William Perry – head of counseling, Harvard, 1950s• Discovered 9 “positions” from which students viewed knowledge & learning• Has been replicated & adjusted (and criticized)
Dualism:There only right & wrong answersTeacher’s job is to teach them right answers, and the student’s job is to recall them from memoryMultiplicity:Everyone is entitled to their own opinionThere are right ways and wrong ways to find answers; it’s the student’s job is to support opinionsContextual Relativism:Answers are relative to a background context;Most study different contexts, see things from different perspectives and come to a reasoned decision about answers.
Students’ Assumptions about Teachers• Basic Dualism:– This teacher knows the answers to my questions.• Full Dualism:– Good teachers know the answers; bad ones don’t. This particular teachermay or may not be that knowledgeable.
• Early Multiplism:– Discipline X may or may not be advanced enough to answer my questions.I’m going to this teacher to find out if X knows enough. S/he will tell methe answers, or give me the procedure (ritual) to work it out on my own.• Late Multiplism:– There are no answers to my questions; what I think is as valid as what theteacher thinks.
• Contextual Relativism:– There are a number of answers to my question, depending on how you lookat it; maybe this teacher can help me see the alternatives more clearly.• Pre-Commitment:– There are a number of answers to my question, depending on how I look atit; maybe this teacher can help me decide what I should believ
This theory is based on in-depth interviews with 135 women about their self image, moral dilemmas, relationships of importance, education and learning, visions for the future, and perceived catalysts for change (Belenky et al., 1986). Based on the interviews, some common themes among the women emerged and became the five epistemologies of Women’s Ways of Knowing
The theory consists of five groups, advancing from the most basic form of thought and intellect to the most complex. The first epistemology is “women of silence.” These women lack a voice of their own, conduct very little or no internal dialogue, and typically grew up disconnected from the community. The next epistemology is “women of received knowledge.” These women are completely dependent on others for knowledge (Belenky et al., 1986).
The third group, “subjective knowers,” believes truth is in personal experience (Evans, 2010). Many of these women have experienced sexual abuse (Belenky et al., 1986). “Procedural knowers” are at the next level of knowing and these women believe each of us looks at the world through a different lens. They rely on a combination of intuition and external authorities for answers.
The last of the epistemologies, “constructed knowledge,” integrates intuitive knowledge with learned knowledge from others. These women have developed a personal narrative, do not loose voice while listening to others, and use themselves to rise to new ways of thinking (Belenky et al., 1986).
One criticism of Kohlberg's theory is that it emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other values. As a consequence of this, it may not adequately address the arguments of people who value other moral aspects of actions (Evans et al, 1998 )
Stage 1The concern is for self – “Will I get into trouble for doing (or not doing) it?”. Good behavior is associated with avoiding punishmentStage 2The concern is “What’s in it for me?”. Still egocentric in outlook but with a growing ability to see things from another person’s perspective. Action is judged right if it helps in satisfying one’s needs or involves a fair exchange
Stage 3The concern is “What will people think of me?” and the desire is for group approval. Right action is one that would please or impress others. This often involves self-sacrifice but it provides the psychological pleasure of ‘approval of others’. Actions are also judged in relation to their intentionStage 4The concern now goes beyond one’s immediate group(s) to the larger society … to the maintenance of law and order. One’s obligation to the law overrides one’s obligations of loyalty to one’s family, friends and groups. To put it simply, no one or group is above the law
Stage 5The concern is social utility or public interest. While rules are needed to maintain social order, they should not be blindly obeyed but should be set up (even changed) by social contract for the greater good of society. Right action is one that protects the rights of the individual according to rules agreed upon by the whole society.Stage 6The concern is for moral principles … an action is judged right if it is consistent with self-chosen ethical principles. These principles are not concrete moral rules but are universal principles of justice, reciprocity, equality, and human dignity.
Another way to look at these differences is to view these two moralities as providing two distinct injunctions - the injunction not to treat others unfairly (justice) and the injunction not to turn away from someone in need (care). She presents these moralities as distinct, although potentially connected.1995: About the fact that boys are placed in stereotypical views just as males are. Leads to more criticism against Gilligan and how she researches on young children and interprets as super in depth. She has authored and coauthored numerous books and publications. Considered her principal publications in addition to In a Different Voice are: Women, Girls, and Psychotherapy: Reframing Resistance (1991), Meeting at the Crossroads (1992), Between Voice and Silence: Women and Girls, Race and Relationship (1995), The Birth of Pleasure 2002
Almost identical to Kohlberg’s theory but lacks the ages and mainly applies to females. Also Gilligan’s theory aims towards interactions among people rather than independence from people.Female children start out with a selfish orientation. They then learn to care for others, and that selfishness is wrong. So in their second, conventional, stage, women typically feel it is wrong to act in their own interests, and that they should value instead the interests of others. They equate concern for themselves with selfishness. In the third, post-conventional stage, they learn that it is just as wrong to ignore their own interests as it is to ignore the interests of others. One way to this understanding comes through their concern with connecting with others. A connection, or relation, involves two people, and if either one is slighted, it harms the relationship
Student Development Theory
February 1, 2012 Student Development Theory Richard Dettling1 University of Phoenix
2 February 1, 2012Workshop Goals Familiarize staff and faculty on student development theory Acquaint participants on The importance The history, and Utility of various theories
3 February 1, 2012Student Development Theory Student development is about becoming a more complex individual (Gardner, 2009). Student development is characterized as the way a student grows, progresses, or increases his or her developmental capabilities as a result of enrollment in an institution of higher education Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)
4 February 1, 2012 William Perry Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development Belenky,Clinchy, Goldberger, & Tarule‘s Women‘s Ways of Knowing Lawrence Kohlberg Agenda Theory of Moral Development Student Development Theory Carol Gilligan Theory of Women‘s Moral Development University of Phoenix
5 February 1, 2012Perry‘s Theory of Intellectualand Ethical Development
6 February 1, 2012Perry‘s Theory of Intellectualand Ethical DevelopmentWilliam Perry‘s scheme ofintellectual development.This scheme identifies asequence of approachesto learning.The Perry ―positions‖ thatwe will discuss include:• Dualism• Multiplicity• Contextual Relativism William Graves Perry Jr. (1913 – 1998) University of Phoenix
7 February 1, 2012Three broad categories Dualism: There only right & wrong answers Teacher‘s job is to teach them right answers, and the student‘s job is to recall them from memory Multiplicity: Everyone is entitled to their own opinion There are right ways and wrong ways to find answers; it‘s the student‘s job is to support opinions Contextual Relativism: Answers are relative to a background context; Most study different contexts, see things from different perspectives and come to a reasoned decision about answers. (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)
8 February 1, 2012Dualism/Received Knowledge All knowledge is received from a legitimate authority: Teacher, Parent, Pastor Duality The authority has the answer. There is a right answer to question Teacher knows right and wrong answer. Students learn the right answer from authority/teacher Students are the receiver of knowledge and must demonstrate recollection of knowledge (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Chickering, Dalton, & Stamm, 2006)
9 February 1, 2012Dualism/Received Knowledge (Rapaport, 2011)
10 February 1, 2012Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge Diversity of opinions and values is recognized as legitimate in areas where right answers are not yet known. There are multiple conflicting answers. Multiplicity Teacher/Authority does not have the answer, but someone is working on finding the answer Student begin to trust self and explore finding the right answer. Where the teacher/authority doesn‘t have the answer, everyone has the right to their own opinion. No wrong answer. Teacher/Authority does not want the right answer. Wants the student to think a certain way. Students B.S. Most Freshman are around this stage (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
11 February 1, 2012Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge (Rapaport, 2011)
13 February 1, 2012Relativism/Procedural Knowledge Diversity of opinion, values and judgment derived from coherent sources, evidences, logics, systems, and patterns allowing for analysis and comparison. Relativism All proposed solutions must be supported by reasons they must be viewed in context and relative to their support Everything is relative but not equally valid There are no right or wrong answers, it depends on the situation, but some answers might be better than others. All answers must be support and put into context. Peers are legitimate sources of learning if they follow rules of adequacy. (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
14 February 1, 2012Relativism/Procedural Knowledge (Rapaport, 2011)
15 February 1, 2012Students Make Their Own Meaning When A teacher says: “Today we’ll learn 4 different ways to gain a competitive advantage in business.”A student thinks: Dualist – Which is the correct one? – Why bother with the wrong ones? Multiplist - Only 4? Gee, I can think of a dozen! Relativist – What ethics underlie each of them? – Which is the most efficient competitive advantage ? (Rapaport, 2011)
16 February 1, 2012―It is not knowledge, but the act of learning, notpossession but the act of getting there, whichgrants the greatest enjoyment.‖ Karl Friedrich Gauss, Letter to Bolyai―The search for truth is more precious than its possession.‖ Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions (Furman University, 2012; Goodreads, 2012)
18 February 1, 2012Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, &Tarule‘s Women‘s Ways of Knowing The Women’s Ways of Knowing theory has been used as a means to improve curriculum design, instruction, and techniques in educating women at the college level. Womens Ways of Knowing offers new and useful understandings of the epistemology (methods and basis) of the development of womens knowledge. (Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986)
19 February 1, 2012The Development ofSelf, Voice, and Mind Despitethe progress of the women‘s movement, many women still feel silenced in their families and schools. Women did not fit into traditional development theory Previousdevelopment research was done predominately on white men of privilege Excluding women from the research (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
20 February 1, 2012The Development ofSelf, Voice, and Mind Research in the late 1970s Why women doubt their intellectual competence and speak so frequently of problems For many women, formal education was not central to their development Instead, they noted that the most valuable lessons were derived from relationships, crises, and community involvements. (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
21 February 1, 2012Five Epistemological Perspectives 1. Silence 2. Received Knowledge 3. Subjective Knowledge 4. Procedural Knowledge 5. Constructed Knowledge (Belenky et al, 1986; Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
22 February 1, 2012Five Epistemological Perspectives1. Silence Characterized by low self esteem, mindless, voiceless, and obedient All authority over knowledge exists outside one‘s self Disconnection between the known and the knower Only broken by validation of the individual2. Received Knowledge Knowledge is dualistic, either right or wrong, black or white Listening to others, and truth resides in others, not in the self There is only one correct answer to each question The recipient, not the creator of knowledge (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
23 February 1, 2012Five Epistemological Perspectives1. Subjective Knowledge One‘s own inner knowledge is considered superior to the knowledge of others The power of knowing is internal Analyzing the past to understand the future A new voice, barely a whisper, begins to speak2. Procedural Knowledge Ability to objectively express and receive knowledge (two kinds) Separate knowledge is analytical and reasonable, critical thinking Connected knowing is based on intuition and ‗gut feeling‘ Begins integrating separate and connected knowing into a single voice (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
24 February 1, 2012Five Epistemological Perspectives5. Constructed Knowledge Integration of subjective and objective knowledge Both feeling and thought present in ways of knowing All knowledge is constructed, one becomes part of their own knowledge Believe in another‘s beliefs, while not adopting them Hear another‘s voice without losing their own voice Making a space for one‘s self where her voice will always be heard (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
25 February 1, 2012Five EpistemologicalPerspectives Theory Basis Builton William Perry’s Theory of Intellectual Development Also Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development And Gilligan’s Theory of Women‘s Moral Development (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
26 February 1, 2012Major Findings Women think differently than men Women need to know that they are already smart in order to learn Women acquire knowledge more readily through experience than instruction Validation of self by a women‘s community fuels further development and fosters learning Women feel their way into learning and make sense of their world from the inside out
27 February 1, 2012Theory to Practice Teach the teachers Understand students‘ development level Let them try their wings Support the journey of self discovery Engage the students in the process of their own education Facilitate ‗active‘ learning environments
28 February 1, 2012Kohlberg‘s Theory ofMoral Development
29 February 1, 2012Kohlberg‘s Theory of MoralDevelopment Kohlbergs Moral Ladder• Post conventional• Conventional• Pre-conventional(Ideally people shouldprogress through the 3stages as part of normaldevelopment) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) University of Phoenix
30 February 1, 2012Moral Development Moral development involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standard of right and wrong Moral development consists of intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions The transformations that occur in a person‘s form or structure of thought with regard to what is viewed as right or necessary (Evans et al, 1998 )
31 February 1, 2012 Levels of Moral Development Level 1: Pre-conventional Morality Stage 1 Stage 2 Punishment-Obedience Instrumental Relativist Orientation Individual Orientation Individual obeys rules in order to conforms to society‘s avoid punishment rules in order to receive rewards. (Evans et al, 1998 ;Jorgensen, 2006, June)
32 February 1, 2012 Levels of Moral Development Level 2: Conventional Morality Stage 3 Stage 4 Good Boy – Nice Girl Law and Order Orientation / Individual Orientation / behaves morally in Conformity to order to gain approval authority to avoid from other people. censure and guilt (Evans et al, 1998 ;Jorgensen, 2006, June)
33 February 1, 2012 Levels of Moral Development Level 3: Post-conventional Morality Stage 5 Stage 6 Social Contract Universal Ethical Orientation / Individual Principle Orientation / is concerned with Individual is entirely individual rights and guided by his or her democratically own conscience. decided laws (Evans et al, 1998 ;Jorgensen, 2006, June)
34 February 1, 2012Gilligan‘s Theory of Women‘sMoral Development
35 February 1, 2012Gilligan‘s Theory of Women‘sMoral Development 1970: Became a research assistant to Lawrence Kohlberg Criticism: Kohlberg only studied white, privileged males Boys and individual rights Girls and Responsibility for others Carol Gilligan (1936 - ) (Kretchmar, 2008; Evans et al, 1998)
36 February 1, 2012Influences Laurence Kohlberg Freud ErikErikson Several decades of changing cultures and shifting views Her students today (Kretchmar, 2008; Evans et al, 1998)
37 February 1, 2012Theory Stage- Preconventional Goal- Individual Survival Age- Not Listed Transition Selfishness to Responsibility Stage- Conventional Goal- Self Sacrifice is Goodness Age- Not Listed (Kretchmar, 2008; Evans et al, 1998)
38 February 1, 2012Theory Cont… Transition Goodness to Truth that she is a person too Stage- Postconventional Goal- Principle of Nonviolence: do not hurt others or self Age- Maybe Never (Kretchmar, 2008; Evans et al, 1998)
39 February 1, 2012How it Applies to a Teacher Realizethere is a difference between males and females. Males are egocentric and females are more prone to care for others.
40 February 1, 2012References Belenky, M.F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N.R., Tarule, J.M. (1986). Women‘s ways of knowing: The development of self voice and mind. New York: Basic Books Inc Chickering, A. W., Dalton, J. C., & Stamm, L. (1993). Encouraging Authenticity and Spirituality in Higher Education (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-bass. Goodreads (2012) Albert Einstein. Retrieved from http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/show/45649 Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
41 February 1, 2012References Furman University (2012) Favorite Math Quotes - Karl Friedrich Gauss. Retrieved from http://www.gateways2learning.com/Quotes.htm Gardner, S. K. (2009). Student Development Theory: A Primer. ASHE Higher Education Report, 34(6), 15-28. Kretchmar, J. (2008). Moral Development. Moral Development — Research Starters Education. Retreived from EBSCOHost, Rapaport, W.J. (2011) William Perrys Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development: A journey along the 9 "Perry" positions. Retrieved from http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~rapaport/perry.positions.h tml