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Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation It all reduces down to water. www.freelivedoctor.com
Mitochondria <ul><li>outer membrane relatively permeable </li></ul><ul><li>inner membrane permeable only to those things w...
Most energy from Redox <ul><li>electrons during metabolic reactions sent to NAD and FAD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis <...
Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Groups of redox proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On inner mitochondrial membrane </li></ul>...
4 Complexes <ul><li>proteins in specific order </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers 2 electrons in specific order </li></ul><ul><ul...
Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
Complex 1 <ul><li>Has NADH binding site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH reductase activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADH ...
Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
Complex II <ul><li>succinate ---FAD—ubiquinone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains coenzyme Q </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FADH 2...
Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
Complex III <ul><li>ubiquinone -   ubiquinone  ox   </li></ul><ul><li>while cyt C gets reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Also con...
Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
Complex IV <ul><li>reduction of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>cytochrome oxidase </li></ul><ul><li>cyt a+a3  red  ---> oxidized...
Totals <ul><li>Proton gradient created as electrons transferred to oxygen forming water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 H +  / NA...
Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
Generation of ATP <ul><li>Proton dependant ATP synthetase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses proton gradient to make ATP </li></ul...
Totals <ul><li>NADH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 H +  X  1 ATP   =  2.5 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  4 H + </li></ul></ul>...
Total ATP from mitochondrial matrix  <ul><li>Pyruvate dehydrogenase  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH ……………………………….2.5 ATP </li>...
What about NADH from glycolysis? <ul><li>NADH made in cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t get into matrix of mitochondrion </l...
Glycerol Phosphate shuttle www.freelivedoctor.com
Glycerol phosphate shuttle <ul><li>In muscle and brain </li></ul><ul><li>Each NADH converted to FADH 2  inside mitochondri...
Total ATP per glucose in muscle and brain  <ul><li>Gycerol phosphate shuttle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH per glucose -  ...
Malate – Aspartate Shuttle www.freelivedoctor.com
Malate – Aspartate Shuttle in cytosol <ul><li>In liver and heart </li></ul><ul><li>NADH oxidized while reducing oxaloaceta...
Malate – Aspartate Shuttle in matrix <ul><li>Malate reoxidized to oxaloacetate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malate dehydrogenase ...
Total ATP per glucose in liver and heart  <ul><li>Malate – Aspartate Shuttle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH per glucose -  ...
Summary <ul><li>Total ATP / glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle and brain 30.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses gl...
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Cell Metabolism Part 1

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Transcript of "Cell Metabolism Part 1"

  1. 1. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation It all reduces down to water. www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. Mitochondria <ul><li>outer membrane relatively permeable </li></ul><ul><li>inner membrane permeable only to those things with specific transporters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impermeable to NADH and FADH 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permeable to pyruvate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compartmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kreb's and β-oxidation in matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis in cytosol </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. Most energy from Redox <ul><li>electrons during metabolic reactions sent to NAD and FAD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In cytosol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produces 2 NADH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In mitochondrial matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH / glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Krebs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In mitochondrial matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 NADH and 2 FADH 2 / glucose </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Groups of redox proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On inner mitochondrial membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding sites for NADH and FADH 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On matrix side of membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons transferred to redox proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADH reoxidized to NAD + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FADH 2 reoxidized to FAD </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. 4 Complexes <ul><li>proteins in specific order </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers 2 electrons in specific order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins localized in complexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded in membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of electron transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons ultimately reduce oxygen to water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 H + + 2 e - + ½ O 2 --  H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. Complex 1 <ul><li>Has NADH binding site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH reductase activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADH -  NAD + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH ---> FMN--->FeS---> ubiquinone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ubiquinone ---> ubiquinone H 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 H + pumped/NADH </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. Complex II <ul><li>succinate ---FAD—ubiquinone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains coenzyme Q </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FADH 2 binding site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAD reductase activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FADH 2 --  FAD </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. Complex III <ul><li>ubiquinone -  ubiquinone ox </li></ul><ul><li>while cyt C gets reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Also contains cytochromes b </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proton pump 4H + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds to gradient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 H + / NADH </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 H + / FADH 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. Complex IV <ul><li>reduction of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>cytochrome oxidase </li></ul><ul><li>cyt a+a3 red ---> oxidized state </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen ---> water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 H + + 2 e - + ½ O 2 --  2 H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transfers e - one at a time to oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pumps 2H + out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total of 10 H + / NADH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total of 6 H + / FADH 2 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. Totals <ul><li>Proton gradient created as electrons transferred to oxygen forming water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 H + / NADH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 H + / FADH 2 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. Electron Transport Chain www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. Generation of ATP <ul><li>Proton dependant ATP synthetase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses proton gradient to make ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons pumped through channel on enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From intermembrane space into matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~4 H + / ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called chemiosmotic theory </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. Totals <ul><li>NADH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 H + X 1 ATP = 2.5 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 4 H + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FADH 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 H + X 1 ATP = 1.5 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 4 H + </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. Total ATP from mitochondrial matrix <ul><li>Pyruvate dehydrogenase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH ……………………………….2.5 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Krebs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 NADH X 2.5 ATP/NADH ……….7.5 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FADH 2 X 1.5 ATP / FADH 2 ……….1.5 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GTP X 1 ATP / GTP …………….. 1.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(from a separate reaction) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total …………….12.5 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Per glucose = X 2 = 25 ATP) </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. What about NADH from glycolysis? <ul><li>NADH made in cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t get into matrix of mitochondrion </li></ul><ul><li>2 mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In muscle and brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol phosphate shuttle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In liver and heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malate / aspartate shuttle </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. Glycerol Phosphate shuttle www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. Glycerol phosphate shuttle <ul><li>In muscle and brain </li></ul><ul><li>Each NADH converted to FADH 2 inside mitochondrion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FADH 2 enters later in the electron transport chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces 1.5 ATP </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. Total ATP per glucose in muscle and brain <ul><li>Gycerol phosphate shuttle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH per glucose -  2 FADH 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 FADH 2 X 1.5 ATP / FADH 2 ……….3.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATP in glycoysis ……………………2.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From pyruvate and Krebs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12.5 ATP X 2 per glucose …………….. 25.0 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total = 30.0 ATP/ glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. Malate – Aspartate Shuttle www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. Malate – Aspartate Shuttle in cytosol <ul><li>In liver and heart </li></ul><ul><li>NADH oxidized while reducing oxaloacetate to malate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malated dehydrogenase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malate crosses membrane </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. Malate – Aspartate Shuttle in matrix <ul><li>Malate reoxidized to oxaloacetate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malate dehydrogenase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAD + reduced to NADH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NADH via electron transport yields 2.5 ATP </li></ul>Mlate – Aspartate Shuttle in cytosol www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. Total ATP per glucose in liver and heart <ul><li>Malate – Aspartate Shuttle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH per glucose -  2 NADH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH X 2.5 ATP / NADH…………5.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATP from glycolysis………………..2.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From pyruvate and Krebs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12.5 ATP X 2 per glucose …………….. 25.0 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total = 32.0 ATP/ glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. Summary <ul><li>Total ATP / glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle and brain 30.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses glycerol phosphate shuttle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart and liver 32.0 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses malate aspartate shuttle </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
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