Pronoun Agreement & Reference


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Pronoun Agreement & Reference

  1. 1. Pronoun Agreement & Reference
  2. 2. Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns (persons, places, or things). </li></ul><ul><li>The word pronoun means “for a noun.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns are shortcuts that keep you from unnecessarily repeating words in writing . </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Kim had not finished her paper. ( Her is a pronoun that takes the place of Kim’s ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tim swung so hard on the branch that it snapped. ( It replaces branch ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pronouns <ul><li>This power-point will present the rules that help you avoid two common mistakes people make with pronouns. The rules are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. A pronoun must agree in number with the word or words it replaces. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A pronoun must clearly refer to the word it replaces. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pronoun Agreement <ul><li>A pronoun must agree with the word or words it replaces. </li></ul><ul><li>If the word the pronoun refers to is singular, the pronoun must be singular; if the word is plural, the pronoun must be plural. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the word a pronoun refers to is also known as the antecedent . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pronoun Agreement <ul><li>Here are some examples of agreement: </li></ul><ul><li>Kayla agreed to lend me her Ray Charles CD. </li></ul><ul><li>Her refers to the singular word Kayla </li></ul><ul><li>People walking the trail must watch their step. </li></ul><ul><li>Their refers to the plural word people . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Indefinite Pronouns <ul><li>The following words, known as indefinite pronouns, are always singular. </li></ul><ul><li>-one words : one, anyone, everyone, someone </li></ul><ul><li>-body words : nobody, anybody, everybody, somebody, & each, either, neither </li></ul>
  8. 8. Indefinite Pronouns <ul><li>Here are some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Each father felt his child was the brightest. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the women could not find her purse. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone must be in his or her seat before the instructor takes attendance. </li></ul><ul><li>*** If everyone in the last example was a man, you could use his . If everyone was a woman, you could use her . If the class has both sexes, or gender is unknown, use his or her . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Compound Subjects <ul><li>A compound subject is formed by two or more words, phrases, or clauses joined by and , or , nor , either… or , or neither …nor . </li></ul><ul><li>1. When the parts of the antecedent are joined by and , use a plural pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>2. When the antecedent is preceded by each or every , use a singular pronoun. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Compound Subjects <ul><li>3. For singular antecedents joined by either…or ,or, neither …nor , use singular pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>4. For plural antecedents joined by either…or ,or, neither …nor , use plural pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>5. If one singular and one plural antecedent are joined by or , either…or , or, neither…nor , be sure the pronoun agrees with the antecedent closest to it. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Collective Nouns <ul><li>Collective nouns have a singular form & refer to a group of people or things. Some are: </li></ul><ul><li>Audience, panel, band, class, team, society, jury. </li></ul><ul><li>1. If the group is functioning as a single unit, the pronoun is singular. </li></ul><ul><li>A civilized society must protect its citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>2. If the members of the group are functioning individually, the pronoun is plural. </li></ul><ul><li>The team signed their contracts for next season. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pronoun Reference <ul><li>A sentence is confusing & unclear if a pronoun appears to refer to more than one word, or if the pronoun does not refer to any specific word. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of mistakes that writers often make: ambiguous reference & unstated reference. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ambiguous Reference <ul><li>Ambiguous reference occurs when the reader cannot tell which antecedent the pronoun refers to. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. When Joe placed the heavy vase on the shelf, it broke. </li></ul><ul><li>What broke? The vase or the shelf? </li></ul><ul><li>To correct this sentence, replace the pronoun with a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. When Joe placed the heavy vase on the shelf, the shelf broke. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Unstated Reference <ul><li>Unstated reference occurs when a pronoun has no antecedent to refer to. </li></ul><ul><li>1. U.R. occurs when a pronoun refers to an unstated form of a stated word. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Carla is ambitious. It causes her to work often. </li></ul><ul><li>It is meant to refer to ambition , but only ambitious appears. </li></ul><ul><li>2. U.R. occurs when this, that, which, it , or they has no stated antecedent. To fix this, supply the missing word. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Joe dropped out of school, for he felt they emphasized discipline too much. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Unstated Reference 3. U.R. occurs when you appears with no antecedent. To fix this, replace the pronoun with a noun. Ex. The teacher becomes frustrated when you do not ask questions. 4. U.R. occurs when a subject pronoun refers to a possessive noun. To fix this, replace the noun with a pronoun and the pronoun with a noun. Ex. In Barbara Kingston’s novels, she writes about strong women.