03 Pronouns


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03 Pronouns

  1. 1. Pronouns A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. Use pronouns like he , which , none , and you to make sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
  2. 2. Kinds of Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns – used when the nouns they replace can be understood from the context; indicate whether they are replacing singular or plural words and give the location of the object (this, that, these, those, none, and neither) Examples: You take these bags and I'll take those . ( Those refers to bags that are at a distance from the speaker.) We bought this last year . ( This refers to something that is singular, near the speaker and readily understood in context.)
  3. 3. Personal Pronouns – used to substitute the names of the people or things that perform actions (I, me, we, us, you, she, her, he, him, it, they, them) Examples: She took the bus last night. ( She substitutes the name of the person who took the bus.) John took it . ( It substitutes the name of the thing that John took.) Kinds of Pronouns
  4. 4. Possessive Pronouns – used to substitute a noun and to show possession or ownership (mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs) Example: This is your disk and that's mine . ( Mine substitutes the word disk and shows that it belongs to me.) Kinds of Pronouns
  5. 5. Reflexive Pronouns – used when the complement of the verb is the same as the subject (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) Examples: James praised himself . I did it myself . (emphasize the fact that I did it.) They spoke to the Director herself . (emphasizing the importance of the Director) Kinds of Pronouns
  6. 6. Interrogative Pronouns – WH- word acting as pronoun substituting the person or thing being asked about (who, what, where, when, why, how) Examples: What is her phone number? Who is in charge? Kinds of Pronouns
  7. 7. Negative Pronouns – refer to negative noun phrase (no one, nobody, neither, none, nothing) Example: Nobody attended the meeting. Kinds of Pronouns
  8. 8. Reciprocal Pronouns – show that an action is two-way ( each other, one another) Example: Jane and Helen greeted each other . (this means that Jane greeted Helen and Helen greeted Jane) Kinds of Pronouns
  9. 9. Relative Pronouns – used to introduce clauses in sentences (that, who, which, whose, whom) Examples: The woman who interviewed me was very friendly. I can't stand dogs that bark loudly. Kinds of Pronouns
  10. 10. Quantifiers – express quantity; used as a single word or a phrase with nouns; used with both countable or uncountable nouns to express amount or quantity (each, some, much, many, few, little, a lot, half, etc.) Examples: All of the fishermen fry their (own) fish for dinner. Each fisherman has his hat on. Ten of the fish have old hook marks on their mouths. Kinds of Pronouns
  11. 11. An antecedent is the noun or word for which a pronoun stands. The pronoun should always agree with its antecedent in gender, number, and person. Examples: Everyone submitted their report on time. (It is acceptable to use a plural pronoun when the singular antecedent's gender is not determined.) Employees should submit daily progress reports to their supervisors. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  12. 12. Rule 1: Use the singular possessive pronouns his , her , and its or the singular reflexive pronouns himself , herself , and itself if the antecedent is a singular indefinite pronoun referring to male, female or neuter gender respectively. Examples: Each of the schools has its representative. ( Each is the antecedent of its .) Each of the boys has his tie. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  13. 13. Rule 2: Use the plural pronouns their and themselves with plural indefinite pronouns and with singular indefinite pronouns whose referents have common gender. Examples: Most of the students attended their school’s Foundation Day. All of the suspects surrendered themselves . Each of the students attended their school's Foundation Day. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  14. 14. Rule 3: The number based on the meaning of the sentence determines an indefinite pronoun that may be either singular or plural. Examples: Most of the pizza has chili sauce in it . Most of the pizzas have chili sauce in them . Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  15. 15. Rule 4: A phrase that appears between an indefinite pronoun and a possessive pronoun does not affect the agreement. Example: Incorrect: One of the birds broke their wings. (The possessive pronoun should agree with one , not with birds.) Correct: One of the birds broke its wings. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  16. 16. Rule 5: Use a singular pronoun when two or more singular antecedents are joined by or or nor . Example: Neither Jenny nor Dina submitted her term paper. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  17. 17. Rule 6: Use a plural pronoun when two or more plural antecedents are joined by or or nor . Example: Either the teachers or the other government employees got their midyear bonus. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  18. 18. Rule 7: Follow the number of the noun nearer the verb when one singular antecedent and one plural antecedent are joined by or or nor . Example: Neither Rose nor the other girls sent their science research entries. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  19. 19. Rule 8: Singular nouns that can refer to a man or woman can use the plural form of the pronoun, such as their, they or them . OR make the noun plural. Example: A person should be able to make up their own mind about prayer in school. OR People should be able to make up their own mind about prayer in school. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
  20. 20. <ul><li>Do the exercises on pronouns in the HKA Training Workbook
  21. 21. on pages _____ </li></ul>