins.
  28. 28. phospholipids and sphingomyelins
  29. 29. Cholesterol • Cholesterol is the most abundant steroid, and it is the precursor for all the other important steroids of mammalian metabolism. It is amphipathic.
  30. 30. Steroid backbone
  31. 31. The steroids • The steroids, all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and signaling molecules (the estrogen family, the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone, the progest ogens and the vitamin D
  32. 32. Steroid backbone
  33. 33. nervous system • - Lipids make up 70% of the dry weight of the nervous system. They are crucial to healthy functioning of nerve cells. • - Lipids are important to basic biological functions such as energy storage, membrane structure, myelin, and signaling molecules.
  34. 34. What is a sphingolipid? • 1. Sphingolipids – accumulation of abnormal sphingolipids is observed in HSAN1 (see here for more on our HSAN1 research) patients due to mutations to in SPTLC1, a gene responsible for synthesis. • Serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1, also known as SPTLC1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SPTLC1 gene.[1][2]
  35. 35. What is a sphingolipid? • - A class of lipids that are highly enriched in neural tissue. • - Sphingolipids are important in cell signaling, lipid rafts, myelin and cell membranes.
  36. 36. typical structure of a sphingolipid
  37. 37. typical structure of a sphingolipid • Below is the typical structure of a sphingolipid. Changing the R group will result in different sphingolipids.
  38. 38. the bile acids and their conjugates
  39. 39. Help digest
  40. 40. oxidized derivatives of cholesterol • Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates, which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and are synthesized in the liver.
  41. 41. Better view
  42. 42. plant equivalents • The plant equivalents are the phytosterols, such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and brassicasterol; the latter compound is also used as a biomarker for algal growth. The predominant sterol in fungal cell membranes is ergosterol.
  43. 43. Linum usitatissimum
  44. 44. Membrane lipids
  45. 45. Membrane lipids