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# Cause and-effect analysis

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### Cause and-effect analysis

1. 1. Cause-and-effect analysis<br />p.303-331<br />
2. 2. Cause-and-Effect<br />Cause-and-effect helps us understand why things happen or what the results of events will be.<br />An effect is what happened.<br />A contributing cause is why it happened.<br />
3. 3. Why Use Cause-And-Effect?<br />Cause/Effect helps us…<br /> make sense of things.<br />envision the future or understand the past.<br />plan.<br />make decisions.<br />implement changes.<br />
4. 4. Multiple Causes and Effects<br />A cause can have many effects; an effect can have many causes.<br />These multiples should be mentioned, otherwise, you will be oversimplifying.<br />
5. 5. Identify Underlying Causes/ Effects<br />Not all causes and effects are obvious.<br />Be sure to closely examine all details, so that your reader does not make assumptions (or worse, is confused).<br />
6. 6. Prove Your Point<br />Do not simply state that something is a cause or effect.<br />Provide evidence to prove it is a cause or effect.<br />Adequate details show as well as tell.<br />
7. 7. Identify Immediate & Remote Causes<br />Immediate causes occur near the time of an event.<br />Remote causes occur in a more distant time.<br />Consider the shortage of nurses…<br /> An immediate cause is that lowered pay has reduced their numbers.<br />A remote cause is that the baby boom generation has given record number of aging Americans in need of medical care.<br />
8. 8. Reproduce Causal Chains<br />A causal chain occurs when a cause leads to an effect, and that effect becomes a cause, and so on.<br />Consider the effects of raising the cost of a stamp…<br />The government raises the price of stamps.<br />The effect of this is that it costs more to mail a letter.<br />This causes businesses to raise their prices.<br />The effect of this is that the cost of doing business goes up.<br />This causes business to raise the price of goods & services.<br />And so on…<br />
9. 9. Consider Your Audience<br />Consider your audience:<br />Your audience may not be aware of all causes or effects, so explain them in careful detail.<br />Explain why or why not something is a cause or an effect, especially if your audience may make assumptions.<br />
10. 10. Responsible Use<br />Sometimes writers exaggerate causes or effects to achieve their writing purpose.<br />They will also omit information to achieve their purpose.<br />Remember, you can achieve your purpose and also use information accurately. <br />