WHAT YOU NEED
Drill Sheet (On front table)
1. Name all the modifiers you can?
2. What do participle phrases usually end with?
3. How can you identify what an infinitive is?
4. What is another name for a subordinate
5. What are the 5 areas adverbs express relation
There are 8 types of modifiers we will
a word or phrase naming an attribute,
added to or grammatically related to a
noun to modify or describe it.
Example: The old door was falling
Now let’s look at our packet. Complete
pages 222 & 223 on your own.
The Adjective Clause
is a dependent clause that modifies a
An adjective clause usually begins with
a relative pronoun (which, that, who,
whom, whose), a relative
adverb (where, when, why), or a zero
Example: Laughter erupted from
Anna, who hiccupped for seven hours
◦ Now look at your packet. Complete the next
page of your packet #’s 1-20.
a word or phrase that modifies or
qualifies an adjective, verb, or other
adverb or a word group, expressing a
relation of place, time, circumstance,
manner, cause, or degree
Modifier #3 Continued
Adverbs of Manner
She moved slowly and spoke quietly.
Adverbs of Place
She has lived on the island all her life.
She still lives there now.
Adverbs of Frequency
She takes the boat to the mainland every
She often goes by herself.
Modifier #3 Continued
Adverbs of Time
She tries to get back before dark.
It's starting to get dark now.
She finished her tea first.
She left early.
Adverbs of Purpose
She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the
She shops in several stores to get the best
Now complete the Adverb sections of your
packet. Pages 287, 290-294 & 296
a subordinate clause used to modify a
verb, adjective, or adverb in the
Every adverb clause is introduced by
a subordinating conjunction.
Finally, you will notice that the clause
answers one of these three adverb
questions: How? When? or Why?
Modifier #4 Continued
Tommy scrubbed the bathroom tile until his arms
◦ How did Tommy scrub? Until his arms ached, an
Josephine's three cats bolted from the driveway once
they saw her car turn the corner.
◦ When did the cats bolt? Once they saw her car
turn the corner, an adverb clause.
After her appointment at the orthodontist, Danielle
cooked eggs for dinner because she could easily
chew an omelet.
◦ Why did Danielle cook eggs? Because she could
easily chew an omelet, an adverb clause.
Now complete the Adverb Clause examples in your
An absolute phrase combines a noun and
a participle with any
accompanying modifiers or objects.
NOUN + PARTICIPLE + OPTIONAL MODIFIER(S) AND/OR OBJECT(S)
Legs = noun; quivering = participle.
Her arms folded across her chest
Arms = noun; folded = participle; her, across her chest =
Our fingers scraping the leftover frosting off the plates
Fingers = noun; scraping = participle; frosting = direct
object; our, the, leftover, off the plates = modifiers.
Modifier #5 Continued
Rather than modifying a specific word, an
absolute phrase will describe the whole
Legs quivering, our old dog Gizmo dreamed
of chasing squirrels.
Her arms folded across her chest,
Professor Hill warned the class about the
penalties of plagiarism.
We devoured Aunt Lenora's carrot cake, our
fingers scraping the leftover frosting off
◦ Now work on the Absolute Phrases in your
An infinitive phrase will begin with
an infinitive, and it will include objects
◦ An infinitive - almost always begin
with to followed by the simple form of
the verb ( TO + VERB = infinitive)
Examples: To sneeze, to smash, to cry, to
shriek, to jump, to dunk, to read, to eat, to
◦ Now look at the infinite phrase handout for
A participle phrase will begin with a
present or past participle
◦ Participle - a word formed from a verb
(e.g., going, gone, being, been ) and used
as an adjective (e.g., working
woman, burned toast ) or a noun
(e.g., good breeding ). In English,
participles are also used to make
compound verb forms (e.g., is going, has
Modifier #7 Continued
If the participle is present, it will
dependably end in -ing.
If the participle is past, it will end in a
Irregular past participles,
unfortunately, conclude in all kinds of
Now look at the handout for
examples. Then move on to
completing this part of your packet.
a prepositional phrase will begin with
a preposition and end with
a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause,
the "object" of the preposition.
◦ Preposition - are the words that indicate
Usually, prepositions show this location in the
◦ Look at the preposition worksheet for
Modifier #8 Continued
Object of the preposition - will often
have one or more modifiers to describe
◦ PREPOSITION + NOUN, PRONOUN, GERUND,
◦ PREPOSITION + MODIFIER(S) + NOUN,
PRONOUN, GERUND, OR CLAUSE
◦ LOOK AT YOUR HAND OUT FOR FURTHER